Lanquanese [IPA: læ̹ŋkʷəˈniːz] is a Romance language spoken by about 2.5 million people. Its vocabulary resembles that of the French language, though Lanquanese is almost mutually unintelligible to that of spoken French. However, when spoken at normal speed, the lanuage can easily perceived to be Italian, and many Lanquanese words resemble written Italian words. Lanquanese is a synthetic language, just as are Latin, French, Spanish, Romanian, and German. Out of Latin's three grammatical genders‒‒masculine, feminine, and neuter‒‒Lanquanese has preserved two‒‒masculine and feminine. Like Spanish, distinguishing between genders is not an arduous task, as it often can be in French or Romanian. There are no cases that are formed with endings tacked on the to end of a noun, as nouns are the used in their nominative form‒‒the standard‒‒wherever they may be placed in a sentence. Lanquanese verbs are conjugated by person, number, and gender, as well as by tense/mood and voice. Nouns are declined by number and gender, and the like is also applied to adjectives.
Head Direction: Initial
Number of genders: 2
Lanquanese is the official language in the country of Lanquania. It is broken up into two medium-sized islands and four small isles and located off the west coast of France and north coast of Spain. With almost 2.5 million people speaking it as their mother tongue, the only other official language is French. The language is also a minority language in parts of Andorra, though particularly in the French coastal region of Bordeaux. Lanquania is made up of ten states: Zacchè, Ghegna, Vacherta, Quartello, Bellagio, Monatagia, Marcetti, Iloquella, La Mezza, and Gnello. The water from the Bay of Biscay, which surrounds the nation, forms the Quanagella River, cutting the nation into two islands, dividing it in half. Lez Arge, the famous Lanquanian mountain range, sets the boundary between Bellagio and Monatagia. All the coastal land surrounding the entire nation makes for wonderful beaches during the summer with warm temperatures, especially in the peninsular state of Gnello, "the Beach State", which prides itself for its crystal clear waters. Lanquania's major exports are granite from Lez Arge, emeralds and sapphires mined from Zacchè and Iloquella, and milk from Orgêssio. "The Cow State" milk is supposedly the creamiest and tastiest due to the upbringing of their cattle and the lush pasture on which they graze. The capital city of Lanquania, Delana, is found in the south of Bellagio and is a two hour drive to Lez Arge. It is also located on the Clearwater Lake, which leads into the Quanagella River. Ferries that cross the Quanagella are often taken from the other half of Lanquania to reach Delana.
Alphabet and Phonology
The Lanquanese alphabet is made up of 40 letters, many of which may be perceived to speakers of English as two letters combined. However, in Lanquanese, these so-called double letters are actually one letter. While they head their own section in a dictionary, both letters are not placed in the same spot in activities such as crossword puzzles or word searches. Unlike other languages, particularly Latin ones, there are no loan letters. All the letters of the Lanquanese alphabet are completely Lanquanese, though some are used more than others. Lanquanese is read just as it looks.
Aa Bb Cc CHch CIci CEce CYcy Dd Ee Ff Gg GHgh GIgi GEge GYgy GNgn GUgu Hh Ii Jj Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp QUqu Rr Ss SGIsgi Tt Uu Vv Ūū Xx XHxh XIxi XExe XYxy Zz ZZzz Yy
There are 35 consonants in Lanquanese, seen in normal fontface in the chart above. However, only 33 of those are true consonants due to the fact that two of the consonants are actually semi-vowels. These semi-vowels can be seen italicized in the same chart. In Lanquanese, most consonants have the same sound as they would in English. These would be Bb, Dd, Ff, Hh, Ll, Mm, Nn, Pp, QUqu, Ss, Tt, Vv, and Zz. However, there are quite a few consonants that would not always be pronounced the way an English speaker might think:
|English:||cat||chemist||ciabatta||cello||like CIci||gum||ghetto||fusion||rouge||like GIgi|
- It is good to keep in mind that the vowels in CIci, CEce, GYgy, XExe, etc. can change pronunciation when diacritics are placed on them following the rules that that particular vowel follows.
There are also characters in Lanquanese which are not letters in the alphabet, yet are used nonetheless. Two of these have diacritic marks on them: the cedilla on the Cc and the dash on the Hh.
|Letter||SGIsgi OR SGEsge||Çç||Ħħ|
|English:||A light sh as in chef or hush||check||Bach|
Here is a table of all the sounds that exist in Lanquanese using the International Phonetic Alphabet:
|Flaps / taps||ɾ|
Here is how these IPA letters are represented in Lanquanese. If the letter seem in the box above is not seen in the chart below, this signifies that it has the same sound in Lanquanese.
|ɟ = ghi + vwl.||ʒ = g + e, i, or y||
ɲ = gn; nj; ni + vwl.
|ɬ = l in final position||ʍ = h + u or ū||c = ch + i + vwl.||ʎ = lj; li + vwl.|
|q = cħ||x = 'ħ||ŋ = n + c, g, or q||ɦ = h||ɱ = m/n + f or v||ʃ = sg + i or e||ɢ = l + g|
|ç = vwl. + h + vwl.||ʟ = l + cons.||ɥ = û + vwl.||ɾ = vwl. + r + vwl.|
Lanquanese has 6 vowels, seen in bold as in the alphabet chart above, and two semi-vowels, seen in italics in the same chart. Sometimes, when placed before or after another vowel, Ii and Uu can act as semivowels, though technically they are not. All 6 vowels can have diacritics on them, which either change the stress placed on them, alter their pronunciation, or do both. There are 4 diacritics that can be placed on them: the acute (´), the grave (`), the circumflex (^), or the diæresis (¨). In general, the acute diacritic changes stress, the grave changes stress, pronunciation or both, the circumflex changes stress, pronunciation, or both, and the diæresis changes lengthens the value of the vowel.
|Front||Near front||Central||Near back||Back|
Here is a chart that shows the sounds of all vowels, with and without diacritics, from the IPA. Notice that the grave and circumflex serve the same purpose, but that the grave is placed at the end of a word and the circumflex is placed elsewhere. Also note that when letters with the grave are placed within a word and when letters with a circumflex are placed outside a word, the stress shifts.
|Aa = /a/||Áá = /a/*||Àà = /a/*||Ââ = /a/*||Ää = /aː/|
|Ee = /e/||Éé = /e/*||Èè = /ɛ/; /ɛ/*†||Êê = /ɛ/; /ɛ/*†||Ëë = /eː/|
|Ii = /i/||Íí = /i/*||Ìì = /i/||Îî = /i/||Ïï = /iː/|
|Oo = /o/||Óó = /o/*||Òò = /ɔ/; /ɔ/*†||Ôô = /ɔ/; /ɔ/*†||Öö = /oː/|
|Uu = /u/||Úú = /u/*||Ùù = /y/; /y/*†||Ûû = /y/; /y/*†||Üü = /uː/|
|Yy = /ə/ or /ɪ/*||Ýý = /ɪ/*||Ỳỳ = /ə/ or /ɪ/*||Ŷŷ = /ə/ or /ɪ/*||Ÿÿ = /əː/ or /ɪː/*|
- This denotes that the letter is normally stressed. When two or more letters that denote stress are in the same word, the second one takes the stress.
- †This denotes that this takes place only when (I) the grave is at the middle or beginning of a word or (II) the circumflex is at the end of a word.
Here is a chart to show how to pronounce the IPA characters:
|IPA||English Equivalent||IPA||English Equivalent|
|/e/||café without 'y' sound at end||/ɪ/||ripped|
|/o/||boat without 'w' sound at end||/ɔ/||cross between done and don|
|/u/||loot||/y/||as in French tu|
There are many consonant clusters allowed in Lanquanese that are not permissible in English. Likewise, the two languages also share a bunch of permissible clusters. Here is a table which shows permissible Lanquanese consonant clusters with examples:
|Cluster + Example||Cluster + Example||Cluster + Example||Cluster + Example|
|bl = blûr||fr = fròliquer||sb = sbaglia||sp = spigotta|
|br = brije||gl = glisser||sc = scojer||spl = splën|
|cl = clûbbo||gr = grande||scl = escluir||spr = sprër|
cn = cnôba
|hr = hrinoser||scr = scritto||
squ = squaloppi
|cr = crù||mn = mnúpai||sf = sforzo||st = starnutar|
|cs = Cazacstan||ng = ângulo||sfr = sfringolar||str = strïtto|
|ct = correctar||pj = pje||sg = sgeir||sv = svêta|
|dj = radjo||pl = plover||sh = eshaleir||th = thigua|
|dl = ladlo||pn = pneū||sj = sjuro||tl = atlazzo|
|dr = cudrer||pr = prûno||sl = sluir||tr = traduir|
|dz = dzia||ps = psichir||sm = smogyrar||vr = vrijer|
|fl = flïr||pt = septa||sn = snorir|
Stress in Lanquanese is fairly basic. Unlike other Romance languages, such as Romanian or Italian, stress is never irregular. It is always either marked with an stress-changing diacritic or follows the normal stress pattern.
When a word ending in a consonant contains no stress-changing diacritic, the normal rule is that the emphasis is placed on the ultimate syllable, that is the last one. Therefore, enstrumôn is pronounced en-stroo-MON. When a word ending in a vowel contains no stress-changing diacritic, the normal rule is that the emphasis is placed on the penultimate syllable, that is the second-to-last. Semi- vowels are not counted as a whole syllable. Therefore, mamilja is pronounced ma-MEE-lya and nazzionalo is pronounced na-tsyon-A-lo. However, since semi-vowels do not count as whole syllables, etudio would be pronounced as e-TOO-dyo.
This normal rule is not followed when there is a stress-changing diacritic in the word that shifts the emphasis to its syllable. Letters with diacritics that are always stress-changing no matter where they are placed in the word are: Áá, Éé, Íí, Óó, Úú, Ýý. Letters with diacritics that are stress-changing only when they are placed at the end of a word are: Àà, Ùù, Êê, and Ôô. Letters with diacritics that are stress-changing when they are placed anywhere but at the end of a word are: Èè, Òò, and Ââ. If a word contains letters with diacritics that do not change the stress of the word, the stress is placed on the correct syllable as the regular pattern above states.
Lanquanese nouns are not as hard to work with as they are in other languages. As Lanquanese is a Romance language, it has retained two of the three grammatical genders from Latin: masculine and feminine. Being able to differentiate between feminine and masculine nouns is not hard. A noun's gender can be distinguished by the letter with which the noun ends. A singular noun that ends in the vowels Aa, Ee (or Êê), Ii or the consonants Nn, Ss, or Ūū is feminine. Nouns are also feminine if the meaning of the word is implicitly feminine. Such is the case with nouns like woman, hen, or daughter. A singular noun that ends in the vowels Èè (or sometimes Êê), Oo, Uu, or Yy or any consonant other than Nn, Ss, or Ūū is masculine. Nouns are also masculine if the meaning of the word is implicitly masculine. Such is the case with nouns like man, rooster, or son. In addition, nouns can be masculine if they end in -ista, signifying the suffix -ist or -er/-or in English. (The equivalent of this for feminine nouns is -egna). The gender of the noun must be known in order to correctly use adjectives and articles accordingly.
When it comes to making the plural of nouns, the task is not extremely difficult, yet not the easiest job either. For both masculine and feminine nouns, the plural is formed in multiple ways.
1. If a noun ends in an -a, replace it with -e to form the plural.
2. If a noun ends in -e, -i (or -ì), -o, or -u, replace it with -i to form the plural. (This means that, in essence, words ending in -i or -ì stay the same in the plural as in the singular).
3. If a noun ends in -ai or -oi, add an -e to form the plural.
4. If a noun ends in -_io (where _ is Cc, Gg, or Xx), replace -io with -ì to form the plural.
5. If a noun ends in -_ia (where _ is Cc, Gg, or Xx), replace -ia with -e to form the plural.
6. If a noun ends in -_ie/-_io (where _ is not Cc, Gg, or Xx), replace -ie/-io with -ï to form the plural. (Technically this follows pluralizing rule #2 which would state that -ie/-io would change to -ii in the plural, but Lanquanese g rammar states that -aa change to -ä, -ee to -ë, -ii to -ï, etc.).
7. If a noun ends in -_a (where _ is Ee, Éé, or Êê), replace -_a with -ë.(Technically this follows pluralizing rule #1 which would state that -ea (even with a diacritic on Ee) would change to -ee (with appropriate diacritics on Ee) in the plural, but Lanquanese grammar states that -aa change to -ä, -ee to -ë, -ii to -ï, etc.).
8. If a noun ends in -à, -è, -ò, or -ù, replace the grave accent (`) with a circumflex (^), and add -le to form the plural. (If however the noun ends in -lè, instead of the plural being -lêle, it is actually -lì)
9. If a noun ends in -ã or -õ, add -e to form the plural.
10. If a noun ends in in -é, -í, -ó, or -ú, replace the final vowel of the word with its nasal equivalent plus its nasal cessor. If there is an additional vowel before the final one, add a Jj between the first vowel and the nasal equivalent and cessor. Here is a chart to show the correct nasal equivalent and nasal cessor to add to form the plural.
|Letter||Nasal Equivalent||Nasal Cessor|
11. If a noun ends in -ä, -ë, -ï, -ö, or -ü, replace the final vowel of the word with its nasal equivalent plus its nasal cessor. If there is an additional vowel before the final one, add a Jj between the first vowel and the nasal equivalent and cessor. Here is a chart to show the correct nasal equivalent and nasal cessor to add to form the plural.
|Letter||Nasal Equivalent||Nasal Cessor|
|-ï or -ö||õ||e|
12. If a noun ends in -ê or -ô, replace the final letter with -î to form the plural.
13. If a noun ends in a consonant, add -e to form the plural.
14. If a noun ends in -_e (where _ is Cc, Gg, or Xx), replace -e with -ë to form the plural.
15. If a noun ends in -_i (where _ Cc, Gg, or Xx), replace -i with -e to form the plural.
16. If a noun ends in -al, change -al to -ai to form the plural.
There are also a few irregular plurals as shown is this chart below:
Adjectives are not necessarily that hard to learn in Lanquanese. All Lanquanese adjectives (that go after the noun) inflect ‒ all adjectives inflect in number ‒ but not all adjectives inflect in gender. Lanquanese adjectives must agree in gender and in number with the noun they modify. Thus, if the noun is feminine plural, so will be the adjective. If it is masculine singular, so will be the adjective. All Lanquanese adjectives have a neutral adjectival form, which is the form that will be seen under a dictionary or thesaurus heading. A good way of putting is that a neutral adjectival form is to an adjective what the infinitive is to a verb. You can never look at an adjective and know whether it is in the neutral adjectival form, it's just something you have to know by heart, similar to knowing which ending a verb has in its infinitive.
There are two types of articles in English and Lanquanese: the definite article and the indefinite article.
The definite article in English is "the". It is used the same was in Lanquanese as it is in English. In Lanquanese, there are five forms as seen in this chart below:
|Gender||Singular Before||Singular Before||Plural Before||Plural Before|
The indefinite article English is "a" or "an" before a vowel. These are used the same way in Lanquanese as they are in English. In Lanquanese, there are two forms as seen in this chart below:
|Gender||Singular Before||Singular Before|
Possessive adjectives are adjectives like my, his, her, our, their, etc. While technically adjectives, they are still often misunderstood to be pronouns. The reason for this is because each possessive adjective has a corresponding subject. They are called possessive because they describe who possesses the object in the sentence. If "he" owns the ball, we can say that it is "his ball", where his is the possessive adjective and he is the corresponding subject pronoun. Subject pronouns are I, you, he, she, it, who, we, and they. However, in Lanquanese, subject pronouns have more variety and there exist subject pronouns in Lanquanese that do not exist in English. For more information on subject pronouns, see the section under Pronouns.
Following is a table displaying all the possessive adjectives in Lanquanese:
|Before Consonant||Before Consonant||Before Vowel||Before Vowel||Before Consonant||Before Consonant||Before Consonant||Before Consonant|
Gender of Adjectives
As with nouns, there are two genders that adjectives can have: masculine and feminine. One thing that must be understood about Lanquanese adjectives is that they cannot be classified as either masculine or feminine until they have a masculine or feminine noun to modify. Therefore, when the gender of an object in Lanquanese is undetermined, the neutral adjectival noun form is used. The object is usually referred to by "ciò" (ɡenderless this/that) or "quo" (genderless it). Adjectives that are in the neutral noun form can end in almost any letter. To make them masculine follow these steps:
- If the adjective is in the neutral adjectival form and ends in -a, it can be made masculine by changing the -a to -o and made feminine by leaving it as it is. (Example: neutral & feminine: generoza; masculine: generozo)
- If the adjective is in the neutral adjectival form and ends in -a with an -o before it, instead of forming the masculine by changing the -a to -o, change instead the -a to -j. (Example: neutral & feminine: enprimoa; masculine: enprimoj not enprimoo)
- If the adjective is in the neutral adjectival form and ends in -e, it can be made masculine or feminine by leaving it as it is. (Example: neutral & feminine & masculine: grande)
- If the adjective is in the neutral adjectival form and ends in -i or -ì, it can be made masculine by changing the -i or -ì to -o and made feminine by leaving it as it is. (Example: neutral & feminine: gricì; masculine griço)
- If the adjective is in the neutral adjectival form and ends in -o, it can be made masculine by leaving it as it is and made feminine by changing the -o to -a. (Example: neutral & masculine: povro; feminine: povra)
- If the adjective is in the neutral adjectival form and ends in -u, it can be made masculine by leaving it as it is and made feminine by changing the -u to -a. (Example: neutral & masculine: simplu; feminine: simpla)
- If the adjective is in the neutral adjectival form and ends in a consonant, it can be made masculine or feminine by leaving it as it is. (Example: neutral & masculine & feminine: possabil)
- If the adjective is in the neutral adjectival form and ends in a vowel with a diacritic, it can be made masculine or feminine by leaving it as it is. (Example: neutral & masculine & feminine: favorettà)
Number of Adjectives
Also as with nouns, there is a way to make adjectives plural in Lanquanese. Albeit, not nearly as hard as with Lanquanese nouns. One thing to remember is that Lanquanese nouns always end in -e. The process of making adjectives plural is very similar to that of pluralizing nouns. Adjectives can be made plural by following these steps:
- If an adjective already ends in -e, the plural is the same as the singular.
- If an adjective ends in a consonant, an -e is added to the word to form its plural.
- If an adjective ends any vowel (without diacritical marks), the plural is formed by replacing the final vowel with -e.
- If an adjective ends in a vowel with an accent grave (`), the plural can be formed using the same rules nouns use. (See rule #8 under Plural Nouns).
- If an adjective ends in a vowel with an acute accent (´), the plural can be formed using the same rules nouns use. (See rule #10 under Plural Nouns.)
- If an adjective ends in a vowel with a diæresis (¨), the plural can be formed using the same rules nouns use. (See rule #11 under Plural Nouns.)
Placement of Adjectives
Adjectives can be placed either after or before a noun. The knowledge of where they are placed is governed by certain rules. If an adjective describes quantity (such as "four"), possession (such as "his"), or if it points something out (such as "this"), they are placed before the noun. Also, if it describes quantity, and sometimes possession, they do not inflect, meaning they do not change in gender or number.
Verbs are probably the hardest part of any language to grasp. In Lanquanese, this is certainly proven the case.
A verb infinitive is the raw form of the verb which often has to be worked with before it can be used in a sentence. This "working with" a verb is a declination called "conjugation". In Lanquanese, the infinitive can end in -ar, -er, -ir, or -ûr. Two extremely common verbs in the infinitive are aver (to have) and essar (to be).
In Lanquanese, the past participle is the past form of a verb. In English, the past participle is the same thing. The past participle of the English "to choose" is chosen, "to walk" is walked, and "to speak" is spoken. In Lanquanese, there are two types of past participles: an active past participle and a passive past participle. The same concept also exists in English, but the same word for both is used. For example in the sentence: "He has eaten the apple.", the word eaten is the active past participle. In the sentence: "The apple was eaten by him.", the word eaten is the passive past participle. The difference is that the active past participle is used as a verb, whereas the passive past participle is used as an adjective, all while technically being a verb! To distinguish in Lanquanese whether a verb is an active or passive participle is simple. If the verb "to have" (aver) is used with the past participle, it is active. If the verb "to be(come)" (essar/avenir) is used with the past participle, it is passive. The same applies in English as in the example sentences above.
Forming the Active Past Participle
The active past participle is formed for -ar, -er, and -ir verb infinitives by taking off the final -r and adding an acute accent on the leftover vowel. Thus -ar becomes -á, -er becomes -é, and -ir becomes -í. For the -ûr verb infinitive, the final -r is removed as for the circumflex on the u, to be replaced by an accent grave. Thus -ûr becomes -ù. Also, verbs infinitives ending in -_rer (where _ is a consonant) or -aitrar make their active past participle by removing -rer and adding -u and by removing -aitrar and adding -ú, respectively. Thus, fondrer becomes fondu, and quonaitrar becomes quonú. The only exception to this is for the verb essar (to be), where the active past participle is (e)sté. The e in brackets is only used in formal situations.
Forming the Passive Past Participle
The passive past participle is formed for any verb infinitive by taking off the final -r and adding -tto. The exception is with -_rer verbs (where _ is a consonant), where -rer is removed and then -utto is added. Remember, because the passive past participle acts like an adjective, -tto (masculine & neutral) can also be -tta (feminine) or -tte (plural). Thus, the passive past participle of acetar is acetatto/-a/-e and the passive past participle of fondrer is fondutto/-a/-e. There are a handful of exceptions to this rule, the most common being that the passive past participle of essar and aver are (e)stesso/-a/-e (the e 'in brackets is only used in formal situations) and avutto/-a/-e.
The present participle is equivalent to an English word ending in -ing. In Lanquanese, -ing is equivalent to the ending -nte. To form the present participle, take off the final -r of the verb infinitive, and add -nte. Thus, the present participle of acetar is acetante and the present participle of fondrer is fondrente. The only exceptions to this rule are the present participles of essar and aver, which are (e)stante (the e in brackets is only used in formal situations) and aviente.
Tenses and Moods
A tense or mood in Lanquanese is different sets of ways of conjugating a verb. In Lanquanese there are 9 simple tenses/moods (meaning that they are only one word) and 9 compound tenses/moods (meaning that there are more than one word) and the imperative, the mood that commands someone to do something. Compound tenses are just the conjugation of aver (to have) in the simple tenses with the active past participle of the verb being conjugated. In Lanquanese, a tense is distinguished by the endings the verb has accordin to who is using it, be it I, you, him or her, we, they, etc. In Lanquanese, il, ella, ol, eso/esa, chi, and ogna all conjugate the same, ve and vôssi conjugate the same, and ile, elle, and ole conjugate the same. Thus, in Lanquanese conjugation, the only the conjugation for il, vôssi, and ile are shown, but these conjugations are the same for the other pronouns in their conjugation category.
The present tense is the one that is used the most often in both Lanquanese and English. This tense is used to show things that take place now, such as I eat, you eat, he eats, we eat, they eat.
- HOW TO CONJUGATE VERBS IN THE PRESENT REGULARLY:
- IRREGULAR VERBS:
The imperfect tense is the one that is used to show things that were taking place, such as I was eating, you were eating, he was eating, we were eating, they were eating.
- HOW TO CONJUGATE VERBS IN THE IMPERFECT REGULARLY:
- IRREGULAR VERBS:
Simple Past Tense
The simple past tense is the one that is used to show things that happened, such as I ate, you ate, he ate, we ate, they ate.
- HOW TO CONJUGATE VERBS IN THE SIMPLE PAST REGULARLY:
- IRREGULAR VERBS:
The future tense is the one that is used to show things that are going to take place, such as I will eat, you will eat, he will eat, we will eat, they will eat.
- HOW TO CONJUGATE VERBS IN THE FUTURE REGULARLY:
- IRREGULAR VERBS:
The conditional mood is the one that is used to show things that would happen, such as I would eat, you would eat, he would eat, we would eat, they would eat.
- HOW TO CONJUGATE VERBS IN THE CONDITIONAL REGULARLY:
- IRREGULAR VERBS:
The necessary tense is the one that is used to show things that are supposed to take place, such as I should eat, you should eat, he should eat, we should eat, they should eat.
- HOW TO CONJUGATE VERBS IN THE NECESSARY REGULARLY:
- IRREGULAR VERBS:
The able tense, also known as the potential tense, is the one that is used to show things that could take place, such as I could eat, you could eat, he could eat, we could eat, they could eat.
- HOW TO CONJUGATE VERBS IN THE POTENTIAL/ABLE REGULARLY:
- IRREGULAR VERBS:
The subjunctive is the one that is used to show things that are may take place or used to express an emotion (doubt, fear, desire, etc.) in the present, such as I may eat, you may eat, he may eat, we may eat, they may eat.
- HOW TO CONJUGATE VERBS IN THE SUBJUNCTIVE REGULARLY:
- IRREGULAR VERBS:
Imperfect Subjunctive Mood
The imperfect subjunctive is the one that is used to show things that might take place or used to express an emotion (doubt, fear, desire, etc.) in the past, such as I might eat, you might eat, he might eat, we might eat, they might eat.
- HOW TO CONJUGATE VERBS IN THE IMPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE REGULARLY:
- IRREGULAR VERBS:
The imperative mood is the one that is used to make commands, such as eat! or let's eat!' This is formed the same way as the present tense and is only used with tu, vu/'vôssi, or nôssi. However, when using the imperative with tu, the stem of the infinitive is used with the -r being dropped. With the verbs aver, essar, and irar (to go), the imperative is formed by using the subjunctive mood, or alternately, but less commonly, the present tense.
Orthographically Changing Verbs
Orthographically changing verbs are regular verbs that are conjugated by changing their stem before adding the regular endings. Here are the rules governing these types of verbs:
- One syllable verbs that end in -ar, -er, or -ir remove the -r and add z before continuing to add the normal endings. This does not occur in tenses/moods which add upon the infinitive, such as the future tense or conditional mood. Here are two examples conjugated in the present tense:
|gher||orthographically changing -er verb|
|lir||orthographically changing -ir verb|
- One syllable verbs that end in -ûr remove the -ûr and add uzz before continuing to add the normal endings. This does not occur in tenses/moods which add upon the infinitive, such as the future tense or conditional mood. Here are two examples conjugated in the present tense:
|gynûr||orthographically changing -er verb|
|glûr||orthographically changing -ir verb|
- Verbs which end in -är, -aer, -air, -oar, -oer, -oir, -uar, -uer, or -uir take off -r plus the vowel preceding it and add vr to the stem before continuing to add the normal endings. This does not occur in tenses/moods which add upon the infinitive, such as the future tense or conditional mood. Here are two examples conjugated in the present tense:
|diploar||orthographically changing -er verb|
|conduir||orthographically changing -ir verb|
- Verbs which end in -ear, -ër, -eir, -iar, -ier, or -ïr take off -r plus the vowel preceding it and add rr to the stem before continuing to add the normal endings. This does not occur in tenses/moods which add upon the infinitive, such as the future tense or conditional mood. Here are two examples conjugated in the present tense:
|aqueir||orthographically changing -ir verb|
|haïr||orthographically changing -ir verb|
While the area of pronouns in Lanquanese is not a tough one to grasp. However, there are quite a number of them, so it is crucial to when and where they are used and placed. In Lanquanese, there are ten types of pronouns.
Subject pronouns are the most common type of pronouns in both English and Lanquanese. These are the pronouns used in addressing people or objects without using their names. The Lanquanese subject pronouns are as follow:
|1rst||jo -- I||nôssi -- we|
|2nd||tu -- you||vôssi -- you|
|2nd||vu -- you||vôssi -- you|
|3rd||il -- he||ile -- they|
|3rd||ella -- she||elle -- they|
|3rd||ol -- genderless he/she||ole -- they|
|3rd||eso/esa -- it||ole -- they|
|3rd||chi -- who||--|
|3rd||ogna -- (some)one||ogni -- they|
A few things to keep in mind about subject pronouns:
- Jo can become j' before words beginning with a vowel, but it is mandatory if the vowel is 'o'
- Tu is used when talking informally to one person only, such as close family and friends
- Vu is used when talking formally to one person only, such as those in higher authority or rank
- Ol has the same usage as il and ella, except where they refer to males and females, ol refers to a person or personified object with no specified gender
- Eso means it when referring to masculine objects and esa when referring to feminine objects
- Ogna means (some)one or you as in "You never know."
- Vôssi is used when talking formally or informally to more than one person
- Ile means they when everyone is male
- Elle means they when everyone is female
- Ole means they when there are people of both genders or a bunch of genderless objects
- Ogni is now almost obsolete and is the plural of ogna
Object pronouns are probably the next most common type of pronouns in Lanquanese. These pronouns show an action done to the subject pronouns. There are two types of object pronouns in Lanquanese: direct and indirect.
Direct Object Pronouns
Direct object pronouns are the pronouns used to show who is the recipient of the action, such as in the sentence "I saw them yesterday," where them is the direct object pronoun. The Lanquanese direct object pronouns are as follow:
|1rst||mi -- me||nos -- us|
|2nd||ti -- you||vos -- you|
|2nd||ve -- you||vos -- you|
|3rd||lo -- him||le -- them|
|3rd||la -- her||le -- them|
|3rd||lo -- genderless him/her||li -- them|
|3rd||se -- it||li -- them|
A few things to keep in mind about the direct object pronouns:
- Mi becomes m' before words starting with a vowel
- Ti becomes t' before words starting with a vowel
- Ve becomes v' before words starting with a vowel
- Lo and la become l' before words starting with a vowel
- Se becomes s' before words starting with a vowel
- Le becomes lez before words starting with a vowel
- Li is technically the correct term, but le/lez is often used instead
Indirect Object Pronouns
Indirect object pronouns are the pronouns used to show to whom the action was done, such as in the sentence "We gave the ice-cream to her," where her is the indirect object pronoun. The indirect object pronoun can always be distinguished in Lanquanese from the direct object pronouns by looking to see if the pronoun is preceded by a form of the word to (à). The Lanquanese direct object pronouns are as follow:
|1rst||mi -- to me||nos -- to us|
|2nd||ti -- to you||vos -- to you|
|2nd||ve -- to you||vos -- to you|
|3rd||lui -- to him||loro -- to them|
|3rd||lei -- to her||lora -- to them|
|3rd||loi -- to genderless him/her||lore -- to them|
|3rd||sei -- to it||lore -- to them|
A few things to keep in mind about the indirect object pronouns:
- Mi becomes m' before words starting with a vowel
- Ti becomes t' before words starting with a vowel
- Ve becomes v' before words starting with a vowel
In Lanquanese, there is a separate bunch of pronouns that do not exist in English called adverbial pronouns. In Lanquanese there are three adverbial pronouns: ne, on, and ce. They are all placed before the main verb in the sentence and all have a similar function: to replace a preposition plus a pronoun.
Ne, also n' before words starting with a vowel, is used to replace of + pronoun, as in the sentence: "I have none of them." In Lanquanese, this would be: "I ne have none."
On is used to replace to/about/at/from + pronoun, as in the sentence: "I have not thought about it." In Lanquanese, this would be "I on have not thought."
Ce, also c before Ii or Ee or ci before any other vowe, is used to replace in/on + pronoun, as in the sentence: I placed the hat on her." In Lanquanese, this would be "I ce placed the hat."
Disjunctive pronouns are pronouns that are used within prepositional phrases. This means that they come after a preposition, such as with/for/by/next to. An example of this can be seen in the sentence: "John came to the park with us." In Lanquanese, us is the disjunctive pronoun. Here is a list of Lanquanese disjunctive pronouns:
|1rst||me -- me||nos -- us|
|2nd||tu -- you||vos -- you|
|2nd||vu -- you||vos -- you|
|3rd||lui -- him||loro -- them|
|3rd||ella -- her||elle -- them|
|3rd||loi -- genderless him/her||lore -- them|
|3rd||sé -- it||lore -- them|
|3rd||chi -- who||--|
|3rd||ogna -- (some)one +||ogni -- them|
Reflexive pronouns are words that end in -self and reflect the action on the self of the speaker, hence their name. The reflexive pronouns in Lanquanese are as follow:
|1rst||meúl -- myself||nôsseúle -- ourselves|
|2nd||teúl -- yourself||vôsseúle -- yourselves|
|2nd||veúl -- yourself||vôsseúle -- yourselves|
|3rd||leúl -- himself||lorúle -- themselves|
|3rd||feúl -- herself||elorúle -- themselves|
|3rd||loúl -- gender neutral himself/herself||luorúle -- themselves|
|3rd||seúl -- itself||luorúle -- themselves|
|3rd||ogneúl -- oneself||luorúle -- themselves|
Demonstrative pronouns are the ones that point something out, such as the words the ones in this very sentence as seen bolded. There are two types of demonstrative pronouns in Lanquanese: those that are variable and those that are invariable.
Variable Demonstrative Pronouns
Following is the list of variable Lanquanese demonstrative pronouns:
|Masculine||cel -- the one||celor -- the ones|
|Feminine||celle -- the ones||celle -- the ones|
An example of usage of the variable demonstrative pronouns could be found in the sentence: "I ate my slice of cake as well as Peter's." which would be translated in Lanquanese as "I ate my slice of cake as well as the one of Peter."
Invariable Demonstrative Pronouns
There are only two invariable demonstrative pronouns: ciò (this) and lò (that). These pronouns are used when the subject to which this/that refers to is not mentioned in the sentence. An example of usage of the invariable demonstrative pronouns could be found in the sentence: "This is not what I expected."
Interrogative pronouns are those referring to people, such as in the sentence "Which is the one you prefer?", or those that are used as the direct object of a verb or object of preposition, such as in the sentence "Whom do you love?"
Note that when interrogative pronouns which (quin) and whom (chin) are objects of the prepositions at (o), by (da), for (pora), from (de), in (en), into (den), of (di), on (su), through (per), to (à), with (con), or without (sanza), they form as follow:
|Preposition + quin||Translation||Preposition + chin||Translation|
|à + qui = àque||to which||à + che = àche||to whom|
|con + qui = conque||with which||con + che = conche||with whom|
|da + qui = daque||by which||da + che = dache||by whom|
|de + qui = deque||from which||de + che = deche||from whom|
|den + qui = denque||into which||den + che = denche||into whom|
|di + qui = dò que||of which||di + che = dò che||of whom|
|en + qui = enque||in which||en + che = enche||in whom|
|o + qui = oque||of which||o + che = oche||at whom|
|per + qui = perque||though which||per + che = perche||though whom|
|pora + qui = porque||for which||pora + che = porche||for whom|
|sanza + qui = sanque||without which||sanza + che = sanche||without whom|
|su + qui = suque||on which||su + che = suche||on whom|
Possessive pronouns take the place of possessive adjectives plus a noun and agrees in gender and number with what it is replacing.
|Subject||Meaning||Masculine Singular||Masculine Plural||Feminine Singular||Feminine Plural|
Examples of where these pronouns could be used in a sentence could be as seen in the following sentences: "Is this book yours?" -- "No. Then whose is it?" -- "The book is theirs." Since the word for book in Lanquanese is masculine and there is only one of them, the masculine singular possessive pronoun would be used.
A relative pronoun is a word that refers to an antecedent. An antecedent is something that comes before something else; it can be a word, a phrase, a clause that is replaced by a pronoun, or some other substitute. For example, in the sentence "Is it Mary who did that?", who is the relative pronoun and Mary is the antecedent.
Some common relative pronouns are:
- àque (to which); and all other relative pronouns in the table under Interrogative Pronouns
- àche (to whom); and all other relative pronouns in the table under Interrogative Pronouns
- quò que (that which/what)
- quar (where)
- che (whom)
- que, qu' (that)
- qui (which)
|19||some||qualco/-a/qualche OR dù|
|37||man (adult male)||om|
|38||man (human being)||gente|
Here is the Lord's Prayer translated into Lanquanese. For comparison, the translation of the prayer has also been done in French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese, Latin, and English to help one visualize the similarities and differences in the language.
|Our Father||Nôsso Paio||Pater Noster||Notre Père||Padre Nostro||Padre Nuestro||Pai Nosso|
|Our Father, who art in Heaven, hallowed be Thy name. Thy kingdom come, Thy will be done, on Earth, as it is in Heaven. Give us this day out daily bread, and forgive us our trespasses, as we forgive those who trespass against us. And lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil. For Thine is the kingdom, and the power, and the glory, forever and ever. Amen.||Nôsso Paio, chi sei nele Cîeli, sanctifitto sgia Vôsso nome. Vôssa réoma venisgì, Vôssa volontà sgia fatta, su Terra, co qui è nele Cîeli. Doneza-nos aūgiorgno nôsso panè quodizzeno, e padrôneza-nos nôssei debúti, come nôssi padrônono chiassi que nos debútão. E ne guideza-nos den tentazzione, chial rendeza-nos de male. Ca Vena è la réoma, e lo puisso, e la glória, poratogio e togio. Amên.||Pater noster, qui es in cælis; sanctificetur nomen Tuum; adveniat regnum Tuum; fiat voluntas Tua, sicut in cælo et in Terra. Panem nostrum cotidianum da nobis hodie, et dimitte nobis debita nostra, sicut et nos dimittimus debitoribus nostris; et ne nos inducas in tentationem; sed libera nos a malo. Quia Tuum est regnum, et potestas, et gloria in sæcula. Amen.||Notre Père, qui es aux cieux, que Ton nom soit sanctifié, que Ton règne vienne, que Ta volonté soit faite, sur la Terre comme au ciel. Donne-nous aujourd'hui notre pain de ce jour. Pardonne-nous nos offenses, comme nous pardonnons aussi à ceux qui nous ont offensés. Et ne nous soumets pas à la tentation, mais délivre-nous du mal. Car c'est à Toi qu'appartiennent le règne, la puissance, et la gloire, pour les siècles des siècles. Amen.||Padre nostro, che sei nei cieli, sia santificato il Tuo nome, venga il Tuo regno, sia fatta la Tua volontà, come in cielo così in Terra. Dacci oggi il nostro pane quotidiano, e rimetti a noi i nostri debiti come noi li rimettiamo ai nostri debitori, e non ci indurre in tentazione, ma liberaci dal male. Perché Tuo è il regno, la potenza, e la gloria nei secoli dei secoli. Amen.||Padre nuestro, que estás en los cielos, santificado sea Tu nombre; vénganos Tu reino; hágase Tu voluntad, así en la Tierra como en el cielo; el pan nuestro de cada día, dánoslo hoy; y perdónanos nuestra ofensas así como nosotros perdónamos a los que nos ofenden; y no nos dejes caer en tentación, mas líbranos del mal. Porque Tuyo es el reino, el poder, y la gloria, por los siglos de los siglos. Amén.||Pai nosso, que estais no céu, santificado seja o Vosso nome, venha a nós o Vosso reino, seja feita a Vossa vontade, assim na Terra como no céu. O pão nosso de cada dia nos dai hoje. Perdoai as nossas ofensas, assim como nós perdoamos a quem nos têm ofendido. E não nos deixeis cair em tentação, mas livrai-nos do mal. Pois Vosso é o reino, o poder, e a glória. Para sempre. Amém.|
For more information
For more information on Lanquanese and a more detailed explanation of its grammar and usage, please visit http://www.learnlanquanese.webs.com
To access online Lanquanese books, including the ones below, please visit http://www.lanquanesegrammar.webs.com
- Lanquanese-English dictionary
- English-Lanquanese dictionary
- 251 Conjugated Lanquanese Verbs in all tenses
- Fully-explained Lanquanese Grammar
- Lanquanese Vocabulary and Guide Book