|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
Kaxihak (IPA: [kaʃihak]) is a language with many agglutinative features such as prefixes and suffixes that can alter a word or its meaning. The language is designed to be simplistic and easy to understand and sound like a language that could exist in the real world.
General Information[edit | edit source]
The word order is generally subject-verb-object, but object-verb-subject is sometimes used in the passive voice. In the passive voice, only verbs change forms through tense and the nouns involved stay the same. There are no other differences between the passive and active voices Plurals do not exist as the number of the noun is either implied or outright stated. In addition, there are no moods in the language and nouns never decline. Nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs also can be changed into the other types of words (verb to adjective, adjective to adverb, verb to noun, etc.) through the use of various suffixes.
Phonology[edit | edit source]
Consonants[edit | edit source]
|Stop||/p/ /b/||/t/ /d/||/k/ /ɡ/|
|Sibilant||/s/ /z/||/ʃ/ /ʒ/|
|Flap or tap||/ɾ/|
- ⟨w⟩ is actually a labio-velar approximant
Vowels[edit | edit source]
Phonotactics[edit | edit source]
Consonant clusters are generally allowed and used, but consonant-vowel pairs are much more common. Two of the same consonant or vowel are not allowed to be right next to each other, with the exception of /m/ or /n/ where the consonants are left and are geminated. If two of the same letter are to be placed next to each other through the addition of a prefix, suffix, or anything else, only one of those letters will be used, dropping the other letter entirely, except in the case expressed above and if one of the words in question is a word borrowed from another language or a proper noun such as a name.
In addition, there are a few dipthongs used in Kaxihak, all of which are pronounced as they would if they were separate, and do not create a new sound. However, the written "ai" is pronounced as [aɪ], with a shorter /i/ sound than is spoken normally.
Writing System[edit | edit source]
When writting using the Latin alphabet, the letters in the table are used as shown in the table below.
·"Fh" and "Zs" are special in that they function as one letter despite being written as two when using the Latin alphabet. In the handwritten Kaxihak script, "Fh" and "Zs" have their own letter.
··These letteres are treated as vowels only when deciding the usage of "èra" or "èran"
Grammar[edit | edit source]
Nouns[edit | edit source]
Nouns are never inflected for voice or number. However, they can be changed into other types of words by adding suffixes:
- Verb: Add the infinitive suffix "-ru." "-èru" is used if the last letter of the noun is a consonant
- Adjective: Add the suffix "-cen" after removing all final consonants of the noun, if applicable.
- Adverb: Add the suffix "-cenostè" after removing all final consonants of the noun, if applicable.
If a noun has an adjective that it is being modified by, the adjective is to attatched as a prefix to the noun. If there are mulitple adjectives that modify one noun, the adjectives are placed in the order they are intended to be understood in. In the case that there is a single adjective modifying more than one noun, the form (adjective)(noun)"nin"(noun) is used, where the morpheme "-nin-" is used. The same concept is used when multiple adjectives describe multiple nouns, with the adjectives being added to each other as prefixes in the order of which they are intended to be understood in. To describe the number of a noun, the number with the suffix "-na" is added to the noun as a prefix, like an adjective. This modification comes after any andjective, and therefore right before the noun.
Verbs[edit | edit source]
In Kaxihak, the form seen in a dictionary is the infinitive form, which is the verb baseplace with the suffix "-ru" added. Verbs are conjugated by voice, person, and tense. There are two voices: active and passive. There are six pronouns used in verb conjugations: first person singular, first person plural, second person singular, second person plural, third person singular, and third person plural. There are six tenses: past, past perfect, present, present perfect, future, and future perfect. The perfect tenses refer to actions that are completed or will be completed. In the passive voice, only conjugations for tense are applied.
|Passive Voice||Verb Base +|
|Active Voice||First S.||First P.||Second S.||Second P.||Third S.||Third P.|
In the case of "(verb) to (verb)" ( ...need to go, ... ask to leave, etc.), the first verb is conjugated accordingly and is directly followed by the infinitive of the second from. In the case of "(verb) and (verb) and (verb)...", the verb bases are chained together with the word "ì" (and) between each verb, with the final verb having the appropriate conjugations.
In order to form a gerund, the suffix "-qin" is added to the verb base. This gerund form can be used as a way to describe a current action or as a way to describe a noun that represents the action of that verb.
In order to change a verb into a different type of word, certain changes must be made to it:
- Noun: Remove all final vowels from the verb base, if applicable.
- Adjective: Remove all final consonants from the verb base, if applicable, and add the suffix "-qen."
- Adverb: Remove all final consonants from the verb base, if applicable, and add the suffix "-qenostè."
- To signify a person or object that repeatedly does something, add the suffix "-galn" to the verb base.
Adjectives and Adverbs[edit | edit source]
Adjectives function as prefixes to nouns. Adverbs function as suffixes to verbs or as prefixes to adjectives and other adverbs. To change an adjective to another type of word different changes must be made to it:
- Noun: Add the suffix "-xen."
- Verb: Add the suffix "-xenèru."
- Adverb: Add the suffix "-stè" if the last letter of the adjective is a vowel, or add "-ostè" if the last letter is a consonant.
The comparative form of an adjective is formed by adding the suffix "-ba", or by adding the suffix "-oba" if the last letter of the adjective is a consonant. The superlative form of an adjective is formed by adding the suffix "-qa", or by adding the suffix "-oqa" if the last letter is a consonant.
For adverbs, the following changes must be made:
- Noun: Add the suffix "-xen."
- Verb: Add the suffix "-xenèru."
- Adjective: Remove the final consonants, if applicable, and add the suffix "-qen."
Syntax[edit | edit source]
In general, sentences follow the order of subject-verb-object in both the active and passive voices. Though, object-verb-subject is sometimes used in the passive voice.
All pronouns that refer to people are capitalized. Numbers, proper nouns, and cardinal directions are also capitalized.
When prepositions are used, they always come before the noun that the preposition refers to.
If, after changing any word, the final letter is"ò", "h", or "y", change it to "òo", "ha", or "yu", respectively.
When making a question, simply add the morpheme "zi" to the end of the sentence, and give a rising intonation when speaking (a question mark is not necessary after "zi").
To create the negative form of any word, add the suffix "-nè." If the word becoming negative is a verb, this suffix comes before any other adverbs and after the initial conjugation.
To indicate possessive, add the suffix "-yo" to the noun that is possessing. This change also works when forming an indicative possession and for making forms of the word "oneself" (myself, herself, yourself, etc.).
Vocabulary[edit | edit source]
Example text[edit | edit source]
The Preamble to The Universal Declaration of Human Rights[edit | edit source]
Kaxihak[edit | edit source]
Sujaksim unistan à set ùelastiroaùargus ì à set rogyunacidogemaènècenzedmu à kaixeyatacen à set Kilosorermo doza set zsalatiùa à inmarkusxen, qralnà ì mirubè si Set Zetma,
Sujaksim lotokinnè ì ìlemàzenès ùìs Kilosozedmu turesèmiazè si siùarstokintekorùen jak raskorendacèmiazè set qomakidon à Kilosogan, ì set èkercolix à èra zetma si jak Kiloso uzeltizì inmarkusxen à burocus ì munòo ì inmarkusxen alka strakol à hiadot yurolenamiazì jak set òoùaskoqatorotiz à sed kotènikiloso,
Sujaksim tàn doza alènik, si Kiloso dozanè doru prakenoqen miaru turgenatin, jak èra ùigoslèniten lobizoru elostan zsarnoqanu ì surtèm, xuq Kilosozedmu dozapagisi yuoùekà zsuna set saodar à kiren,
Sujaksim tàn doza alènik giqareru set jetiaman à pratastèòoskean zèni marzème,
Sujaksim set Kiloso à set Ekidonaqenmarzème, si set Ranokratanzo, fheriùadinomiazè Dànyo uùiso si Kastèlanukilosozedmu, si set aùargus ì hotinen à set Kiloso ì si set rogyunazedmu à hozezs ì bozezs ì urcomiazè giqarèru tarsalnendalèrok ì dobrebameragor à jìù si elribainmarkusxen,
Sujaksim Yatacenmarzème gyantibomiazè Dànyojat qostaseru, si mutèscoùan kans set Ekidonaqenmarzème, set giqar à egyunèmusòunde ùìs ì fitark à Kilosozedmu ì kastèlanuinmarkusxen,
Sujaksim èra kotènirozsumargeqin à xento zedmu ì inmarkusxen doza à set dobreqafontoralèxen ùìs set nelikoqostas à xento gyantib,
Hokèn, sitos SET ALTÈNENKOGYUXOMAN yurolenazà XENTO EGYUNÈMUSYUROLEN À KILOSOZEDMU jak èra kotènimeragor à qostas ùìs Kaixekiloso ì kaixemarzème, ru set sacek xuq Yokanyèdo ì yokanorèstas à tarsalsèku pitareqin xento Yurolen jalkonostè Sisulèdus usekizì zsun citaniqin ì kyolkad giqarèru òunde ùìs xento zedmu ì inmarkusxen ì zsun dalèrocen, marzèmecen ì kaixeàmarzème, bizaturu Dànyo egyunèmustehatogasunistanninfitark, mobe komzi set Kiloso à Yatacenmarzème Dànyojat ì komzi set Kiloso à qu fhejiros Dànyo domigazsurian.
English[edit | edit source]
Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,
Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people,
Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law,
Whereas it is essential to promote the development of friendly relations between nations,
Whereas the peoples of the United Nations have in the Charter reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person and in the equal rights of men and women and have determined to promote social progress and better standards of life in larger freedom,
Whereas Member States have pledged themselves to achieve, in co-operation with the United Nations, the promotion of universal respect for and observance of human rights and fundamental freedoms,
Whereas a common understanding of these rights and freedoms is of the greatest importance for the full realization of this pledge,
Now, Therefore THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY proclaims THIS UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS as a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society, keeping this Declaration constantly in mind, shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.