Name: Kitarian

Type: Agglutinative/fusional

Alignment: Nominative-accusative

Head Direction: Final

Number of genders: 2

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect

General information[]

The Kitarian language (Kitarian: kitjäärii njeef, IPA: [kʲicɑːʁiː ɲɛːf]) is a synthetic agglutinative/fusional language spoken in Siberia, north of Omsk and Novosibirsk. Kitarian has two numbers (singular and plural), two genders (masculine and feminine) and fourteen cases (see below). Verbs have three tenses (present, past and future), three moods (indicative, conditional and imperative) and two voices (active and passive).

Phonology and orthography[]



There are fourteen short vowels:

  • I i : [i] close front unrounded vowel
  • Ü ü : [y] close front rounded vowel
  • U u : [u] close back rounded vowel
  • Î î : [ɪ] near-close near-front unrounded vowel
  • Ů ů : [ʏ] near-close near-front rounded vowel
  • Û û : [ʊ] near-close near-back rounded vowel
  • É é : [e] close-mid front unrounded vowel
  • Ö ö : [ø] close-mid front rounded vowel
  • Ë ë : [ɤ] close-mid back unrounded central vowel
  • O o : [o] close-mid back rounded central vowel
  • E e : [ɛ] open-mid front unrounded vowel
  • A a : [a] open front unrounded vowel
  • Ä ä : [ɑ] open back unrounded vowel
Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i [i] ü [y] u [u]
Near-close î [ɪ] ů [ʏ] û [ʊ]
Close-mid é [e] ö [ø] ë [ɤ] o [o]
Open-mid e [ɛ]
Open a [a] ä [ɑ]


Near-close vowels do not occur as long vowels and so Kitarian has ten long vowels which are represented by double-letters:

  • II ii : [iː] long close front unrounded vowel
  • ÜÜ üü : [yː] long close front rounded vowel
  • Uu uu : [uː] long close back rounded vowel
  • ÉÉ éé : [eː] long close-mid front unrounded vowel
  • ÖÖ öö : [øː] long close-mid front rounded vowel
  • ËË ëë : [ɤː] long close-mid back unrounded central vowel
  • OO oo : [oː] long close-mid back rounded central vowel
  • EE ee : [ɛː] long open-mid front unrounded vowel
  • AA aa : [aː] long open front unrounded vowel
  • ÄÄ ää : [ɑː] long open back unrounded vowel
Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close ii [iː] üü [yː] uu [uː]
Close-mid éé [eː] öö [øː] ëë [ɤː] oo [oː]
Open-mid ee [ɛː]
Open aa [aː] ää [ɑː]


Kitarian has thirty-four consonants:

  • B b : [b] voiced bilabial plosive
  • D d : [d] voiced alveolar plosive
  • DJ dj : [ɟ] voiced palatal plosive
  • DZ dz : [d͡z] voiced alveolar affricate
  • DZY dzy : [d͡ʒ] voiced palato-alveolar affricate
  • DZY dzy : [d͡ʑ] voiced alveolo-palatal affricate
  • F f : [f] voiceless labiodental fricative
  • G g : [ɡ] voiced velar plosive
  • H h : [ħ] voiceless pharyngeal fricative
  • J j : [j] palatal approximant
  • K k : [k] voiceless velar plosive
  • KH kh : [x] voiceless velar fricative
  • L l : [l] alveolar lateral approximant
  • LJ lj : [ʎ] palatal lateral approximant
  • M m : [m] bilabial nasal
  • N n : [n] alveolar nasal
  • NJ nj : [ɲ] palatal nasal
  • P p : [p] voiceless bilabial plosive
  • R r : [ʁ] voiced uvular fricative
  • S s : [s] voiceless alveolar sibilant
  • SY sy : [ʃ] voiceless palato-alveolar fricative
  • SY sy : [ɕ] voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant
  • T t : [t] voiceless alveolar plosive
  • TJ tj : [c] voiceless palatal plosive
  • C c : [t͡s] voiceless alveolar affricate
  • CY cy : [t͡ʃ] voiceless palato-alveolar affricate
  • CY cy : [t͡ɕ] voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate
  • V v : [v] voiced labiodental fricative
  • W w : [w] voiced labio-velar approximant
  • Y y : [ʝ] voiced palatal fricative
  • Z z : [z] voiced alveolar fricative
  • ZY zy : [ʒ] voiced palato-alveolar fricative
  • ZY zy : [ʑ] voiced alveolo-palatal sibilant
  • [ʔ] glottal stop


  • A glottal stop, [ʔ], often appears between adjacent vowels, e.g. "kiääm", [kʲiʔɑːm] ("snake").
  • Short vowels are palatalised, [ʲ], when following most consonants.
  • The consonants [ɟ], [ħ], [c], [ʝ], [j], [ʎ], [ɲ], [ʁ] and [ʔ] are not palatalised.
  • When [ʒ] is palatised it becomes [ʑ].
  • When [ʃ] is palatised it becomes [ɕ].
  • When [d͡ʒ] is palatised it becomes [d͡ʑ].
  • When [t͡ʃ] is palatised it becomes [t͡ɕ].
  • A final [ʝ] or [j] is realised as [ʲ].
Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal [m] [n] [ɲ]
Plosive [p] [b] [t] [d] [c] [ɟ] [k] [g] [ʔ]
Fricative [f] [v] [s] [z] [ʃ] [ʒ] [ʝ] [x] [ʁ] [ħ]
Approximant [j]
Flap or tap
Lateral fricative
Lateral approximant [l] [ʎ]
Lateral flap
Affricates [t͡s] [d͡z] [t͡ʃ] [d͡ʒ]


Kitarian has fourteen cases:

  1. Nominative
  2. Accusative
  3. Genitive
  4. Inessive
  5. Elative
  6. Illative
  7. Adessive
  8. Ablative
  9. Allative
  10. Essive
  11. Abessive
  12. Instrumental
  13. Comitative
  14. Ornative


In Kitarian articles are indeclinable.

masculine feminine plural
indefinite öö ää eel
definite noo naa iil


Nouns can have either masculine or feminine gender and can be either singular or plural. Masculine nouns end in -consonant, -i, -î, -o, -ö, -û and -ů. Feminine nouns end in -a, -ä, -e, -ë, -é, -u and ü.

masculine (-C) masculine (-V) feminine (-V)
nominative gääl (fish) kiidjö (snake) eema (mother)


indicative singular plural
present 1st person
2nd person
3rd person
past 1st person
2nd person
3rd person
future 1st person
2nd person
3rd person
conditional singular plural
present 1st person
2nd person
3rd person
past 1st person
2nd person
3rd person
imperative singular plural