Conlang
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Kedagiʤi ['kedagiʤi] is an a-priori conlang of a small unambiguous grammar.

Phonology[]

Consonants[]

Labial Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar
Nasal m n
Plosive b p d t g k
Fricative v f z s ʒ ʃ x
Affricate ʣ ʦ ʤ ʧ
Approximant l r j

Vowels[]

Unrounded

Rounded

High i u
Mid e o
Low a

Phonotactics[]

The stress is on the first syllable. There is no reduction. Syllable format is CV - consonant-vowel.

Writing System[]

Matches the phoneme inventory.

a b d ʣ ʤ e f g i j k l m n o p r s ʃ t ʦ ʧ u v x z ʒ

Grammar[]

Rules[]

Abbreviations: PW = previous word; NW = next word; QB = quote begin; QE = quote end.

Text consists of sentences split with pauses. Sentences consist of connected words in an almost free order. A word consists of a root and affixes. The connection is based on polypersonal agreement where different third persons are marked differently. In other words the same 3-rd person affix in different words points to the same thing. The affix order is defined in the dictionary for each root. The last vowel of a root determines how many affixes it has: 0 -e, 1 -i, 2 -u, 3 -o, 4 -a. It isn't variable.

1) affix1 + i-root

2) affix1 + affix2 + u-root

3) affix1 + affix2 + affix3 + o-root

4) affix1 + affix2 + affix3 + affix4 + a-root

1st person affix is ma, 2nd is ta, indefinite is na. Reference to the previous word is ʃa, to the next it's xa. The choice of a 3rd-person affix is up to speaker, but affixes should be same in different word of a sentence for the same object they point at. All affixes end with -a.

maʧozi. 1-sleep. I sleep.
naʧozi. 4-sleep. Someone sleeps.
manapizu. 1-4-love. I love something.
malapizu ladogi. 1-3l-love 3l-cat. I love cats.
malapizu ladogi lasapizu satuzi. 1-3l-love 3l-cat 3l-3s-love 3s-meat. I love the cat that loves a meat.

To refer to an affix of the previous sentence one uses word pu.

ladogi. lalapu laʧozi. 3l-cat. 3l-3l-that 3l-sleep. There is a cat. It sleeps.

To refer to an affix of the sentence before the previous one, one uses word fu.

ladogi. laruti. lalafu laʧozi. 3l-cat. 3l-man. 3l-3l-that 3l-sleep. There is a cat. And there is a man. The cat sleeps.

To refer to the next word one uses the word xi or the affix xo.

laʧiki laxi saʧozi. 3l-not 3l-that 3s-sleep. She doesn't sleep.
xaʧiki saʧozi. NW-not 3s-sleep. She doesn't sleep.

To refer to the previous word one uses the word ʃi or the affix ʃa.

laʧiki saʧozi laʃi. 3-not 3-sleep 3-that. He doesn't sleep.
laʧozi ʃaʧiki. 3l-sleep PW-not. He doesn't sleep.

Direct and indirect speech[]

One may group several sentences putting words se (quote begin) and te (quote end) around them. It makes one unit from grammatical point of view. One uses it for expressing the indirect speech, for example.

malapizu ladogi. 1-3l-love 3l-cat. I love cats.
se( malapizu ladogi. )te saʃazelu. QB 1-3l-love 3l-cat QE 3s-PW-say. He says I love cats.
se( malapizu ladogi. )te saʃazoku. QB 1-3l-love 3l-cat QE 3s-PW-say.literally. He says "I love cats".

Tense[]

Tense is optionally expressed with words already, later, now and ago.

manapizu. 1-4-love. I love it.
xaleʃi manapizu. NW-now 1-4-love. I love it right now.
xaroni manapizu. NW-earlier 1-4-love. I loved it.
xavibi manapizu. NW-later 1-4-love. I will love it.

Gender[]

Gender is optionally expressed with words male and female.

laruti. 3l-human. A human.
laruti laʤiʤi. 3l-human 3l-female. Woman.
laruti lapixi. 3l-human 3l-male. Man.

Number[]

Singular and plural is expressed with numbers. If number is omitted, one should guess from context, the number is "at least one" by default (n ∈ N, n ≠ 0). A nominal number ends with jali. A cardinal number ends with zuni.

ladogi. 3l-cat. A cat or cats.
vaʧe lazuni ladogi. one 3l-quantity 3l-cat. One cat.
rape lazuni ladogi. two 3l-quantity 3l-cat. Two cats.
vaʧe laʤali ladogi. one 3l-nominal.number 3l-cat. Cat #1.
laʤeli ladogi. 3l-many 3l-cat. Cats.

Ordinal numbers end with the word nuzu. The first parameter is a thing ordered, and the second is a set of everything in that order.

rape rananuzu radogi. two 3r-4-ordinal.number 3r-cat. The second cat.
1 vaʧe
2 rape
3 mepe
4 dope
5 suxe
6 vime
7 ʒiʤe
8 buʃe
9 dize
0 pije
10 vaʧe pije
11 vaʧe vaʧe
777 ʒiʤe ʒiʤe ʒiʤe
1 000 vaʧe pije pije pije
1 000 000 000 000 = 1e12 vaʧe beʤe vaʧe rape
-1,28e10 xife vaʧe kaʒe rape buʃe beʤe vaʧe pije
9 1/3 dize rume vaʧe tine mepe

Negation[]

Negation is expressed with word ʧiki.

ladogi ʃaxaʤeʧu laʤopi. 3-cat PW-NW-if 3-gray. All cats are gray.
xaʧiki xalaʤeʧu vadogi laxi vaʤopi. NW-not NW-3l-if 3v-cat 3l-that 3v-gray. Not all cats are gray.
ladogi ʃaxaʤeʧu laʤopi haʧiki. 3l-cat PW-NW-if 3l-gray PW-not. All cats are not gray.

Comparative[]

Comparative word is baʃu - more. Superlative is expressed as "more than all".

ladoʤi laxoxi ʃaxabaʃu vaxoxi vadoʤi. 3l-wolf 3l-white PW-NW-more 3v-white 3v-wolf. This wolf is whiter than that wolf.

Only and the only[]

In phrases with "only" it's always meant that one is something while others aren't. Therefore the reference to others is necessary. It is expressed with the word "joso" - "only for x1 but not for x2, x3 is true".

lanaxajoso laʒaʤi laʤopi ladogi. 3l-4-NW-only 3l-nice 3l-gray 3l-cat. Among all things only gray cats are nice.
radogi laraxayoso laʒaʤi laʤopi ladogi. 3r-cat 3l-3r-NW-only 3l-nice 3l-gray 3l-cat. Among cats only gray are nice.

EBNF[]

Note. { } means 0 or more repetitions, [ ] means 0 or 1 repetition, ( ) groups together, comma concatenates strings, | means an alternative, - means an exception, (* comment *).

text = sentenceFirst, ".", [" ", sentenceSecond, ".", {" ", sentence, "."}];

sentenceFirst = sfWordSingle | (sfWordFirst, {" ", sfWord}, " ", sfWordLast);

sentenceSecond = ssWordSingle | (ssWordFirst, {" ", ssWord}, " ", ssWordLast);

sentence = wordSingle | (wordFirst, {" ", word}, " ", wordLast);

(* 1S *)

sfWordSingle = quote |

numbers, " ", affixSingle, iNumber |

natural, " ", affixSingle, affixSingle, uNumber |

affixSingle, iRootSingle |

affixSingle, affixSingle, uRootFirst |

affixSingle, affixSingle, affixSingle, oRoot |

affixSingle, affixSingle, affixSingle, affixSingle, aRoot;

(* 11 *)

sfWordFirst = quote |

numbers, " ", affixFirst, iNumber |

natural, " ", affixFirst, affixFirst, uNumber |

affixFirst, iRootFirst |

affixFirst, affixFirst, uRootFirst |

affixFirst, affixFirst, affixFirst, oRoot |

affixFirst, affixFirst, affixFirst, affixFirst, aRoot;

(* 1N *)

sfWord = quote |

numbers, " ", affix, iNumber |

natural, " ", affix, affix, uNumber |

affix, iRoot |

affix, affix, uRootFirst |

affix, affix, affix, oRoot |

affix, affix, affix, affix, aRoot;

(* 1L *)

sfWordLast = quote |

numbers, " ", affixLast, iNumber |

natural, " ", affixLast, affixLast, uNumber |

affixLast, iRootLast |

affixLast, affixLast, uRootFirst |

affixLast, affixLast, affixLast, oRoot |

affixLast, affixLast, affixLast, affixLast, aRoot;

(* 2S *)

ssWordSingle = quote |

numbers, " ", affixSingle, iNumber |

natural, " ", affixSingle, affixSingle, uNumber |

affixSingle, iRootSingle |

affixSingle, affixSingle, uRootSecond |

affixSingle, affixSingle, affixSingle, oRoot |

affixSingle, affixSingle, affixSingle, affixSingle, aRoot;

(* 21 *)

ssWordFirst = quote |

numbers, " ", affixFirst, iNumber |

natural, " ", affixFirst, affixFirst, uNumber |

affixFirst, iRootFirst |

affixFirst, affixFirst, uRootSecond |

affixFirst, affixFirst, affixFirst, oRoot |

affixFirst, affixFirst, affixFirst, affixFirst, aRoot;

(* 2N *)

ssWord = quote |

numbers, " ", affix, iNumber |

natural, " ", affix, affix, uNumber |

affix, iRoot |

affix, affix, uRootSecond |

affix, affix, affix, oRoot |

affix, affix, affix, affix, aRoot;

(* 2L *)

ssWordLast = quote |

numbers, " ", affixLast, iNumber |

natural, " ", affixLast, affixLast, uNumber |

affixLast, iRootLast |

affixLast, affixLast, uRootSecond |

affixLast, affixLast, affixLast, oRoot |

affixLast, affixLast, affixLast, affixLast, aRoot;

(* NS *)

wordSingle = quote |

numbers, " ", affixSingle, iNumber |

natural, " ", affixSingle, affixSingle, uNumber |

affixSingle, iRootSingle |

affixSingle, affixSingle, uRoot |

affixSingle, affixSingle, affixSingle, oRoot |

affixSingle, affixSingle, affixSingle, affixSingle, aRoot;

(* N1 *)

wordFirst = quote |

numbers, " ", affixFirst, iNumber |

natural, " ", affixFirst, affixFirst, uNumber |

affixFirst, iRootFirst |

affixFirst, affixFirst, uRoot |

affixFirst, affixFirst, affixFirst, oRoot |

affixFirst, affixFirst, affixFirst, affixFirst, aRoot;

(* NN *)

word = quote |

numbers, " ", affix, iNumber |

natural, " ", affix, affix, uNumber |

affix, iRoot |

affix, affix, uRoot |

affix, affix, affix, oRoot |

affix, affix, affix, affix, affix, aRoot;

(* NL *)

wordLast = quote |

numbers, " ", affixLast, iNumber |

natural, " ", affixLast, affixLast, uNumber |

affixLast, iRootLast |

affixLast, affixLast, uRoot |

affixLast, affixLast, affixLast, oRoot |

affixLast, affixLast, affixLast, affixLast, aRoot;

(* end *)

affix = consonant, "a";

quote = "se( ", text, " )te";

affixSingle = affix - "ʃa" - "xa";

affixFirst = affix - "ʃa";

affixLast = affix - "xa";

iRoot = consonant, {vowel, consonant}, "i" ;

uRoot = consonant, {vowel, consonant}, "u";

oRoot = consonant, {vowel, consonant}, "o";

aRoot = consonant, {vowel, consonant}, "a";

iRootSingle = iRoot - "ʃi" - "xi";

iRootFirst = iRoot - "ʃi";

iRootLast = iRoot - "xi";

uRootFirst = uRoot - "pu" - "fu";

uRootSecond = uRoot - "fu";

iNumber = "ʤali" | "zuni";

uNumber = "nuzu";

numbers = numE | numDiv;

numE = integer, [" kaʒe ", natural, [" beʤe ", integer]];

numDiv = (integer, " tine ", natural) | (integer, " rume ", natural, " tine ", natural);

integer = ["xife "], natural;

natural = number, {" ", number};

number = "vaʧe" | "rape" | "mepe" | "dope" | "suxe" | "vime" | "ʒiʤe" | "buʃe" | "dize" | "pije";

vowel = "a" | "e" | "i" | "o" | "u";

consonant = "b" | "d" | "ʣ" | "ʤ" | "f" | "g" | "j" | "k" | "l" | "m" | "n" | "p" | "r" | "s" | "ʃ" | "t" | "ʦ" | "ʧ" | "v" | "x" | "z" | "ʒ".

Lexicon[]

kedagiʤi in English
badu x1 is a bone of x2
baki here
bapi interstellar
baʃu x1 is more than x2
bati morning
baʧu x1 is a problem / question about x2
baʒi an ash
beʤe E sign for numbers
beʤo x1=x2*10^x3
begi lawyer
beni a stick
beru x1 respects x2
biʤu x1 is brother / sister of x2
biru x1 is a classmate of x2
bobu x1 does x2
bupi round-shaped
busu x1 is a system of x2
buʃe 8; eight
buto x1 is between x2 and x3
daʃu x1 and x2 (logic)
demu x1 kills x2
depu x1 splits x2 up
deʃi postman
deʧi a river
dezi bored
dibi a stone
difu x1 is a repairman specialising at x2
dilu x1 is an author of x2
disu x1 needs / requires x2
dixa x1 sells to somebody x2 something x3 for money x4
dize 9; nine
doʤi wolf
dogi cat
doki what's x1? / describe x1 / question
dolu x1 bites x2
dope 4; four
doʃo x1 wipes x3 out of surface x2
doxu x1 cares for x2
dubu x1 builds x2
dudi x1 feels hot
dudu x1 sings a song x2
duʤu x2 is a successor of x1; x2 immediately follows after x1
dugi warm
duji old
duju x1 hopes that x2
dupi bad
duru x1 is a tongue of x2
dusu x1 is a hypotenuse of a triangle x2
duʃu x1 ties x2
ʤadi wild; ferocious
ʤali nominal number sign
ʤaso x1 reigns over subjects x2 in the country x3
ʤazu x1 understands that x2
ʤeli a lot; many; much
ʤemu x1 is a foot of x2
ʤepu x1 is called by name x2
ʤeʧu if x1 then x2
ʤidi pear
ʤiʤi female / feminine
ʤimi a moon
ʤiru x1 is an age of x2
ʤiʧi a sky
ʤofu x1 is far from x2
ʤopi gray
ʤosi toy
ʤotu x1 plays with a toy x2 / x1 plays a game x2
ʤubi flower
ʤudi very / greatly
ʤuko x1 is jealous of x2 for x3
ʤuku x1 is a course / route / path of x2
ʤusi stands on feet
ʤuʃi static
ʤuti at most / max
ʤuxi central
faʤu x1 and x2 met and know each other
faji x1 is on sabbatical / on holidays
faʃi real; really
faʧi swims
fazu x1 is a leg of x2
faʒu x1 is a feather of x2
feju x1 passes an exam x2
fela x1 translates text x2 from language x3 to language x4
femi fast; quick; rapid
feʃi tiger
fexi goblin
feʒo x1 wins x2 at competition x3
fibu x1 hates x2
fidu x1 sees x2
fiʃi school
fiʒu x2 happens over x1
fu x1 is x2 from the sentence before the previous one
fudi rains; a rain
fugu x1 voluntarily unite in x2
fuju x1 avoids x2
funu x1 is a principle of x2
fuʃi snake
futu x2 is after x1 / x2 follows x1
fuzu x1 is neighbour of x2
gafu x1 is a base of x2
gaki black
gamu x1 drives / pilots / runs x2
gari freezes; becomes hard from cold
gaxi sharp
gazu x1 is a suitor of x2
geʤo x1 is equal to x2 in criteria x3
geru x1 is present at x2
giju x1 takes smell of / sniffs x2; x2 smells for x1
gisi straight
giʃi once upon a time / someday
golu x1 sews x2
goʃu x1 reaches / is heard by x2
goʒi roach
gubu x1 is a skin / pelt of x2
gufu x1 calls / contacts / start a conversation with x2
guvi card of spades
guzu x1 while x2
jani nigh / almost / near
japi flows / a flow
jesu x1 is elected representative; president of a country x2
jevi begins
jeʒu x1 is guts / intestines of x2
jigi x1 sits
jisu x1 is a heart of x2
jofu x1 in the honour of x2
joki conscious
joso only for x1 but not for x2 it's true that x3
josu only if x1 then x2
jozi country / land
jubi a grass
jufi snows; a snow
jufu x1 washes x2
jugu x1 and x2 marry; husband and wife
juli wizard / mage
jumo x2 trains for sports x3 from the coach x1
jusi overworked
juʧu x1=x2^2
juzi car / automoblie
juʒi burns
kabi a salt
kami do so than x1
kapu x1 means x2
karu x1 is a chief / director of x2
kavi big
kaxo x1 is a student of professor x2 at university x3
kaʒe decimal point for numbers / x1 is a decimal point
keju x1 splashes x2
kemu x1 is a tree of x2
kenu x1 is a back / rear of x2
keru x1 is member of x2
keʧu x1 enables / activates x2
kiji fence
kiti card of hearts
kobi at least
kopi floating / buoyant
kovi a fat
kufu x1 is a belly of x2
kuru x1 cuts x2
kuʧu x2 happens with medium x2
kuxu x1 is a liver of x2
lagu x1 admires x2
lamu x1 pushes x2
lapi year
lasi bowl / dish
lazu x1 joins x2
ledu x1 pulls x2
leku x1 shoots x2
lenu x1 has a right to do x2
leʃi now / present / current / modern
lezi dog
liʤu x1 checkmates x2
liji green
limi wide
liri evening
lisu x1 reads x2
lodi an earth
loʤu x1 is a root of x2
loru x1 is a head of x2
loʃu x1 contains x2 / x2 happens inside of / in x1
lubu x1 is a range / distance of x2
luʣi free
lugu x1 is an egg of an animal x2
luju x1 breathes the gas / air x2
luʧu x1 hits / punches x2
luʒo x1 gives x2 to x3
maʤi mouse
magi walks / goes by foot
mari fish
masu x1 hunts x2
maʒi frog
medi a smoke
meni long
mepe 3 / three
miʧu x1 is a child / son / daughter born or raised by parent / mother / father x2
mizu x1 is a fingernail of x2
moki rich / affluent
mubu x1 and x2 fight / battle each other
muʤi lives / alive
muki positive number
muxi wet
nasi a fire
naxu x1 is me and x2 the people i represent
nexi smooth; sleek
nisu x1 eats x2
nivu x1 follows / stalkes on x2
niʒu x1 sucks x2
nori rope
nuʤi red
nugu x1 is a voice of x2
nupi happens / event / occurs
nuvi louse
nuzu ordinal number of x1 among x2
nuʒi terrorist
panu x1 lies that x2
paxi nice / cute
peʤo x1 mails x2 to x3
peni blows / breathes out
peʃi full
peti integer number
pidi an ice
pije 0 / zero
piki pi number
pisi exactly
piti a ship
piʧi animal
pixi male / masculine
pizu x1 loves x2
podu x1 is successful in x2
poʤi day of year
poki math / mathematics
polu x1 is enough to x2
pomu x1 is an eye of x2
poti end
povi rat
poxi bird
poxo x1 falls from x2 down to x3
poʒi real estate agent
pu x1 is x2 from the previous sentence
pugu x1 is a seed of x2
puli course / discipline
pumu x1 or x2 (logic)
punu x1 is reason and x2 is consequence
puru x1 wastes x2
pusi card of diamonds
pusu x1 is a wing of x2
puʃi dirty
puti malfunctions; works incorrectly
puxi beer
puʒi diligent
rafi spies / spy
raji tube
rape 2 / two
raxu x1 and x2 differ / different / other
rebi a night
reli dry
reʧu x1 catches / chases x2
rigu x1 calls for x2
rimi a sand
riru thru x1 goes/happens x2
roni has happened / already
roʃi vomits
rovi peaceful / not agressive
rugu x1 counts x2
ruki secretary
ruli thin
rume plus sign for numbers
rumo x1=x2+x3
rumu x1 is a mouth of x2
runi empty
ruʃu x1 foresees / forecasts x2; x1 is a prophet / oracle of x2
ruti human
ruʧi x1 cools down
rutu in a situation of x1, x2 happens
ruxi narrow
saju x1 takes x2
sapu x1 is a place of x2
saru x1 owns x2 / x2 belongs to x1
se quote begin
seʤi device / machine
segi circus
seki discharge
seʧi comes / arrives
sidu x1 is organization for x2
sifu x1 hears x2
siku x1 scratches x2
sivu x1 chooses x2
soʤi spits
sofi forest
sosu x2 disappoints x1; x2 makes x1 feel sad
su x1 is x2
suʤu x1 is a result of a measurement of x2
suga x1 punishes x2 for doing x3 with punishment x4
suki a lake
sulu x1 disturbs / annoys x2
suvi careful / accurate
suxe 5 / five
ʃadi administrator
ʃafu for some x1 it“s true that x2
ʃaji misconfigured / faulty (hardware or software)
ʃalo x1 thanks x2 for x3
ʃedu x1 attacks x2
ʃemi villain
ʃeti new
ʃi next word
ʃidi a clowd
ʃini left side
ʃogi unfair / cheats
ʃolu x1 thinks that x2
ʃufi correct; right; yes
ʃuju x1 digs a pit x2
ʃuku x1 works for employer x2
ʃuri a star
ʃuʃu x1 is identical to x2
ʃuti cold
ʃuʧi philosopher
ʃuʒi a wind
tasu x1 is glad about x2
te quote end
tedi x1 unbearably / too much
teri fridge
teti wall
tibi to bark
tiji last one
tine division sign for number
tino x1=x2/x3
tivi lion
tizi a dust
todi yellow
toʒi right side
ʧaji a fog
ʧamu x1 is diameter of a circle x2
ʧasi a sun
ʧatu x1 knows about x2
ʧeʤu x1 is equal in value to x2 (math)
ʧefu x1 searches / looks for x2
ʧeku x1 notices / discovers / finds out x2
ʧenu x1 is a part of x2
ʧeʃu x1 is a cathetus of a triangle x2
ʧiki not
ʧiru x1 explores / learns x2
ʧopu x1 an agency specialising in x2
ʧozi sleeps
ʧubi prime number
ʧufu x1 is me and x2 is you; the moment of speech
ʧuki kid / girl / boy
ʧulu x1 is a breast / mamma of x2
ʧusu x1 greets x2 / hello
ʧuʃu x1 is a tail of x2
ʧuti underpaid
ʧuxu x2 is for x1
tuʤi x1 becomes / appears
tufi radio communication
tujo x1 puts x2 on the place x3
tunu x1 goes to x2
tupi x1 flies
tuti a text
tuvi sea
tuvu x1 rubs x2
tuxu x1 squeezes / compresses x2
tuzi meat
vabu x1 is x2s hand / arm
vafi lottery
valu x1 is a horn of x2
vani tall
vano x1 accepts from x2 words of appreciation / gift x3
vaʧe 1 / one
vebu on top of x1 there is x2
vevo x1=x2 U x3 / union
vibi will happen / future / upcoming
vifu x1 stabs / pikes x2 with a pointed weapon
vigu x1 is a neck of x2
vime 6 / six
viʃi freshman
viti lazy / slacks / slacker
viʧi short
vivu x1 consists of x2
vizi runs; walks fast
viʒu x1 envies x2
voji reasonable
vosi house
vozi dangerous
vudu x1 is hard / complicated for x2
vufu x1 is near x2 / x1 is together with x2
vugi some / a few / sometimes
vuju x1 throws x2
vuki a daytime
vuʃu x1 is a knee of x2
vuʧu x1 drinks x2
xagi x1 sighs
xalu religious war x1 against x2
xazi fruit
xedi exists
xeri great
xezi clever / smart
xeʒi swells
xi previous word
xife minus sign for numbers
xifu x1=-x2
xiji ocean
xiʃu x1 is blood of x2
xiti x1 is depressed
xoʃi heavy
xoxi elf
xubu x1 is a circumference of a circle x2
xuʤu x1 is bark of a tree x2
xumi good
xumu x1 earns money doing x2
xupi rots / rotten
xuti basketball
xuvi usual
xuʒi card of clubs
zafu x1 holds x2 in hands
zari a water
zaʧi hero
zavi pretty / quite / enough
zelu x1 says x2
zemi x1 suffers emotionally
zeru x1 is a number / quantity of x2
zibu x1 says goodbye to x2
ziʒi right triangle
zodi a road
zoku x1 says literally x2
zoʃu x1 scares x2 / x2 fears x1
zudu x1 climbs on x2
zufu x1 is a leaf of x2
zuji critical / edge
zuku x1 is a tooth of x2
zuni cardinal number sign
zunu x1 is a length of x2
zupi worm
zuru x1 and x2 is blood-related
zuʧo x1 examines x2 with exam / experiment x3
ʒaxi beast
ʒedi language
ʒeni someting
ʒidi thick
ʒiʤe 7 / seven
ʒiku x1 is a figure with x2 angles
ʒimu x1 is a group of x2
ʒoju x1 is a nose of x2
ʒoki dies
ʒotu x1 is an ear of x2
ʒoxi a little / slight / mere
ʒufi laughs
ʒugu x1 is friend of x2
ʒuju x1 is a chest / upper front of body of x2
ʒuku x1 is hair of x2
ʒunu x1 is dignity of x2
ʒupi a mountain
ʒuʃi turns (around)
ʒuti past / former
ʒuʧi this
ʒuxi little / tiny
ʒuxu x1 is time of x2
ʒuzu x1 can / is able to do x2
kedagiʤi in English
batimani Batman
birusi Bruce
damipiti Dumpty
danijeli Daniel
dekariti Descartes
devitoxi DeVito
ʤekobi Jack / Jacob
ʤeremi Jeremy
ʤoniveni Chinese
ʤoriʤi George
ʤoxani John
ʤoxanisoni Johnson
fiʤeralidi Fitzgerald
gotemi Gotham
jiniliʃi English
jivani Ivan
jivanoviʧi Ivanovich
kajini Cain
karilaxi Carla
karili Carl
kedagiʤi kedagijish
kejisi Kay
kenedi Kennedy
kilivi Cleevy
korixi Cory
leroji Leroy
lobaʧevi Lobachev
moridori Mordor
musilimi muslim
patiriki Pat / Patrick
raseli Russell
rebekaxi Rebecca
riʧimonideri Richmonder
roberiti Robert
robini Robin
rusiki Russian
sivenisiki swedish
ʃekili Sheckley
ʦiʦeroxi Cicero
tulixi Tully
veseji USA
vilijami Bill / William
vilisi Willis
vulikani Vulcan
xalani Alan
xamipiti Humpty
xarigeli Argyle
xarisitoteli Aristotle
xebijemi IBM (company)
xelifi elf
xelizabeti Elizabeth
xeriberiti Herbert

Examples[]

Hello! Hi!

mataʧusu.

1-2-greet.

@

Good day!

laxumi lavuki.

3l-good 3l-day.

@

Good morning!

laxumi labati.

3l-good 3l-morning.

@

Good evening!

laxumi laliri.

3l-good 3l-evening.

@

Good bye! / See you!

matazibu.

1-2-bye.

@

Thank you!

matanaʃalo.

1-2-4-thank.

@

You are welcome!

matanavano.

1-2-4-accept.

@

Never mind!

xaʧiki matanavano.

NW-not 1-2-4-accept.

@

Yes.

naʃufi.

4-correct.

@

No.

naʧiki.

4-not.

@

Only one son of John sleeps.

vaʧe kazuni kadaʃajoso dapamiʧu dapixi kapamiʧu kapixi paʤojani kaʧozi.

one 3k-NUM 3k-3t-PW-only 3t-3p-child 3t-male 3k-3p-child 3k-male 3p-John 3k-sleep.

@

The only son of John sleeps.

vaʒaxajoso xafadaʃu vadamiʧu faxi vapixi daʤojani vaʧozi.

3v-3q-NW-only NW-3f-and 3v-3t-child 3f-that 3v-male 3t-John 3v-sleep.

@

Only the only son of John sleeps.

vaʒaxajoso xafadaʃu vadamiʧu faxi vapixi daʤojani vaʒaxajoso vaʧozi.

3v-3q-NW-only NW-3f-and 3v-3t-child 3f-that 3v-male 3t-John 3v-3q-NW-only 3v-sleep.

@

All cats are gray.

vadogi ʃaxaʤeʧu vaʤopi.

3v-cat PW-NW-if 3v-gray.

@

Not all cats are gray.

xaʧiki xabaʤeʧu vadogi baxi vaʤopi.

NW-not NW-3b-if 3v-that 3b-cat 3v-gray.

@

All cats aren't gray.

ladogi ʃaxaʤecu laʤopi ʃaʧiki.

3l-cat PW-NW-if 3l-gray PW-not.

@

All gray cats are nice.

vaʒaʤi xaʃaʤeʧu xaladaʃu vaʤopi laxi vadogi.

3v-nice NW-PW-if NW-3l-and 3v-gray 3l-that 3v-cat.

@

Some black cats are nice.

vaʒaʤi xoʃeʃafu xosodaʃu vagaki soxi vadogi.

3-nice 3-3-some 3-3-and 3-black 3-that 3-cat.

@

Some nice cats are black.

vagaki xoʃeʃafu xosodaʃu vaʒaʤi soxi vadogi.

3-black 3-3-some 3-3-and 3-nice 3-that 3-cat.

@

Some nice black creatures are cats.

vadogi xoʃeʃafu xosodaʃu vaʒaʤi soxi vagaki.

3-cat 3-3-some 3-3-and 3-nice 3-that 3-black.

@

Among nice cats there are gray and black.

maxi xorodaʃu vaʒaʤi roxi vadogi maʃeʃafu vaʤopi maʃeʃafu vagaki.

3-that 3-3-and 3-nice 3-that 3-cat 3-3-some 3-gray 3-3-some 3-black.

@

Nice cats are gray and black.

paxi xaradaʃu vaʒaʤi raxi vadogi paʃaʤeʧu xasadaʃu vaʤopi saxi vagaki.

3p-that NW-3r-and 3v-nice 3r-that 3v-cat 3p-PW-if NW-3s-and 3v-gray 3s-that 3v-black.

@

He said not all cats are gray.

se( xaʧiki xafaʤeʧu vadogi faxi vaʤopi. )te daʃazelu.

QB NW-not NW-3f-if 3v-cat 3f-that 3v-gray QE 3d-PW-say.

@

Being a cat means to be gray and nice.

vadogi ʃaxakapu ʃaladaʃu vaʤopi laxi vaʒaji.

3v-cat PW-NW-mean NW-3l-and 3v-gray 3v-nice.

@

Among all things only gray cats are nice.

lanaxayoso laʒaʤi laʤopi ladogi.

3l-4-NW-only 3l-nice 3l-gray 3l-cat.

@

Among cats only gray are nice.

radogi laraxayoso laʒaʤi laʤopi ladogi.

3r-cat 3l-3r-NW-only 3l-nice 3l-gray 3l-cat.

@

I eat the second time.

rape xananuzu mananisu.

two NW-4-ordinal.number 1-4-eat.

@

I eat twice.

rape xazuni mananisu.

two NW-4-quantity 1-4-eat.

@

All I do is sleeping.

manabobu ʃaxaʤeʧu maʧozi.

1-4-do PW-NW-if 1-sleep.

@

He runs fast.

xafemi lavizi.

NW-fast 3l-run.

@

The rapidity of his run is admirable.

naxalagu xafemi lavizi.

4-NW-admire NW-fast 3l-run.

@

What is he doing?

larabobu radoki.

3l-3r-do 3r-what?

@

What is your name?

talaʤepu ladoki.

2-3l-call 3l-what?

@

He did a lot for me.

xaroni larabobu raʤeli.

NW-already 3l-3r-do 3r-much.

@

There are at least 3 different cats so that they sleep in the moment.

mepe lazuni ʃakobi ladogi xaleʃi laʧozi.

three 3l-quantity PW-at.least 3l-cat NW-now 3l-sleep.

@

There is at most 1 cat so that it sleeps in the moment.

vaʧe lazuni ʃaʤuti ladogi xaleʃi laʧozi.

one 3l-quantity PW-at.most 3l-cat NW-now 3l-sleep.

@

There are from 4 to 42 cats so that they sleep in the moment.

zadazeru zasabaʃu mepe saʤali kazabaʃu dope mepe kaʤali xaleʃi daʧozi.

3z-3d-quantity 3z-3s-more three 3s-nominal.number 3k-3z-more four three 3k-nominal.number NW-now 3d-sleep.

@

There are the same amount of sleeping cats as dogs eating meat.

zadazeru dadogi salazeru lalezi zasaʧeʤu xaleʃi daʧozi lakanisu katuzi.

3z-3d-quantity 3d-cat 3s-3l-quantity 3l-dog 3s-3z-equal NW-now 3d-sleep 3l-3k-eat 3k-meat.

@

This is a white wolf.

laʒuʧi laxoxi ladoʤi.

3l-this 3l-white 3l-wolf.

@

This wolf is whiter than that wolf.

laʒuʧi ladoʤi laxoxi ʃaxabaʃu raxoxi radoʤi.

3l-this 3l-wolf 3l-white PW-NW-more 3r-white 3r-wolf.

@

The wolf is white.

laʒuʧi ladoʤi laxoxi.

3l-this 3l-wolf 3l-white.

@

A white wolf bites a man.

laxoxi ladoʤi laradolu raruti.

3l-white 3l-wolf 3l-3r-bite 3r-human.

@

The wolf that bites a man is white.

ladoʤi laradolu raruti laxoxi.

3l-wolf 3l-3r-bite 3r-human 3l-white.

@

A white wolf is a beast.

laxoxi ladoʤi laʒaxi.

3l-white 3l-wolf 3l-beast.

@

White wolf's name is John Johnson.

laxoxi ladoʤi laraʤepu raʤojani raʤojanisoni.

3l-white 3l-wolf 3l-3r-name 3r-John 3r-Johnson.

@

John Johnson the wolf is a beast.

ladoʤi laʤojani laʤojanisoni laʒaxi.

3l-wolf 3l-John 3l-Johnson 3l-beast.

@

The wolf which is white, its name is John Johnson.

ladoʤi laxoxi laraʤepu raʤojani raʤojanisoni.

3l-wolf 3l-white 3l-3r-name 3r-John 3r-Johnson.

@

The wolf called John Johnson is white.

ladoʤi laraʤepu raʤojani raʤojanisoni laxoxi.

3l-wolf 3l-3r-name 3r-John 3r-Johnson 3l-white.

@

The beast which is a wolf is mine.

laʒaxi ladoʤi malasaru.

3l-beast 3l-wolf 1-3l-own.

@

This is a friend of my son.

laʒuʧi laraʒugu ramamiʧu rapixi.

3l-this 3l-3r-friend 3r-1-child 3r-male.

@

John's wolf is a friend of my son.

ladoʤi ʤaʤojani ʤalasaru laraʒugu ramamiʧu rapixi.

3l-wolf 3j-John 3j-3l-own 3l-3r-friend 3r-1-child 3r-male.

@

My white wolf bites a man.

madasaru daxoxi dadoʤi daradolu raruti.

1-3d-own 3d-white 3d-wolf 3d-3r-bite 3r-human.

@

My white wolf biting a man is a beast.

madasaru daxoxi dadoʤi daradolu raruti daʒaxi.

1-3d-own 3d-white 3d-wolf 3d-3r-bite 3r-human 3d-beast.

@

My wolf bites me.

madasaru dadoʤi damadolu.

1-3d-own 3d-wolf 3d-1-bite.

@

My wolf bites him.

madasaru dadoʤi dasadolu.

1-3d-own 3d-wolf 3d-3s-bite.

@

My wolf bites itself.

madasaru dadoʤi dadadolu.

1-3d-own 3d-wolf 3d-3d-bite.

@

A white wolf of John's son hardly bites a friend of my son with teeth by the hand.

daxoxi dadoʤi ʧadasaru ʧajamiʧu ʧapixi jaʤojani xaʤudi daladolu zaʃakuʧu zadazuku lavavabu vapaʒugu pamamiʧu papixi

3d-white 3d-wolf 3c-3d-own 3c-3y-child 3c-male 3y-John NW-very 3d-3l-bite 3z-PW-via 3z-3d-tooth 3l-3v-hand 3v-3p-friend 3p-1-child 3p-male.

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