Conlang
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Khanic
H̱aní
Type Agglutinative
Alignment Nominative-accusative
Head direction left
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders no
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 0%
Statistics
Nouns 0%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 0%
Words ? of 1500
Creator Khingan

Khanic (H̱aní, [xaniː]) is a language isolate spoken by several nomadic tribes living in the Greater Khingan mountain range in the Manchuria Khanate of Khingan. With only 5,000 to 6,000 native speakers, it is considered a definitely endangered language. It is a recognized minority language in the Machuria Khanate of the Khingalese Confederation and efforts are being made to preserve the language, mainly by trying to textualize it and create reference grammars.

Classification and Dialects[]

Due to the lack of knowledge about the language it is believed to be a language isolate, meaning that there are no other languages related to it. However, some linguists argue that Khanic might related to the neighboring Mongolic languages, especially Mongolian and Manchu. Due to the tribes’ geographic locations, the Khanic language may consist of two main dialects: Eastern Khanic and Central Khanic.

Phonology[]

Consonants[]

Bilabial Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive p     b t     d k     g ʔ
Fricative ɸ s ʃ x
Affricate t͡s t͡ʃ k͡x
Approximant j w
Trill r
Lateral app. l
  • Before /k/, /g/, /x/ and /k͡x/, nasal consonants are realized as a velar [ŋ].
  • Between vowels, /r/ is often reduced to [ɾ].
  • At the end of a syllable or when geminated, /k/ is pronounced [q].
  • Before other consonants, /ɸ/ is realized labiodental ([f]).

Vowels[]

Front Back
High i u
Low a
  • The schwa can replace a vowel in unstressed syllables.

Diphthongs[]

Possible diphthongs in Khanic are /au/ and /ai/, which are pronounced [aɪ] and [aʊ], respectively.

Phonotactics[]

The syllable structure is as simple as (C)(C)V(C)(C), meaning that every syllable has to contain an obligatory nucleus in form of a vowel. Before and after it simple consonants or consonant clusters can occur. However, such clusters may only consist of an obstruent and a sonorant (for example /rt/).

Writing System[]

Letter a b g d i k l m n p r
Sound a b g d i k l m n p r
Letter s t u f z č š q y w
Sound s t u ɸ x t͡s t͡ʃ ʃ k͡x j w
Letter ' h
Sound ʔ h
  • Geminant consonants are written double.
  • Long vowels are written with an acute accent and overlong vowels with a double acute accent.

Grammar[]

Nouns[]

While lacking prepositions, Khanic makes extensive use of its case system. It features 10 cases, whose endings can be categorized into two declension groups. The usage of each declension group depends on the final sound of the respective noun. Apart from cases, Khanic nouns are inflected to show grammatical number, which is often marked through apophony or consonant mutation. The Khanic language does not distinguish between grammatical genders. All declension charts are based on the eastern dialect.

First Declension[]

Nouns belonging to the first declension group end in consonants. Plurality is often marked through vowel lengthening or gemination. The following chart shows the declension pattern of the nouns múd (= "tree") and agun (= "day"):

Singular Plural Meaning Usage
Nominative múd mut "the tree(s)" subject of a sentence
Accusative múdu muttu "the tree(s)" direct object of a sentence
Genitive múdin muttin "of the tree(s)" shows possession
Dative múdi mutti "the tree(s)" indirect object of a sentence
Instrumental múda mutta "with the tree(s)" the object being used to complete an action
Locative múdun muttun "at/on/by the tree(s)" shows location
Ablative múdurt mutturt "away from the tree(s)" shows movement away from something
Lative múdik muttik "to/towards the tree(s)" shows movement towards something
Perlative múdas muttas "along the tree(s)" shows movement via/along/through something
Temporal agunúk águnúk "on this/these day(s)" marks a certain point in time

Second Declension[]

Nouns belonging to the second declension group end in vowels. Plurality is often marked through vowel lengthening, apophony or consonant devoicing. The following chart shows the declension pattern of the nouns gara (= "house") and ini (= "nine"):

Singular Plural Meaning
NOM gara gari "the house(s)"
ACC garat garit "the house(s)"
GEN garan garin "of the house(s)"
DAT garak garik "the house(s)"
INST garatik garitik "with the house(s)"
LOC garas garis "at/on/by/in the house(s)"
ABL garaq gariq "away from the house(s)"
LAT garatu garitu "to/towards the house(s)"
PER garaz gariz "along/through the house(s)"
TEMP inikur Ø "at nine o'clock"

Verbs[]

Verbs in the Khanic languages are conjugated by person, number, tense, mood and aspect. Each tense, mood and aspect has their own ending added to the verb stem, making Khanic an agglutinative language

Tense[]

Khanic features three tenses: present, past and future. While conjugation by person is marked with a prefix, other features like tense or mood are marked with suffixes. Aspects, such as the perfective or progressive aspect, are shown by using auxiliary verbs. The following chart shows the conjugation of the verb sarta (= "to work") by person, number and tense in the indicative mood:

Present Sg. Pl. Past Sg. Pl. Future Sg. Pl.
1st person asarta nasartan asartu nasartun asarti nasartin
2nd person tasarta usartan tasartu usartun tasarti usartin
3rd person yasarta isartan yasartu isartun yasarti isartin

Mood[]

Verbs also feature what is called grammatical mood, which are used to express a speaker's attitude towards an action. While most moods can be used freely (for example, the subjunctive mood is used with imaginary or hypothetical actions), the conditional mood is exclusively used in conditional sentences. Lastly, the interrogative mood is used when asking questions. The following chart shows the conjugation of the verb míra (= "to eat") by person, number and mood in the present tense:

Subjunctive Sg. Pl. Conditional Sg. Pl. Interro. Sg. Pl.
1st person amírara namíraran amírasa namírasan amíraka namírakan
2nd person tamírara umíraran tamírasa umírasan tamíraka umírakan
3rd person yamírara imíraran yamírasa imírasan yamíraka imírakan

The indicative mood has no separate suffix.

Example: "John would eat if he were hungry." = Iban mírasa, fi urit baqara.[1]

As seen above, personal prefixes can be omitted if the subject of the sentence is obvious from the context. Furthermore, dependent clauses are always introduced with the subjunctive particle fi, which acts like English "if".

Aspect[]

In Khanic, like in English, aspect is signaled by auxiliary constructions. It distinguishes between two aspects: progressive and perfective. The progressive aspect marks an ongoing action, and the perfective aspect a completed action viewed as a whole (mostly of importance for the present). Both are indicated by using auxiliary verbs; una (= "to have") is used for the perfective aspect, and fara (= "to do") for the progressive aspect. The following chart shows the conjugation of the verb ya'a (= "to go") by person, number and aspect in the present tense:

Progressive Sg. Pl. Perfect Sg. Pl.
1st person afara ya'a nafaran ya'an ana ya'u nan ya'un
2nd person tafara ya'a ufaran ya'an tana ya'u únan ya'un
3rd person yafara ya'a ifaran ya'an yana ya'u ínan ya'un

As seen above, the progressive aspect uses the present tense suffixes while the perfective aspect uses past tense suffixes.

Example: "I have been at home all day." = Ana baqu garas agun úl.[2]

Syntax[]

Example[]

Márat úl ẖunadu ya árẖuttu ičil ínan. Šátiru y-uẖamsaru ínan baqun ttalu, ya raẖun súna karsa hamt istan.

[humans all dignity-ACC and rights-ACC same 3p-have-PRES-PL. reason-ACC and:conscience-ACC 3p-have-PRES-PL be-PST-PL give-PST, and brotherhood-GEN spirit-INST act-PRES together 3p-must-PRES-PL]

»All humans have equal dignity and rights. They have been given reason and conscience, and must act together in a spirit of brotherhood.«

— Article 1 of the Declaration of Human Rights

Annotations[]

  1. John eat-PRES-COND, if hungry be-PRES-SBJV
  2. 1s-have-PRES be-PST home-LOC day all
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