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Kobot /kobot/ is the native language of the Sylaf people in the provinces of Katšjat, Lija, Nogafê, and Oarıetamf and an official language of the Sylaf Republic, an island nation in the Indian Ocean. It is classified as a Lako-Subric language. Kobot is notable for its agglutinative grammar and its sampling of many European, Asian, and Lako-Subric languages, notably Norwegian, Kobot, and Italian. It is the closest relative to Randot

Name: Kobot

Type: Agglutinative

Alignment: Nominative-Accusative

Head Direction:

Number of genders: 0

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect

General information[]

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes
Nouns No Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No No Yes No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

Geographic distribution[]

Official status[]

Kobot is the former lingua franca and one of ten official languages of the Sylaf Republic. There are two main dialects: one spoken in the regions of Katšjat and Oarıêtamf (the standardized version), and one spoken on the island of Kobonî. The Katšjat dialect was previously the national language until the presidency of Porvo Koljobarātan. It is now mainly spoken as a second language by all on Sadhak (except for Katšjat, where it is the primary language, and Morkovo, where it is in equal usage with Randot), a first (mainly elders) or second language in the southern Sylaf islands (100% of the population over 15 speaks it fluently), and as a minority language in the north (only 80% of the population speaks it fluently, compared to 95% fluency in Randot). It is taught in all schools in the beginner levels, but is phased out in favor of more popular foreign languages in schools by age 8. There are three national newspapers in Kobot, compared to 5 in Porvojy Randot. The regulatory body for the language is the International House of the Kobot Language and Southern Sylaf Culture (Înterńavi Husek Kobot Lińgivez os Suvu Sîlâf Tacafaz)


There are two main dialects spoken in the Sylaf Republic. They are

  • Katšjat dialect (djalak kat'jatiz), the initial basis of Standard Kobot, and
  • Kobonî dialect (djalek kobonîz).



The following are phonemic transcriptions of Rangyan consonants.

Consonant phonemes
Labial Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Alveolo-palatal Palatal Velar Uvular Phrayngeal Glottal
Nasal mʰ m mʲ nʰ n nʲ ŋʰ ŋ ŋʲ
Stop pʰ bʰ p b pʲ bʲ tʰ dʰ t d tʲ dʲ cʰ ɟʰ c ɟ cʲ ɟʲ kʰ gʰ k g gʲ gʲ ɢʰ ɢ ɢʲ
Sibilant Fricative sʰ zʰ s z sʲ zʲ ʃ ʒ ʂ ʐ ɕ ʑ
Non-sibilant Fricative fʰ vʰ f v fʲ vʲ θʰ ðʰ θ ð θʲ ðʲ ʝ xʰ x xʲ ʁʰ ʁ ʁʲ h hʲ
Flap ɾʰ ɾ ɾʲ
Approximant ɹʰ ɹ ɹʲ j
Lateral Approximant ɫ l lʲ
ɖʐ ʤ dʑ t͡sʰ t͡s t͡sʲ
Co-articulated Consonants
w ʍ



Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i y u
Near-close ɪ
Close-mid e ø o
Mid ə
Open-mid ɔ
Open a


In the Kobot language, because semivowels /j/ and /w/ may follow consonants in initial position in a word, they are sometimes considered to be elements of diphthongs and triphthongs rather than separate consonant phonemes.

j- w-
ja wa
je we
jo wo
ju wu
jy wy


j- w-
jɔɪ wɔɪ
jaɪ waɪ
jeɪ weɪ
jəɪ wəɪ
joɪ woɪ
jøɪ wøɪ
juɪ wuɪ
jyɪ wyɪ


Kobot uses a Latin alphabet. The alphabet is mostly phonetic, where letters have one sound depending on their position in the word. Two accents are used: the acute on consonants (´) and the circumflex on vowels (ˆ). An apostrophe is used when the encoding does not allow the acute accent to appear properly. Several special symbols appear and serve a purpose, but are not counted as letters.

Letter IPA
A a ɔ
B b b
C c q
C' c' t͡s
Ç ç ɟ
Ḉ ḉ c
D d d
D' d' ð
E e e
F f f
G g g
G' g' ʤ
H h h
H' h' ħ
I i i
J j j
K k k
K' k' x
L l l
L' l' lj
M m m
N n n
Ń ń ɲ (initial, medial), ŋ (final)
O o o
P p p
R r ɹ
Ŕ ŕ ɾ
Ř ř ʁ
S s s
S' s' ʃ
T t t
T' t' ʧ
U u u
V v v
W w w
W' w' ʍ
X x θ
Z z z
Z' z' ʒ
 â a
Ê ê ə
Î î ɪ
Ô ô ø
Y y y
Symbol Purpose
h' Aspirates a consonant when following one.
ê Palatalizes a consonant at the end of a word.
Denotes /ə/ at the end of a word. Handwritten as "êê" by the elders of Sadhak and the natives of Kobonî, but written "ẽ" by younger people.
ı Because two accented letters cannot appear next to each other or at the end of a word, this symbol denotes the existence of a special letter before or after it.
ĵ Palatalizes a consonant in the middle of a word.
q Represents "ç" at the end of a word. "qı" represents ḉ at the end of a word.

Using ı[]

Orthographic rules state that two letters with accent marks or apostrophes cannot be next to each other. Vowels must always be accented to show their pronunciation, so the symbol "ı" is used as the apostrophe either before or after a consonant. It is only placed before a consonant if either the letter "i" or "î" succeeds the consonant to make the orthography less confusing.

Letters Orthography Example
Two consonants with apostrophes
a vowel with a circumflex and a consonant with an apostrophe
First letter keeps the circumflex/apostrophe, second letter is followed by "ı". k' + z' = k'zı
â + z' = âzı
A circumflexed vowel followed by two letters with apostrophes Vowel keeps the accent, first consonant is followed by "ı", second consonant keeps the apostrophe. ê + g' + s' = êgıs'
A consonant with an apostrophe is followed by î The consonant is preceded with "ı". l' + î = ılî
Two consonants with apostrophes preceded by i or î. Vowel remains the same, first consonant is followed by "ı", second consonant keeps the apostrophe. i + c' + n' = icın'
Two consonants with apostrophes followed by i or î. First vowel keeps apostrophe, second vowel is preceded by "ı", vowel remains the same. c' + z' + i = c'ızi
Two consonants with apostrophes with i or î in between. First consonant is preceded by "ı", vowel remains the same, second consonant is followed by "ı" k' + î + z' = ıkîzı

Apostrophes cannot appear at the end of a word. "ı" is used instead.


Stress is free, but most popularly is placed on the first or second syllable.


Connecting Vowels[]

To connect the cases, grammatical numbers, articles, and demonstrative pronouns to a word more easily when lacking a vowel at the beginning or end of a word, a vowel is added that corresponds to the vowel in the syllable of the noun before or after the extension.

Preceding/Succeeding Vowel Connecting Vowel
a î
e i
i e
o î
u e
â e
ê u
î o
ô a
y ô

When the letter ê is used at the end of a word, but a suffix is added, it changes to "a", rather than be dropped or changed to "ĵ".

Word classes and phrase classes[]


Kobot is a partially agglutinative language. There are no genders, but there is grammatical number and articles. These are attached at different points of the noun. There are numerous noun and prepositional cases whose places in a word vary.

Duals are made by adding "tan" to the end of a noun. Plurals are made by adding "n" to the end of a noun.

Singular Dual Plural
hus husetan husen
h'eritê h'eritatan h'eritan
vig' vig'etan vig'en

Noun Cases[]

Kobot has 38 noun cases, most of them being prepositional. Two of these are used with time phrases. A case is added by inserting one or several letters into the word's nominative case. There are three possible places a case segment can be placed: at the beginning of the word, before the grammatical number, or at the end of the word. The three positions are denoted in the chart below, respectively, as "beginning", "middle", and "end".

Case Position Segment Example with "husenik" (the houses) Example with "dali" (song)
Accusative Middle -m- huseminek dalim
Dative Middle -v- husevinek daliv
Genitive Middle -z- husezinek daliz
Partitive Middle -bi- husebinek dalibi
Abessive Beginning sam lejh' ç- sam lejh' çehusenik sam lejh' çîdali
Ablative Beginning s- sehusenik sîdali
Adessive Beginning r- rehusenik rîdali
Allative Beginning l- lehusenik lîdali
Apudessive-Left Beginning vasen bamĵ- vasen bamĵehusenik vasen bamıjîdali
Apudessive-Right Beginning hôre bamĵ- hôre bamĵehusenik hôre bamıjîdali
Comitative Beginning gom... gom husenik gom dali
Delative Beginning d- dehusenik dîdali
Elative Beginning bh'a- bh'ahusenik bh'adali
Essive Beginning and End as' n- -lẽ dif
Illative Beginning huj- hujehusenik hujîdali
Inessive Beginning and Middle k- -p- kehusepinek kîdalip
Intrative Middle -tt- husettinek dalitt
Locative Beginning n- nehusenik nîdali
Pertingent Beginning zd-/z- zdehusenik zdali
Prolative Middle -(v)imm- husimmenik dalivimm
Subessive Beginning kh'- kh'ehusenik kıhîdali
Superessive End -kma husenikkma dalikma
Temporal Beginning and End as' n- -bb dif
Ablative Beginning and Middle stalê -stala- husestalanîk stalê dalistala
Adverbial Beginning and Middle dumẽ -dumê- dumẽ husedumênuk dumẽ dalidumẽ
Aversive End -li husenikeli dalili
Casual Beginning and Middle per -(k')ed- per husek'edinek per dalik'ed
Comparitive Middle -mik- husemikenik dalimik
Egressive End -lê husenikelê dalilê
Semblative End -plu husenikeplu daliplu
Terminative Middle -kĵu- husekĵunek dalikĵu
Translative Middle -lô- huselônak dalilô
Vocative Middle -jy- husejynôk dalijy
Diminutive Beginning and Middle koli -hi- koli husehinek koli dalihi
Antidiminutive Beginning and Middle kapi -po- kapi huseponîk kapi dalipo

Pronouns and Articles[]

Kobot is notable for its use of the infinite fourth person, rather than a standard three-person system.

Person Number Gender Nominative (Personal) Dative (Reflexive) Genitive (Possesive) Reciprocal
First Single Male/Female Kon Kone Kon Nîkon
First Dual Male/Female/Mixed Konat Konate Kon Nîkonat
First Plural Male/Female/Mixed Katı Kat'e Kon Nîkatı
Second Single Male/Female Du Due Dua Nedu
Second Dual Male/Female/Mixed Duvibân Duvie Dua Neduvibân
Second Plural Male/Mixed Rôs Ôrse Dua Narôs
Second Plural Female Rosa Ôrsa Dua Nîrosa
Third Single Male Vaj Vica Nevâ
Third Single Female Vi Vie Vica Nevi
Third Dual Male/Female/Mixed Kac'i Kac'e Vica Nîkac'i
Third Plural Male/Mixed Vâs Vaje Vica Nevâs
Third Plural Female Vis Vise Vica Nevis
Fourth Single Unspecific Ava Ave Aventi Nava
Fourth Dual Unspecific Avas Avani Aventi Naventi
Fourth Plural Unspecific Avi Avie Aventi Navi

Reflexive Pronouns These are the accusative declensions of the pronouns.

Nominative Accusative
Kon Kone
Konat Konate
Katı Kat'e
Du Due
Duvibân Duvie
Rôs Ôrse
Rosa Ôrsaje
Vi Vie
Kac'i Kac'e
Vâs Vaje
Vis Vise
Ava Ave
Avas Avase
Avi Avie

Interrogative Pronouns

Who - Mej
What - Ke
When - Kw'andi
Where - Ondej
Why - Miksi
How - Kak
How many - Vanti

Relative Pronouns

Who - Kôgi
What - Kôgi
When - Kôgi
Where - Kôgi
Why - Kôgi
How - Kôgi
How many - Kôgi

Indefinite Pronouns (these function as adjectives)

some - lego
all - todo
few - byni
several - kilo
each - sepe

Demonstrative Pronouns and Articles[]

These are connected after the case.

k - definite article t - indefinite article x - those (far) l - those (close) g' - these


Verbs are classified into 4 infinitive endings: -a, -o, -y, and -î. They are conjugated by tense, mood, and infinitive ending, but do not by person or number. There are several moods; the most commonly used moods are: indicative, hypothetical, conditional, subjunctive, and imperative.

Indicative Mood Conjugations[]

-a -o -y
Present ati oti yt ît
Future avara ovara yvê îvê
Simple Preterite azı ozı yzı îzı
Pluperfect ası osı ymi îmi
Present Perfect ala olo ylô îlo
Imperfect ask osk ysk îsk

Hypothetical and Conditional Mood Conjugations[]

These two moods are often paired.

-a -o -y
Hypothetical adẽ odẽ ydẽ îdio
Conditional aıdilê oıdilê ydıôlê îdıole

Subjunctive Mood Conjugations[]

-a -o -y
Present ata ota ytve îtve
Future aska oska ysve îsve
Imperfect avaro ovaro yvez'e îvez'e

Imperative Mood Conjugations[]

-a -o -y
Affirmative at ot yti îti
Negative ikı -at ikı -ot ikı -yti ikı -îti

Additional Mood Suffixes[]

Connected with the proper vowel either before (in the Kobonî dialect) or after (in the standard dialect) the imperative verb. Those who are attached to the subjunctive form of the verb are marked with an asterisk (*).

Mood Suffix
Deductive* hyx
Deliberative xuc
Desiderative* vus
Dubitative zêsı
Necessitative* z'it
Optative* gıôpe
Permissive řẽ
Propositive sivi
Speculative d'ola


-a -o -y
ar'po or'po yr'pen îrılıân


There are no copulas in Kobot, due to the extensive noun cases.


Kobot adjectives (except noun adjuncts) end in either -a, -i, -o, or -u. They can be pluralized as, respectively, -i, -a, -e, and -o. They appear before the noun as a separate word (even with cases attached), resulting in only a partial agglutinative language. Noun adjuncts are formed by adding the proper connecting vowel without a consonant, and are pluralized by adding a connecting vowel and z to the end.

Adjective order[]

In the Kobot language, attributive adjectives usually occur in this default order, with other orders being permissible:

  1. noun adjunct (noun used as adjective)
  2. proper adjective (e.g. nationality, origin, material)
  3. intensifier (adverb of degree)
  4. color
  5. shape
  6. age
  7. opinion
  8. size
  9. head noun


dîNokia Suoma vagi bla obliko lyve siate niame nitelefonînog'
"on these very good old small Finnish black rectangular cell phones from Nokia"

Noun adjunct Proper adjective Intensifier Color Shape Age Opinion Size Case Head Noun Plural Demonstrative
from Nokia
cell phone

Comparative and Superlative[]

The comparative adjective is vaga (pl. vagi). The superlative is mos'to (pl. mos'te).


Vaga iso hundex folıâritemikeg'.
"That dog is bigger than this bird."

Comparative Adjective Nominative Noun Demonstrative Pronoun or Article Comparative Noun Comparative Case Demonstrative Pronoun or Article
compared to

Mos'to iso hundex.
"That dog is the biggest."

Superlative Adjective Nominative Noun


Adverbs describe verbs, and are connected to the verb beforehand, with a connecting consonant (k following a, m following e, p following i, v following o, and k' following u). Adverbs and adjectives are the exact same words (ex. w'imo is both fast and fastly).


Viripiavara kon lîloz'a.
"I quickly went to the store."

Adverb Connecting Consonant Verb Infinitive Past Tense Subject Allative Case Object Article





Particles in Kobot are merely colloquial and are of free usage, but mostly are put at the beginning or end of exclamations. The most common are siatet, vapoli, and t'ajrio.


Kobot numerals are made of single-syllable clusters of one consonant followed by a vowel. There are ten clusters, one for each digit, which can be combined in the order of increasing place value (ones, tens, hundreds, etc.).

Basic numbering[]

There are two ways of writing the numbers in Rangyan, in Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3) or in Chinese numerals (一, 二, 三). The Arabic numerals are more often used in horizontal writing, and the Chinese numerals are more common in vertical writing.

Digit Cluster
1 nu
3 h'y
5 ba
6 çu
7 c'ê
8 da
9 t'o
0 ki

The number 66 (çuçu) is considered lucky in Kobot, is a homophone for pepper, seen in the native religions as a tool used by the devil to burn the eyes of sinners (much of Sylaf cuisine lacks pepper). The number 490 (kit'oxî) is considered lucky, since it sounds similar to the word for rabbit (kitod'i), an animal considered lucky. The number 14 (xînu) is also unlucky, since it sounds like the word for black hole (xin'u).

Number   Kobot
11   nunu
17   c'enu
151   nubanu
302   lôkih'y
469   t'oçuxî
2025   balôkilô

Decimal fractions[]

The word "pont" is used to separate the decimal's numbers from the whole number.

Number Kobot
10-1 (0.1) nupontki
10-2 (0.01) nukipontki

Fractional values[]

A fraction can be written one of two ways. The numerator could appear first, with the denominator (declined into superessive case) following it, or the denominator could appear first, with the numerator (declined into subessive case) following it.

Fraction Kobot
2/3 lô h'ykma/h'y kh'alô
3 5/6 ba çukma/h'y kh'îba os h'y

Ordinal numbers[]

Ordinal numbers are formed by adding tajzı after the cluster

Ordinal Kobot
1st nutajzı
32nd h'ylôtajzı

Negative numbers[]

Negative numbers are formed by adding sy after the number.

Word Order[]

Standard Kobot generally uses a VSO word order, especially in informal situations. In Kobonî Kobot, the VSO word order is used in questions, but an SOV word order is used in general statements. In formal situations and formal speeches in both emails, a VOS word order is used instead.


L'okavara du oguimek?
"Did you take the cup?"


L'okavara du oguimek.
"You took the cup." (informal Standard)

L'oka vara du ogui m ek
take past tense you cup accusative definite article

L'okavara oguimek du?
"You took the cup" (formal Standard)

L'oka vara ogui m ek du
take past tense cup accusative definite article you

Du oguimek l'okavara.
"You took the cup" (informal Kobonî)

du ogui m ek l'oka vara
you cup accusative definite article take past tense


The Vitu method of cyrillisation vituz siric'i, designed for Bosnian-Sylafs, is the official standard of rendering Kobot in Cyrillic letters. It is the colloquial orthography, but not the official orthography, of the island of Kobonî. Cyrillic Kobot is written in only capital letters.

Letter Cyrillic
A a А
B b В
C c Ќ
C' c' Ц
Ç ç Ҙ
Ç' ç' Ҫ
D d Д
D' d' Ԁ
E e Е
F f Ф
G g Ґ
G' g' Џ
H h Х
H' h' Г
I i І
J j Ј
K k К
K' k' Ҳ
L l Л
L' l' Љ
M m М
N n Н
N' n' Њ
O o О
P p П
R r Р
R' r' R
Ř ř Ѓ
S s С
S' s' Ш ш
T t Т т
T' t' Ч ч
U u У
V v Ҩ
W w Ў
W' w' Ұ
X x Ө
Z z З
Z' z' Ӟ
 â Ӓ
Ê ê Ё
Î î Ї
Ô ô Ӧ
Y y Ӱ
Symbol Purpose
h' Ъ
ê/ĵ Ь
ı not used


Example texts[]

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Article 1)[]

"All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights."
Libri os imih'asaxe nedignit os nelibertin loz'ejat tode peson.

Libri os imih'asaxe ne dignit os ne libert in loz'eja t tode peso on
Free and equal in dignity and in rights plural born present tense all person plural

"They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood."
Gom razo os cansianti gahyt vis os bradaz nukimacît hablîtoz'it levis.

Gom razo os cansianti gahy t vis os bradaz n ukimac ît hablî t oz'it nevis
comitative case reason and conscience endow present tense us and brother locative case attitude/spirit indefinite article act present tense necessitative mood each other

Featured banner[]

"This language was once featured."
furtado lingvag'

furtado lingva g'
feature language this

"Thanks to its level of quality, plausibility and usage capabilities, it has been voted as featured."
Per kac'i zalamited kinobařatik'ed os udaz vabafrodar'edin, furtadovara vi.

Per kac'i zalamit ed kinobařati k'ed os uda z vadafrdar' ed in furtado vara vi
casual case opener kac'i its zalamit quality (n) ed casual case closer kinobařati plausability k'ed casual case closer os and uda use (n) z noun adjunct vadafrdar' capability ed casual case closer in plural furtado to feature vara past tense vi it