|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
Keltsvian is a language isolate which has an uncommon grammar and Indo-European influence in vocabulary. The autoglotonym is keltsvan [keld.svan].
Keltsvian is a language spoken in Keltsvia -a fictional country in Eastern Europe-, the word stems are mainly taken from Proto Indo European. The grammar has the following characteristics: non noticeable stressed syllables, no grammatical genders, singular and plural numbers only affect to nouns, verbs and personal pronouns, simple patterned grammatical cases and it has some degree of vowel harmony.
|Stop||p b||t d||k g|
|Sibilant affricate||ts dz||tʃ dʒ|
|Sibilant fricative||s z||ʃ ʒ|
|Non-sibilant fricative||β||f v||ð||x ɣ||h|
- The phoneme /m/ is always represented by the grapheme m.
- The phoneme /ɲ/ is always represented by the grapheme ň.
- The phoneme /s/ is always represented by the grapheme s.
- The phoneme /z/ is always represented by the grapheme z.
- The phoneme /ʃ/ is always represented by the grapheme š.
- The phoneme /ʒ/ is always represented by the grapheme ž.
- The phoneme /l/ is always represented by the grapheme l.
- The phoneme /ʎ/ is always represented by the grapheme ł.
- The phonemes /ɱ/ and /n/ are always represented by the grapheme n. The phoneme /ɱ/ is pronounced when n is written before another labio-dental consonant. The phoneme /ŋ/ is represented by the digraph ng at the end of the word or by the grapheme n when it is written before a velar consonant. In the rest of cases where the grapheme n appears, /n/ is pronounced.
- The phoneme /p/ is pronounced when the grapheme p is written and when b is written at the end of a word.
- The phoneme /t/ is pronounced when the grapheme t is written and when d is written at the end of a word.
- The phoneme /k/ is pronounced when the grapheme k is written and when g is written at the end of a word.
- The phoneme /b/ is only pronounced when the grapheme b is written at the beginning of a word, after a nasal consonant or when the grapheme p is written at the end of a syllable that it is not the last syllable of the word. When b is not written at the beginning of a word, at the end of a word or after a nasal consonant, the phoneme /β/ is pronounced.
- The phoneme /d/ is only pronounced when the grapheme d is written at the beginning of a word, after a nasal consonant or when the grapheme t is written at the end of a syllable that it is not the last syllable of the word. When d is not written at the beginning of a word, at the end of a word or after a nasal consonant, the phoneme /ð/ is pronounced.
- The phoneme /g/ is only pronounced when the grapheme g is written at the beginning of a word, after a nasal consonant or when the grapheme k is written at the end of a syllable that it is not the last syllable of the word. When g is not written at the beginning of a word, at the end of a word or after a nasal consonant, the phoneme /ɣ/ is pronounced.
- The phoneme /ts/ is always represented by the grapheme c, but when this grapheme appears at the end of the syllable the phoneme /dz/ is pronounced instead. In some loandwords, the dygraph dz can appear and it is represented by its IPA value.
- The phoneme /tʃ/ is always represented by the grapheme č, but when this grapheme appears at the end of the syllable the phoneme /dʒ/ is pronounced instead. In some loandwords, the dygraph dž can appear and it is represented by the phoneme /dʒ/.
- The phoneme /f/ is pronounced when the grapheme f is written and when v is written at the end of a word and the phoneme /v/ is always represented by the grapheme v.
- The phoneme /x/ is pronounced when the grapheme x is written and when h is written at the end of a word and the phoneme /h/ is always represented by the grapheme h.
- The phonemes /r/ and /ɾ/ are always represented by the grapheme r. The first phoneme is pronounced when r is written at the beginning or at the end of a word, in the rest of cases, the second phoneme is pronounced.
- The phonemes /j/ and /w/ are always part of diphtongs or triphtongs, they always appear after or before a vowel. Keltsvian linguists consider these phonemes as weak vowels because they are always accompained by strong vowels.
- /j/ is represented by the grapheme j and it is part of the diphtongic graphemes á [ja], é [je], ó [jo], and ú [ju]. Its strong vowel counterpart is i /i/.
- /w/ is always represented by the grapheme w. Its strong vowel counterpart is u /u/.
- The phonemes /a/, /e/, /i/, /o/ and /u/ are represented by the graphemes a, e, i, o and u respectively. The phonemes /a/, /e/, /o/ and /u/ are also pronounced as a part of the dyphtongic graphemes á [ja], é [je], ó [jo] and ú [ju] respectively.
- The weak vowel counterpart of /i/ is j /j/ and the weak vowel counterpart of /u/ is w /w/.
- /a/, /e/ and /o/ are considered pure strong vowels because they do not have weak vowel counterparts.
Hierarchy of vowels
Within each syllable in Keltsvian language, it exists a hierarchy of vowels in 5 levels:
- 1st level or pure strong vowels: /a/, /e/ and /o/.
- 2nd level or unpure strong vowel: /u/.
- 3rd level or bastard strong vowel: /i/.
- 4th level or royal weak vowel: /w/.
- 5th level or bastard weak vowel: /j/.
There are also 4 rules regarding the hierarchy:
- In all syllables there is only one strong vowel of any kind.
- When a pure strong vowel is accompained by another vowel, this one can be only pronounced with any kind of weak vowel.
- The unpure weak vowel can only be pronounced with the bastard weak vowel.
- The bastard strong vowel can be only pronounced just right after the royal weak vowel or along any pure strong vowel or the unpure strong vowel.
Diphtongs and triphtongs
Applying the rules of the hierarchy of vowels, in Keltsvian there is the following diphtongs: /aj/, /aw/, /ej/, /ew/, /oj/, /ow/, /uj/, /wi/ and /wo/ always represented by the graphemes aj, aw, ej, ew, oj, ow, uj, wi and wo respectively.
As explained above, the diphtongs /ja/, /je/, /jo/ and /ju/ are represented by the four diphtongic graphemes á, é, ó and ú respectively.
According to the rules of the hierarchy of vowels we cannot find the following diphtongs in Keltsvian language: /ij/, /iw/, /ji/, /uw/ or /wu/ as diphtongs.
Triphtongs are always formed by the same structure W-PS-W, where W is any weak vowel and PS is any pure strong vowel. The unpure and the bastard weak vowels have no use in triphtongs. So all the possible triphtongs are: /jaj/, /jaw/, /jej/, /jew/, /joj/, /jow/, /waj/, /waw/, /wej/, /wew/, /woj/ and /wow/ represented respectively by áj, áw, éj, éw, ój, ów, waj, waw, wej, wew, woj and wow.
The possible syllables in Keltsvian one of this two structures (C)(C)(V)V(V)(C) or (C)(V)V(V)(C)(C). The nucleus is always a strong vowel (/a/, /e/, /i/, /o/ or /u/). The optional vowels are always weak vowels and they are present in diphtongs and triphtongs, always applying the vowels hierarchy rule as we saw above. The onset, when present, is formed by one or two consonants, as well as the codas. When the onset is formed by two phonemes, the coda only has one phoneme and vice versa, so in one syllable there is never more than three consonants and never more than two consonants pronounced together.
- No consonant phoneme is duplicated in the same onset or coda.
- Consonant phonemes that never allow clusters and can be found as onset or coda: /l/, /m/, /n/, /r/, /z/ and /ʒ/.
- Consonant phonemes that never allow clusters but can be found only as onset: /h/, /ʎ/, /ɲ/, /ts/ and /tʃ/.
- Consonant phonemes that never allow clusters but can be found only as coda: /ɱ/.
- Consonant phonemes that may allow clusters and can be found as onset or coda: /b/, /d/, /f/, /g/, /k/, /p/, /s/, /ʃ/, /t/, /v/ and /x/.
- Consonant phonemes that may allow clusters, can be found only as onset and never appear in the first syllable of a word: /β/, /ð/, /ɣ/ and /ɾ/.
- Consonant phonemes only present in clusters: /dz/ and /dʒ/. Both only appear as onset in loanwords.
- Consonant phonemes that follow the hierarchy of vowels rules: /j/ and /w/. If those appear, they are always part of the nucleus, they cannot be part of the onset or the coda.
- Clusters allowed both as onset or coda: dz, dž, ks and st.
- Clusters allowed only as onset: bl, br, dr, fl, fr, gl, gr, kl, kr, pl, pr, sl, sm, sn, št, sv, tr, vr and xr.
- Clusters allowed only as coda: lt, mt, ng, nt, nk, rg, sg and sz.
- Any other kind of cluster not appearing in this list is not found.
- The only digraphs are: dz, dž, ng and sz. The last digraph is used in the imperative mood of verbs and the pronounciation is a long s /s:/.
Stress in Keltsvian is not clearly marked when pronounced. There is no dominant stress syllables in any word.
The Keltsvian language is written using the Keltsvian alphabet, which is the Latin script with 9 additional letters and without q and y, for a total of 33 letters. The additional letters are: á, č, é, ł, ň, ó, š, ú and ž. The native names for the letters is simple: the vowel are named the same way they are pronounced and the consonants follow this pattern: consonant + e. So the letters é and j have the same name, to distiguish them, Keltsvians say: é lur Ésu (é of Jesus) and j en áj (j in yes).
|a||a||vatu [va.tu] - father||hat|
|á||ja||áj [jaj] - yes||yatch|
|bamom [ba.mom] - language
tribut [tɾi.βut] - tax
kebab [ke.βap] - kebab
aber (but in German)
|cena [ce.na] - wife
palac [pa.ladz] - palace
day (New Yorker accent)
|čar [tʃar] - land
ač [adʒ] - and
|du [du] - two
udoz [u.ðoz] - to get out
vud [vut] - foot
|e||e||hej [hej] - hello||bed|
|é||je||smékal [smje.kal] - chin||yet|
|f||f||fewt [fewt] - country||fill|
|gi [gi] - this
bagák [ba.ɣjak] - fried
gilag [gi.lak] - milk
liegen (to lie in Dutch)
|he [he] - no
cerih [tse.ɾix] - of the mountains
loch (Scottish accent)
|i||i||li [li] - he/she/it||free|
|j||j||ojn [ojn] - one||you|
|ki [ki] - after
dekdu [deg.du] - twelve
|l||l||asla [as.la] - wing||let|
|ł||ʎ||oło [o.ʎo] - all||million (American accent)|
|m||m||mata [ma.ta] - mother||him|
|en [en] - in/at/on
inflwenci [iɱ.flwen.tsi] - influence
bang [baŋ] - bank
|ň||ɲ||piraňa [pi.ɾa.ɲa] - piranha||piña (pinneapple in Spanish)|
|o||o||os [os] - mouth||yawn|
|ó||jo||fór [fjoɾ] - fjord||yogurt|
|penk [peŋk] - five
sepdek [seb.dek] - seventy
|ris [ris] - rice
kerun [ke.ɾun] - horn
|perro (dog in Spanish)|
better (American accent)
|s||s||is [is] - ice||sand|
|š||ʃ||doša [do.ʃa] - daughter||ship|
|tri [tɾi] - three
kemtdek [kemd.dek] - one hundred and ten
|u||u||sus [sus] - pig||boot|
|ú||ju||Ún [jun] - June||you|
|ovis [o.vis] - sheep
nagav [na.ɣaf] - port
|w||w||we [we] - or||weep|
|x||x||oxis [o.xis] - worm||loch (Scottish accent)|
|z||z||ozon [o.zon] - ozone||size|
|ž||ʒ||žandarmar [ʒan.daɾ.mar] - gendarme||garage|
Keltsvian orthography is such that the pronunciation of most words is unambiguous given their written form, with very few exceptions explained above.
Apart from the rule of the hierarchy of vowels, Keltsvian has also ortographic rules.
- No double letters, with exceptions in foreign words like picca (pizza) or ázz (jazz).
- mf is never allowed between syllables, m has to be replaced by n.
- ts will always become c unless each letter is located in a different syllable, that happens when c is not in compliance with the phonotactics rules. A very good example of this is the homonym of this language: keltsvan, here it is allowed because ts is not acting as a digraphs and it is splitting the word in two syllables. In that example t and s are not part of the same syllable.
- j will never be written after or before i.
- j cannot be written before a, e, o and u. á, é, ó and u are used instead.
- j cannot be written between c, l, n, s, d and the vowels a, e, o and u. In that case, c, l, n, s, d and j will merge becoming č, ł, ň, š and ž. When this consonants are present á, é, ó and ú are not allowed but they have to be used when the rest of consonants are involved.
- w will never be writter after or before u.
- When the same vowel is repeated due to the addition of preffixes or suffixes, h is added in between. For example: kohoperaci (cooperation). This rule is applied in all plural forms of nouns ending with a vowel. See below Number section.
- Only adjectives and some numbers (penk, sek, dek) end with -k.
- The use of apostrophe (') only applies in the genitive case of some personal pronouns (see below).
Capitalization in Keltsvian occurs at the beginning of every sentence, after a question mark, exclamation marks and in given names, including people, pet names, days of the week, months, planets, moons, stars, constellations, toponyms (cities, countries, mounts, rivers), the first word in the title of a book, song or movie and acronyms.
Keltsvian is generally a conservative language, rarely adopts foreign words and usually they are adapted ortographically and phonetically to the language. Even the other languages' given names are often adapted, like Džordž Buš for George Bush or Hari Poter for Harry Potter. More examples include vudbal (football), vebsajt (website), poranagav (airport, from pora + nagav, meaning air + port), picca (pizza), krwasan (croissant), telefon (telephone), taksi (taxi), údo (judo), óga (yoga), páno (piano), džins (jeans)...
Keltsvian is a grammatically inflected language and it lacks articles. Verbs are marked for tense, aspect, mood, person and number. There is no grammatical gender and the numbers are singular and plural. Personal pronouns are inflected for person, number and case. Nouns are inflected only according to case and number and the inflections only vary depending on the last letter of the noun. All nouns have the same final letter in their respective singular and plural form, that makes inflections simpler. Adjectives are only inflected according to case. In Keltsvian also exists a hint of vowel harmony only affecting to plural form of nouns, adjectives and some personal pronouns.
Basic word order
The basic word order of Keltsvian language is SVO (subject, verb, object). The inflections in this language allow a little bit more of flexibility in the order, but this flexibility is not used in daily speech, only for poetry or literary uses.
In Keltsvian, nouns do not have a grammatical gender of any kind and they ar inflected according to number and case.
To obtain the plural form of a noun the general rule is to repeat the word from the last vowel. For example:
- brotar becomes brotarar, meaning brother and brothers respectively.
When the last letter is already a vowel, h is added in between following the orthography rules. For example:
- mata becomes mataha, meaning mother and mothers respectively.
Plurals are affected by the vowel harmony, but this is only visible when the last vowel of the singular form of a noun is a weak vowel (j or w), in this case the weak vowel is not repeated, the used vowel is the weak vowel counterpart (for j is i and for w is u). This also happens when the last vowel is a diphtongic vowel (á, é, ó or ú). Examples:
- fewt becomes fewtut, meaning country and countries respectively.
- údeóm becomes údeómom, meaning command and commands respectively.
It is important to know that vowel harmony works in a different way in adjectives (see below).
When a number appears clarifying the quantity of objects the noun is, the plural is not used because is not necessary. For example:
- ojn kat, du kat; meaning one cat and two cats respectively.
A plural is used to explain that there is no specific amount of this noun but there is more than one.
Grammatical cases are in decline regarding the evolution of this language, there are 13 different cases and some of them are merged as well as 6 declensions.
The Keltsvian grammatical cases are:
- Nominative (nominativ): representing the main subject of the sentence and consisting in the bare form of the word.
- Accusative (akusativ): indicating the direct object of the verb.
- Dative (dativ): indicating the indirect object of the verb.
- Ablative (apotiv): the movement from a place to another or change from one situation from another.
- Genitive (luritiv): indicating possession.
- Causative (ókitiv): indicating the reason, the because of the sentence. Being merged with the temative case.
- Comitative (komitiv): indicating the company, the with of the sentence. Being merged with the instrumental case.
- Instrumental (gagitiv): indicating the way something is done, the by of the sentence. Being merged with the comitative case.
- Lative (anativ): indicating the arrival from a place to another or a change to a new situation from another.
- Locative (enitiv): indicating an specific place or localization in space. Being merged with the temporary case.
- Privative (ňewtiv): indicating the absence of some element, it is the opposite of the comitative case, the without of the sentence. The use of this case is also the Keltsvian equivalent to the suffix -less.
- Temative (peritiv): indicating the topic, the about of the sentence. Being merged with the causative case.
- Temporary (ómitiv): indicating an specific localization in time. Being merged with the locative case.
The plural and the singular forms of each noun are inflected using the same declension because they finish with the same letter. Some inflections do not modify the noun due to the evolution of this language on the way to lose the grammatical cases, for those cases it is mandatory to use prepositions -when existing- (in these tables, the prepositions will appear between brackets). The Keltsvian declesions are:
- 1st declension, consonant or 0 declension: applied to nouns ending with consonant. The adjectives only use this declension because all of them end with -k (see below).
- 2nd declension or A declension: applied to nouns ending with a or á.
- 3rd declension or E declension: applied to nouns ending with e or é.
- 4th declension or I declension: applied to nouns ending with i or j.
- 5th declension or O declension: applied to nouns ending with o or ó.
- 6th declension or U declension: applied to nouns ending with u, ú or w.
It is the most common declension because the majority of Keltsvian words end with consonant. In the example the used word is kat (cat).
|Nominative||∅||kat ludozi (the cat plays)|
|Accusative||∅||Tim ataknamozi kat (Tim feeds the cat)|
|Dative||-u||Tim dazi bal katu (Tim gives the ball to the cat)|
|Ablative||-e||Tim egdazi bal kate (Tim takes the ball from the cat)|
|Genitive||-a||bal kata (the cat's ball)|
|Causative and temative||-ose||Tim bazi katose (Tim talks about the cat)|
|Comitative and instrumental||-om||Tim ludozi katom (Tim plays with the cat)|
|Lative||∅||Tim ejmozi [ana] kat (Tim goes [towards] the cat)|
|Locative and temporary||-e||kanser kate (lit. cancer in the cat, this case is also to express possession of diseases)|
|Privative||-as||Tim aknamozi katas (Tim eats without the cat)|
In this example, the used word is mata (mother).
|Nominative||∅||mata ejmozi domu (mother goes home)|
|Accusative||-a becomes -u||vatu amaózi matu (father loves mother)|
|Dative||-a becomes -u||vatu dazi osinu matu (father gives a kiss to mother)|
|Ablative||-a becomes -i||vatu avazi osinu mati (lit. father has a kiss from mother)|
|Genitive||-a becomes -i||awto mati (mother's car)|
|Causative and temative||-a becomes -osi||vatu bazi matosi (father talks about mother)|
|Comitative and instrumental||-a becomes -oj||vatu bazi matoj (father talks with mother)|
|Lative||-a becomes -u||vatu ejmozi matu (father goes towards mother)|
|Locative and temporary||-a becomes -e||kanser mate (lit. cancer in mother, this case is also to express possession of diseases)|
|Privative||-a becomes -is||vatu aknamozi matis (father eats without mother)|
This declension is not very common, very few words end with -e. In this example, the used word is dage (dagger).
|Nominative||∅||dage isare (iron dagger)|
|Accusative||∅||Tim avazi dage (Tim has a dagger)|
|Dative||-e becomes -u||Tim brilizi dagu (lit. Tim gives brightness to the dagger)|
|Ablative||-e becomes -a||Tim xentizi daga (lit. Tim dies from the dagger)|
|Genitive||∅||xenčom lur dage (the dagger's letality)|
|Causative and temative||-e adds -sos||Tim bazi dagesos (Tim talks about the dagger)|
|Comitative and instrumental||∅||Tim alxentizi egu [kom] dage (Tim kills me [with] the dagger)|
|Lative||∅||Tim ejmozi [ana] dage (father goes [towards] the mother)|
|Locative and temporary||∅||tin [en] dage (lit. dirtiness [in] the dagger)|
|Privative||-e adds -s||Tim vuduzi dages (Tim walks without dagger)|
In this example, the used word is diri (tree).
|Nominative||∅||diri dazi doncelom (lit. the tree gives shadow)|
|Accusative||∅||parg avazi diri (the park has a tree)|
|Dative||-i becomes -am||Tim dazi aku diram (lit. Tim gives water to the tree)|
|Ablative||∅||Tim vuduzi [apo] diri [ana] dom (Tim walks [from] the dagger [to] home)|
|Genitive||-i disappears||parg dir (the tree's park)|
|Causative and temative||-i adds -sos||Tim bazi dirisos (Tim talks about the tree)|
|Comitative and instrumental||-i is changed by -ami||Tim ňesmozi dirami (lit. Tim hides with the tree)|
|Lative||∅||Tim ejmozi dome [ana] diri (Tim goes from home [to] the tree)|
|Locative and temporary||∅||dirirat [en] diri (lit. squirrel [in] the tree)|
|Privative||-i adds -s||gartan diris (the garden without tree)|
- For this declension, the genitive inflected singular nouns may suffer a variation to be in agreement with the phonotactics, always respecting the vowel harmony. For example:
- lidmi would become lidim instead of lidm.
In this example, the used word is oko (eye).
|Nominative||∅||oko tigara (the eye of the tiger)|
|Accusative||∅||Tim kluduzi oko (Tim closes the eye)|
|Dative||∅||Tim dazi gesir'il egu oko (lit. Tim gives his finger to my eye)|
|Ablative||∅||akwoko apejmozi [apo] oko (a tear goes out [from] the eye)|
|Genitive||∅||xajso [lur] oko (the eye['s] beauty)|
|Causative and temative||-o adds -sos||Tim bazi okosos (Tim talks about the eye)|
|Comitative and instrumental||∅||Tim okozi [kom] oko (Tim sees [with] the eye)|
|Lative||∅||Tim okozi [ana] oko (Tim sees [to] the eye)|
|Locative and temporary||∅||iris [en] oko (the iris is [in] the eye)|
|Privative||-o adds -s||Tim okozi okos (Tim sees without the eye)|
In this example, the used word is vatu (father).
|Nominative||∅||vatu ejmozi domu (father goes home)|
|Accusative||∅||mata amaózi vatu (mother loves father)|
|Dative||∅||mata dazi osinu vatu (mother gives a kiss to father)|
|Ablative||∅||mata avazi osinu [apo] vatu (lit. mother has a kiss [from] father)|
|Genitive||∅||awto [lur] vatu (father['s] car)|
|Causative and temative||-u adds -sos||mata bazi vatusos (mother talks about father)|
|Comitative and instrumental||-u becomes -o||mata bazi vato (mother talks with father)|
|Lative||∅||mata ejmozi [ana] vatu (mother goes [towards] father)|
|Locative and temporary||∅||kanser [en] vatu (lit. cancer [in] mother, this case is also to express possession of diseases)|
|Privative||-u adds -s||mata aknamozi vatus (mother eats without father)|
In general, adjectives are derived from nouns, like xajsok (beautiful, handsome) which is derived from xajso (beauty). The general rule is adding the adjective suffix -k to the noun and for nouns ended with consonant, applying the adjectival vowel harmony, which is different that the one in plurals. Vowel harmony in adjectives have as difference the last strong vowel (a, e, i, o or u) and they ignore the weak vowels (j and w). For example:
- fewt becomes fewtek, meaning nation and national respectively.
Colours have not the adjective suffix and they can be used as both nouns or adjectives.
Keltsvian adjectives have the following characteristics:
- They always go after the noun they modify.
- They do not agree with number and gender, only with case.
The adjective will always have the same grammatical case as the noun they modify. Adjective declensions are exactly the same as noun declensions. They use the first or consonant declension due to their ending (-k), only colours may use other declension (depending on their ending, like nouns).
There are two suffixes for comparative adjective, the less suffix (-puk) and the more suffix (-xek), the second one is equivalent to the English comparative suffix -er. Examples:
- xajsok becomes xajsokpuk, meaning beautiful and less beautiful repectively.
- xajsok becomes xajsokxek, meaning beautiful and more beautiful repectively.
It is formed just by adding the suffix -uk to the adjective. For example:
- xajsok becomes xajsokuk, meaning beautiful and the most beautiful respectively.
Keltsvian adverbs are derived from the adjectives. To form them, the only way is to take an adjective and use its instrumental inflection form. For example:
- xajsok becomes xajsokom, meaning beautiful and beautifully respectively.
Keltsvian pronouns in some ways work quite differently from their English counterparts. They are not gendered and the only kind of pronouns that are modified by case, person and number are the personal pronouns.
Personal pronouns in Keltsvian have distinct forms according to case, person and number. Keltsvian is a pro-drop language with respect to subject pronouns. These pronouns are inflected following a different pattern compared to nouns and adjectives. They are the only inflected pronouns.
|Person & number||Nominative||Accusative||Dative||Ablative||Genitive||Causative & temative||Comitative & instrumental||Lative||Locative & temporary||Privative|
Personal pronouns that use apostrophe are atached at the end of a noun. Following the noun rules of vowel harmony when the last letter is a consonant. For nouns ending with a vowel, the modification of the apostrophe personal pronouns is not needed. Examples:
- bal + 'lih = bal'alih, meaning their ball's.
- vojg + 't = vojg'it, meaning your farm's.
- oko + 'lih = oko'lih, meaning their eye's.
- diri + 't = diri't, meaning your tree's.
There are only three demonstrative pronouns, and they always are placed after the noun.
- Near the speaker: gi (this).
- Near the listener: ej (that).
- Far from both the speaker and the listener: gé ("over there").
The pronoun kis is some sort of pronoun for almost every use, it can be translated as that, which, who and whom depending on the sentence. Examples:
- Pul kis kudazu egu bagák = "The chicken [that] you gave me was fried"
- Pul, kis kudazu egu, bagák = "The chicken, [which] you gave me, was fried"
- Tetaha kis he esmozli fewte gi esmozli awtakarar = "People [who] is not from this country are foreigners"
- Vir ej, kis kunoskoze kudoxos, arxitektar = "That man, [whom] I knew yesterday, is an architect.
The word kis is also the interrogative equivalent to what and which.
Sometimes we can use the word ká, but this one is only used for people, being the previous one preferably used for objects. Examples:
- Tetinin ruksagagom, ká kwesmozli buse, dudek = "The children with the rucksacks, [who] were in the bus, were twenty"
- Li cena ká kudaze alxos = "She is the woman [to whom] I gave the money.
The word kis is also the interrogative equivalent to who.
The word kodej can be used instead of other relative pronouns when location is referred to. The word ankodej is a variant that can be used when motion to the location is intended and the word apkodej can be used when motion from the location is intended. Respectively they are equivalent to where, where to and where from and they also are used in questions. Examples:
- Blis kodej esmoze = "The city [where] I am"
- Zéjmoze blise ankodej li esmozi = "I am going [to] the city [where] he is"
- Kwejmozi apkodej zéjmoze = "He came [from where] I am going"
The word kalis can be used instead of other relative pronouns when manner is referred to. It is an equivalent to how or the way. It is also used in questions. For example:
- Kalis tu kudetisizu lin = "[How/The way] you did it"
The word óm can be used instead of other relative pronouns when manner is referred to. It is equivalent to the word when. It is also used in questions. Examples:
- Awguste, óm tetaha luruzli vakancihi, blis késmozi tetahis = "In August, [when] people have holidays, the city will be empty (lit. without people)
- Eg pisgize óm he veregeze = "I fish [when] I don't work"
The word apoká is the Keltsvian equivalent for the word whose and this one can be also found in questions. For example:
- Aleksandar studar apoká pungung ajves bilisik = "Aleksandar is a student [whose] grades are always good"
Keltsvian has 10 interrogative pronouns, the majority of them have their relative pronoun equivalent as shown before. The answer to these interrogative pronouns is made by one of the grammatical cases. Examples:
- anká: equivalent to to who. The answer uses the dative case.
- Question: 'Anká kudazu prezen'et? = "Who did you gave your present to?"
- Answer: Kudaze prezen cenu ega = "I gave the present to my wife"
- ankodej: equivalent to where to. The answer uses the lative case.
- Question: Ankodej egeg? = "Where are we going to?"
- Answer: Egeg ana dom = "We are going home"
- apkodej: equivalent to where from. The answer uses the ablative case.
- Question: Apkodej Guillaume? = "Where is Guillaume from?"
- Answer: Li Francihi = "He is from France"
- apoká: equivalent to whose or from who. The answer uses the genitive case.
- Question: Apoká bux gi? = "Whose is this book?"
- Answer: Bux gi Antona = "This book is Anton's"
- kalis: equivalent to how. The answer uses the instrumental case, unless they ask about an accompainment, in that case the comitative or the privative cases are used for affirmative or negative answers respectively.
- Question: Kalis tu? = "How are you?"
- Answer: Eg bilisikom = "I am fine" (lit. good)
- ká: equivalent to who. The answer uses the accusative case.
- Question: Ká lihi? = "Who are they?"
- Answer: Lihi brotarar ega = "They are my brothers"
- kis: equivalent to what or which. The answer uses the nominative case, unless they ask about an intention (or reason) or a topic, in those cases the causative or the temative cases are used respectively.
- Question: Kis nomin'it? = "What is your name?"
- Answer: Nomin ega Karolina = "My name is Karolina"
- kodej: equivalent to where. The answer uses the locative case.
- Question: Kodej tu? = "Where are you?"
- Answer: Eg Amerike = "I am in America".
- kota: equivalent to how much and how many. The answer uses the accusative case.
- Question: Kota awto ej? = "How much is that car?"
- Answer: Awto ej kwetarmil marg = "That car is four thousand marks"
- óm: equivalent to when. The answer uses the temporary case.
- Question: Óm intervú't verega? = "When is your job interview?"
- Answer: Lunxose = "On Monday"
Prepositions in the Keltsvian language are a set of connecting words that serve to indicate a relationship between a content word (noun, verb, or adjective) and a following noun phrase (or noun, or pronoun), known as the object of the preposition. The relationship is typically spatial or temporal, but prepositions express other relationships as well. Keltsvian does not place these function words after their objects; the language does not use postpositions.
- ana: equivalent to to. For lative case.
- apo: equivalent to from. For ablative case.
- do: equivalent to for. For causative case.
- en: equivalent to in, at or on. For locative and temporary cases.
- entir: equivalent to between. For locative case.
- gag: equivalent to by. For instrumental case.
- ki: equivalent to after. For temporary case.
- kom: equivalent to with. For comitative and instrumental cases.
- ku: equivalent to before. For temporary case.
- lur: equivalent to the English language ´s. For genitive case.
- ňew: equivalent to 'without. For privative case.
- óki: equivalent to because. For causative case.
- patir: equivalent to behind. For locative case.
- per: equivalent to about. For temative case.
- pitar: equivalent to in front of. For locative case.
- teni: equivalent to until. For temporary case.
- uči: equivalent to above. For locative case.
- upo: equivalent to under. For locative case.
- zi: equivalent to during. For temporary case.
Keltsvian language has 6 different conjuntions, all of them have equivalents in English language:
- ač: and.
- he: no.
- ita: so.
- mo: but.
- si: if.
- we: or.
There are no dialectal variations in Keltsvian language due to the concentration of its speakers in a very concrete area of Eastern Europe. They are different accents from people who use it having another mother tongue, specially the Slavic language speaker communities within Keltsvia.
Keltsvian verbs form one of the simplest areas of Keltsvian grammar. Keltsvian verbs undergo inflection according to the following categories:
- Tense: past, present or future.
- Number: singular or plural.
- Person: first, second or third.
- Mood: indicative, conditional or imperative.
This language does not have phrasal verbs, irregular verbs, T-V distinction and grammatical voice and aspect.
Verbal tenses in Keltsvian work with prefixes added to the verb stem. There are 3 tenses:
- Past (kwom): for any action happened in the past. They use the prefix: ku-.
- Present (numkóm): for any action happening at the present time. They use no prefix.
- Future (kóm): for any action that will take place in the future. They use the prefix ki-.
In Keltsvian there is also a gerund form, and it has the same use as the English -ing forms. They also use a prefix, in Keltsvian language it is knnown as a fake tense with the name of zóm or active tense and it uses the prefix zi-, this one can be combined with the real tenses. The following examples are made with the verb ejmoz (to go):
- Past - ku + ejmoz: Tom kwejmozi = "Tom went"
- Present - no prefix: Tom ejmozi = "Tom goes"
- Future - ki + ejmoz: Tom kéjmozi = "Tom will go"
- Gerund + past - zi + ku + ejmoz: Tom zikwejmozi = "Tom was going"
- Gerund + present - zi + ejmoz: Tom zéjmozi = "Tom is going"
- Gerund + future - zi + ki + ejmoz: Tom zikéjmozi = "Tom will be going"
It is possible to see that the beginning of the verb can modify the vowel of the prefixes due to the compliance of the orthography rules seen before.
Person and number
Keltsvian verbs are conjugated in three persons, each having a singular and a plural form. The conjugations are simple, because they just consist in the addition of a suffix. Because Keltsvian is a "pro-drop language", subject pronouns are often omitted.
- 1st person singular: uses the suffix -e. Ex: Ejmoze - "I go"
- 2nd person singular: uses the suffix -u. Ex: Ejmozu - "You go"
- 3rd person singular: uses the suffix -i. Ex: Tom ejmozi - "Tom goes"
- 1st person plural: uses the suffix -le. Ex: Ejmozle - "We go"
- 2nd person plural: uses the suffix -lu. Ex: Ejmozlu - "You [all/guys] go"
- 3rd person plural: uses the suffix -li. Ex: Ejmozli - "They go".
There are 3 grammatical moods in Keltsvian language:
- Indicative (indikativ): used for factual statements and positive beliefs. When written they are recognised because of the ending -z of the verb, located just before the person and number suffix. Ex: Tom dumosozi cigaretu = "Tom smokes a cigarette".
- Imperative (kasarativ): expresses direct commands, requests, and prohibitions. In this mood, the indicative marker is changed for the imperative marker -sz. Ex: He dumososzu = "Do not smoke"
- Conditional (sitiv): used for conditional situations, it is an equivalent to would. In every example of this mood we can always find the conjuntion si (meaning "if"). Ex: Tom késmozi kolutak si he dumosozi = "Tom would be healthy if he would not smoke".
The Keltsvian verb esmoz (to be) is never used in the present tense. For example, to say "Theresa is beautiful" in Keltsvian you must say Theresa xajsok, literally meaning "Theresa beautiful".
Keltsvian verbs are sometimes taken from nouns, like pisgiz (to fish) which is taken from pisg (fish) or plusaz (to write) from plusa (feather), because people used to write with feathers in the past. Some verbs are derived from other verbs and they modify the meaning of the stem by the addition of prefixes. For example:
- dus-: equivalent to mis-. Ex: stumuz becomes dustumuz, meaning to inform and to misinform.
- en-: equivalent to trans-. Ex: magoz becomes enmagoz, meaning to form and to transform.
- ko-: equivalent to co-. Ex: luruz becomes koluruz, meaning to own and to co-own.
- kon-: equivalent to re-. Ex: plusaz becomes konplusaz, meaning to write and to rewrite.
- kuki-: equivalent to inter-. Ex: agaz becomes kukágaz, meaning to act and to interact.
- ni-: equivalent to de-, dis- and un-. Ex: faz becomes nifaz, meaning to do and to undo.
- on-: equivalent to fore- and pre-. Ex: kupiz becomes onkupiz, meaning to order and to preorder.
- uč-: equivalent to out- and over-. Ex: parnaz becomes učparnaz, meaning to sell and to oversell.
- up-: equivalent to sub- and under-. Ex: kontragaz becomes upkontragaz, meaning to contract and to subcontract.
Verbs are never derived from adjectives, with the only exception of colours, like the verb dubuz (to blacken), which is derived from dubu (black). Verb formation follows the nominal vowel harmony, taking the last vowel as reference and adding a -z at the end. Another example, we will take the word meaning red and we will form the verb to redden: dergos - dergosoz.
|37||man (adult male)||vir|
|38||man (human being)||teta|
|Good morning!||Amros bilisik! (see Note 1)|
|Good afternoon!||Ampros bilisik! (see Note 1)|
|Good evening!||Vespros bilisik! (see Note 1)|
|Good night!||Noxte bilisik! (see Note 1)|
|Goodbye!||Deo! (see Note 2)|
|Please||Kupize kardami (long)|
Kardami (informal) (see Note 3)
|Thank you||Gindok en kardi (formal)|
En kardi (informal) (see Note 4)
|You are welcome||Daze kardami (formar)|
Kardami (informal) (see Note 5)
|I am sorry||Kupize ókda (formal)|
Kupók (informal) (see Note 6)
|What is your name?||Kis nomin'it?|
|My name is...||Nomin ega...|
|I do not understand.||He pewmize|
|Yes, I understand.||Áj, pewmize|
|Can you help me, please?||Évoszu egu, kupize kardami?|
|Where are the toilets?||Kodej twaletet?|
|Do you speak English?||Bazu anglanom?|
|I do not speak Keltsvian.||He baze keltsvanom.|
|I do not know.||He nokosoze|
|Left / right||Levos / Drektos|
|I am thirsty.||Terstis ege (see Note 7)|
|I am hungry.||Dimis ege (see Note 8)|
|How's it going?||Kalis tu?|
|I am fine.||Bilisik.|
|(How) may I help you?||Évoze twam?|
|She always closes the window
before she dines.
|Li ajves klawdozi luksu|
ku li kernazi.
|I need a doctor.||Nekeóze doktar|
|Colorless green ideas sleep furiously.||Ideáha gelu kivosas sesmizli furukom.|
|My hovercraft is full of eels.||Hoverkraf ega pletosok elususom.|
|My duck does not want to eat you.||Anat ega he vilmizi aknamoz tun.|
|I am the king of the chickens.||Eg krol pulula.|
|My husband's bed is full of black sand. Why?||Sponda vira ega pletosok benso dubo. Óki?|
|I shall ask these peasants who
are coming towards us, if the
road by which they have come is bad.
|Pirkiskosze vojgarar ej ká|
kivuduzli ahegeg, si put
apkodej zikuvudzli dusuk.
|Go and tell your master that
we have been charged by God
with a sacred quest.
|Vuduszu ač baszu potis'it|
kis kwesmozle dak apo Dew
ojn misi sanak.
- In Keltsvian language, morning is from 6.00 to 12.00, afternoon is from 12.00 to 18.00, evening is from 18.00 to 21.00 and night is from 21.00 to 6.00.
- It consists in a inflected form of the word dew (god) using the comitative case turning it into deo, meaning with God. When Keltsvians had a polytheistic pagan religion, their way to say goodbye was dewho which literally means with Gods.
- The formal version literally means I ask for it with the heart, so the verb has to be conjugated. The informal form is the most used and it does not required to be conjugated, it literally means with heart.
- The formal version literally means received in the heart, so the verb has to be conjugated. The informal form is the most used and it does not required to be conjugated, it literally means in the heart.
- The formal version literally means I give it with the heart, so the verb has to be conjugated. The informal form is the most used and it does not required to be conjugated, it literally means with heart.
- The formal version literally means I ask for forgiveness, so the verb has to be conjugated. The informal form is the most used and it does not required to be conjugated, it consist in a contraction of the formal form.
- It literally means thirst in me.
- It literally means hunger in me.
- Arés (Aries).
- Tavros (Taurus, literally bull).
- Émos (Gemini, literally twin).
- Karkros (Cancer, literally crab).
- Leva (Leo, literally lion).
- Libar (Libra).
- Skorpi (Scorpio, literally scorpion).
- Ofúg (Ophiuchus).
- Sagitar (Sagittarius).
- Gajdos (Capricorn, literally goat).
- Akwar (Aquarius).
- Pisg (Pisces, literally fish).
Keltsvian numerals follow a very straightforward pattern and once the numbers from one to ten are known and how they must be positioned when written, it is very easy to guess the rest. Thousands are separated using dots (.) and decimals using commas (,) and the same way to separate numbers with dots it is used to separate the words or the numeral particles and the conjunction ač separates the decimals.
- 0: sero.
- 1: ojn.
- 2: du.
- 3: tri.
- 4: kwetar.
- 5: penk.
- 6: sek.
- 7: sep.
- 8: ekt.
- 9: nojn.
- 10: dek.
- 11: dekojn.
- 12: dekdu.
- 13: dektri.
- 14: dekwetar.
- 20: dudek.
- 21: dudekojn.
- 22: dudekdu.
- 30: tridek.
- 40: kwetardek.
- 50: penkdek.
- 100: kemt
- 168: kemtsekdekekt.
- 732: sepkemtridekdu.
- 1.000: mil.
- 2.367: dumil trikemtsekdeksep.
- 1.000.000: miłon.
- 1.000.000.000: mil miłon (or miłart).
- 1.000.000.000.000: biłon.
- 2.345.678.901.234,56: dubiłon trikemtkwetardekpenkmil sekemtsepdekektmiłon nojnkemtojnmil dukemtridekwetar ač penkdeksek.
Ordinal numbers formation is done by taking the cardinal number and adding the suffix -i. To write it with the number you can just use the number +i, like 2i or 45i.
- 1st: ojni.
- 2nd: duj.
- 3rd: trihi.
- 4th: kwetari.
- 10th: deki.
- 20th: penkdeki.
- 100th: kemti.
- 726th: sepkemtdudekseki.
- 1,000,000th: miłoni.
Date and time
- sekun (second)
- minut (minute)
- hor (hour)
- doxos (day)
- week (sepxos)
- lun (month, literally moon)
- sawel (year, literally sun)
- penkel (lustrum, contraction of penk and sawel, five years)
- dekel (decade, contraction of dek and sawel, ten years)
- kemtel (century, contraction of kemt and sawel, one hundred years)
- milel (millenium, contraction of mil and sawel, one thousand years)
The first day of the week for Keltsvians is Monday, so the order is:
- Lunxos (contraction of Lun and doxos, day of the Moon)
- Marxos (contraction of Mars and doxos, day of Mars)
- Merkurxos (contraction of Merkur and doxos, day of Mercury)
- Úpixos (contraction of Úpitar and doxos, day of Jupiter)
- Venuxos (contraction of Venus and doxos, day of Venus)
- Saturxos (contraction of Satur and doxos, day of Saturn)
- Sawelxos (contraction of Sawel and doxos, day of the Sun)
Expression of date and time
The Keltsvian format for date and time is dd-mm-yyyy and hh.mm respectively. For time, they rarely use AM and PM.
When they write a date they use the ordinal number and the genitive form of the month, when they express the year they use the temporary inflection of the ordinal number and when they write the year they always use numerals. For example:
- 15th June 1991 would be 15i Úna 1991.
- The written form of the same date would be dekpenki Úna mil nojnkemtnojndekojne.
To express time, they don't use the form It's ten o'clock, the Keltsvian version would be we have ten hours (they always use the first person singular for expressing time). Examples:
- It's nine o'clock would be Avazle nojn hor.
- 00.00: sero hor (zero hours), dekdu hor lur noxte (twelve hours of the night) or noxte anduk (midnight).
- 05.05: penk ač penk (five and five).
- 06.10: sek ač ansek (six and one sixth).
- 07.13: sep ač dektri (seven and thirten)
- 08.15: ekt ač ankwetarak (eight and one quarter).
- 09.18: nojn ač dekekt (nine and eighteen).
- 10.20: dek ač du ansek (ten and two sixths).
- 11.30: dekojn ač anduk (eleven and one half).
- 12.00: dekdu hor (twelve hours) or doxos anduk (midday).
- 13.40: dektri ač kwetar ansek (thirteen and four sixths).
- 14.45: dekwetar ač tri ankwetarak (fourteen and three quarters).
- 15.50: dekpenk ač penk ansek (fifteen and five sixths).
- 16.59: deksek ač penkdeknojn (sixteen and fifty-nine).
Keltsvians express time in sixths for 10, 20, 40 and 50 minutes of the hour, in quarters for 15 and 45 minutes of the hour and in half for 30 minutes of the hour. For the rest of minutes they do not use any fraction. Not using fractions in time is technically correct but used only for scientific purposes to avoid confusion and simplifying the communication. It is also common for normal speech to say ankwetar hora (quarter of hour) instead of saying dekpenk minut (fifteen minutes) or penk ansek hora (five sixths of hour) instead of penkdek minut (fifty minutes).
Ita kom Dew kwamaózi dunomu, kis kudazi sinu'l ojnoku, ana oło tetahu kis kredezli lami, he nivinkozli liham, mo kávizli citu ajvotacaku.
The Lord's Prayer
kis esmozu kele;
nomin'it esmoszi sanak;
krolom'ot vuduszi ahegeg;
velmi't esmoszi fak
čare ač kele.
Daszu egegu zixose barsi doxosok;
ókdaszu dusu egega,
kalis ókdazle nemococ egega;
he lidmiszu egegu en dusu.
Dew pojmon ega;
ňoło kiňavazi ege.
Staneha grasasom xajsokom kidazi keésko egu;
En akuhu gike keéskoke kipojmonozi egu.
Kisedlazi etmin ega;
Kigidizi egu ana putut ústic amaósos nomina'l.
Mo vuduze klopnise donceloma xent,
He kágaraze dusu ňołok, óki tu egom;
Sipon'ot ač bakul'ut kidazli etmin egu.
Xajsoze sipel ega pitar aheg en esmo nemococa;
Akuze kapal ega solposos; kerun ega pletosok.
Verosokom bilis ač karžom késmoz ege doxosose ołoke citi ega,
Ač dome lur Dew kicitaze doxosose lingoke.
En ki gi ojn bamom kwesmozi bak čare ołoke.
Kodej zikuvuduzli ana ost, tetaha kuvivermizli lergo en regi Sinara, ač en gé kudomozli.
Ojn doxose kubazli alihi: "Kifazle ekmonon ač kipekozle liham eknise".
Ita kubruktisizli ekmonon mo he akmonon ač asfal mo he krami.
Ki kubazli: "Kifazle ojn blis miňaámi kis kirizi teni kele. Késmozli nokosok ač he késmozli stirnok čare".
Mo Her kupozli do okoz blis ač miňaj kis oło tetaha zikufazli ač kubazi lam: "Oło ojn fewt ač bazli ojn bamom; gi ojnom fi'lih ač oło kis kivelmizli faz kifazli.
Kúpozle do nipewmiz bamom'olih do lihi he kipewmizli liham".
Ita Her kustirnozi liham stana ej ana oło čar, ita he kufazli blis.
Fosi nomin blisa Babel, óki en stane ej kwesmozi kodej Her kunipewmizli bamom oło tetahoj ač apo kodej kustirnozi liham ana oło čar.
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Oło tetaha genomozli ludrosok ač somosok diknitami ač drektososom. Lihi kwaldazli argos ač komostis ač kágaszli altrosom etmine brotaroma.
The North Wind and The Sun
Gergo nortok ač Sawel kusetbazli ká kuki lihi kwesmozli belovokuk, óm kwokozli ambiremosar kis kuplinamajszi kape krotoke.
Kwakorozli kis ká kifazli ambiremosar núčizi kap, késmozi belovokuk.
Gergo nortok kugergozi belovom'ol ołokom; mo si belovokxekom kugergozi, ambiremosar kwegkelosozi belovokxekom kapom'ol.
Ita Sawel kweknisizi, ki, ambiremosa, xerokxek, kunúčizi kap.
Kita, gergo nortok kunokosozi kis Sawel kwesmoz belovokul.
Prayer of St. Francis
Her faszu egu kaplos paksa't.
kodej esmozi ožo, dasze amaó,
kodej esmozi dusu, dasze ókdu,
kodej esmozi nipewmi, dasze ojnom,
kodej esmozi dufa, dasze veros,
kodej esmozi okeó, dasze krede,
kodej esmozi nispes, dasze spes,
kodej esmozi doncel, dasze baos,
kodej esmozi krugos, dasze rada.
O Potis, kis he vermisze
esmoz dak keésko mo daz keésko,
esmoz pewmik mo pewmiz,
esmoz amaók mo amaóz.
Óki zidaz esmozu dak,
zihókdaz esmozu ókdak,
ač zixentiz koncitazu cite ajvotacake.