The Late Boselenan language (tiere Boselenesche kórd) is the variety of Boselenan descended from Early Boselenan, which is characterised by extensive borrowing from Portuguese and several sound and orthographical changes.

Changes from Early Boselenan[]

Changes in Phonology[]

The most common sound change was that of the common sound combination /ie/ becoming the regular vowel /e/ in almost every case. This is represented by the letter <é> at the beginning and middle of words, and <e> elsewhere.

The bilabial consonants /p/, /b/ and /m/ also went through severe weakening. After a vowel, they became [ɸ], [β] and a nasalised [β] respectively. These later changed to [f], [v] and nasalised [v] and came to be represented by <ph>, <bh> and the trigraph <mbh>. Although later on, nasal [v] became denasalised, it is still represented by <mbh>.

Labialised consonants also went through a variety of changes. /kʷ/ and /gʷ/ remain unchanged, although represented slightly differently in orthography. /ʃʷ/ and /ʒʷ/ became completely delabialised, merging with their non-labialised counterparts. /hʷ/ became /ɸ/, which later became /f/,

Sibilant consonants were also lost completely at the end of words, resulting in words like ko from previous kosh "carpet". If these words need to be pluralised, the sibilant consonant reappears (ko "carpet" > koshér "carpets"), it also does should a noun case suffix be needed to be added to the noun. Later on, the grammar of pluralisation was simplified, meaning the plural suffix -ssér is added to a word that had a former sibilant, regardless of what that sibilant initially was.

Palatal /ɲ/ became alveolar /n/ in all native Boselenan words, however it was later reintroduced to the language along with /ʎ/ in Portuguese loanwords.

The affricate /ts/ became /s/ in all circumstances.

Changes in Orthography[]

The most noticeable change in orthography between Early Boselenan and Late Boselenan is the increased use of the letter <é> which represents /e/ from the collapse of the exceedingly common vowel combination /ie/. <é> at the end of words was replaced by <e>, as the letters have an allophonic relationship in this position. If former <e> represented a word-final schwa, the letter <è> is used. Old words such as shtienie "adequate" have become shténe.

The digraph <mbh> is also widely used, to represent the weakening of the nasal /m/ to a fricative /v/. It represents the same sound as the letter <v>, and use of them both is entirely etymological.

The breve diacritic was abolished altogether. In vowel combinations, they were replaced with their non-breve counterpart (e.g. leĭ > lei, randaŏ > randao). When u-breve ŭ represented a labial consonant, different rules were implemented depending on the evolution of that consonant:

  • and , which have retained their labialised values, became represented with the more Portuguese-esque Gu and Qu respectively. If a word contains the sequence /gu/, then the combination ghu is used.
  • came to represent the same value as <f>, so was replaced by <f> in all circumstances.
  • Shŭ and Zhŭ delabialised, and became represented as Sch and Zch respectively.

Due to the influx of Portuguese loanwords, several Portuguese letters were retained to reflect etymology:

  • Lh and Nh were brought in to reflect the Portuguese palatal phonemes, initially pronounced simply /l/ and /n/ early on by native Boselenan speakers, but gradually came to represent their native portuguese values.
  • X was retained in Portuguese words representing the phoneme /ʃ/, for example pexe "fish" from Portuguese "peixe".
  • C had lost its original value that it had in Early Boselenan (/ts/), and had been replaced in all cases by s or ss. It since had only appeared in the combinations ch, sch and zch. Therefore it was deemed not too confusing to use it in the suffix -cao, borrowed from Portuguese, where the <c> represented the sound /s/. The -cao suffix was then applied to native Boselenan words - resulting in new coinages such as gavarcao "music making" from gavar "to play music" and new borrowings such as informacao "information".

As /ts/ had become /s/ in all circumstances, the letter <c> was replaced by <ss> intervocalically and 's' elsewhere, relegating <c> to appearing in the combinations ch, sch, zch and cao.

The grave diacritic was also introduced to represent the elision of the la a combination. The sequence of words la a appears commonly, for example Lenei la a karro "I like the car", where la represents the nominative first-person pronoun "I" and a represents the definate article "the". As la a commonly became pronounced simply as la, the character à was used to show that it was pronounced as one vowel, but differentiated between them both. Resulting in Lenei là karro "I like the car". It is also used on many other contracted word forms.

Changes in the Alphabet[]

In contrast to Early Boselenan, the digraphs bh, ch, gh, gu, lh, mbh, nh, ph, qu, sh, sch, zh and zch are rarely considered letters in their own right, rather as combinations of their constituent letters.

Letters with diacritics are considered as variants of their parent letter, and not letters of their own right.



The Late Boselenan alphabet consists of the 26 basic Latin letters, with a number of diacritics.

Letter Pronunciation
A a /æ/
B b /b/
C c Varies depending on context: Letter C
D d /d/
E e /ε/
F f /f/
G g /g/
H h /h/
I i /i/
J j /j/
K k /k/
L l /l/
M m /m/
N n /n/
O o /ɒ/
P p /p/
Q q /k/
R r /r/
S s /s/
T t /t/
U u /u/
V v /v/
W w /v/
X x /ʃ/
Y y Varies depending on context: Letter Y
Z z /z/


Acute Accent[]

The acute accent is used on <e> and <o> to produce <é> and <ó>. These represent higher vowels than their non-acute counterparts, with <é> representing /e/ and <ó> representing /ɔ/. Though they were considered separate letters in Old Boselenan, they are usually considered merely as variations of their parent letters. They are collated together with their parent letters in alphabetical ordering. The use of the acute accent is absolutely compulsory.


The circumflex has two major uses. The first and oldest use is on <h> to produce <ĥ>. The letter <ĥ> represents the sound /x/, whereas <h> represents /h/. Although <ĥ> was historically a letter in its own right, it is usually collated together with <h> in alphabetical ordering.

The second major role of the circumflex is on vowels, where it represents the fact that the vowel historically preceded a sibilant consonant which has since been lost. It has no effect on pronunciation, and is used so that we know to insert an 's' after it when declining nouns. The 's' sound was lost only at the end of the word, so it returns when it is no longer at the end of the word - i.e. when a suffix is added. For example elî "sky" becomes elissér "skies", ag elischę "to the sky" etc.

In an attempt to regularise the language, plurals involving a circumflexed letter are always pluralised by removing the circumflex, and adding the suffix -ssér, regardless of the historical ending of the word.

Letter Example Plural
â bevargâ - "eyelash" bevargassér - "eyelashes"
ê anglê - "englishman" anglessér - "englishmen"
î elî - "sky" elissér - "skies"
ô stumpô - "hut" stumpossér - "huts"
û - "god" zussér - "gods"

In addition to these five basic circumflex vowels, you sometimes encounter <ế> and <ố>, which show that there was a historical sibiliant following an <é> or an <ó>. Although these characters follow the basic rules on circumflex usage, they are discouraged - with <ê> and <ô> being used in these circumstances for aesthetic purposes. For example historical kerés "child" becoming kerế or kerê, which becomes keressér "children".

Grave Accent[]

The grave accent is encountered only on <a> and <e>, resulting in <à> and <è>. It represents the contraction of a number of sequences of words. The uses listed in the table below are the most common and most official, but providing the grave accent is used, and you follow the conventional use of it, several other possible combinations can be used.

Word Historical
la + a
shàu shao + au "that is (adjective)"
hàu ha + au "what is?"
shiè sheu + ie "you" when used as the sole subject of an intransative verb.
àlfabet a + alfabet "the alphabet"

The grave accent is used often to indicate the definite articulation of nouns beginning with 'a', where it shows the contraction of the sequence ag a... For example àlfabet, àgró, ànglê mean "the alphabet", "the man", "the englishman" respectively.

The letter <è> represents a word final schwa, whereas <e> represents /e/ in this position.


The trema is used only on the letter 'u', resulting in <ü>. The letter <ü> is used to indicate the etymology of words derived from Greek containing the letter upsilon. Although most words from Greek roots were borrowed into Late Boselenan from Portuguese, the letter <ü> replaces the Portuguese letter 'i'. For example hüperatividade, sünkope, mürra, rütmo. In these cases the <ü> is pronounced as /i/.

Digraphs & Trigraphs[]

Late Boselenan uses a variety of different digraphs and trigraphs to represent unusual sounds. Unlike in Old Boselenan, digraphs and trigraphs are not treated as separate letters, rather as sequences of two.

Digraph Sound Information
BH /f/ Represents the sound /v/ as a result of the weakening of /b/ after vowels.
CH /tʃ/
DI /ɟ/
GH /g/ Represents the sound /g/ before a 'u', this is because normally a 'gu' sequence would represent a labialised /g/, so requires the 'h' to split them up.
GU /gʷ/
LH /ʎ/ Represents /ʎ/ in words borrowed from Portuguese.
MBH /v/ Represents [v] as a product of the weakening of /m/ after vowels.
NH /ɲ/ Represents /ɲ/ in words borrowed from Portuguese.
PH /f/ Represents /f/ as a result of the weakening of /p/ after vowels.
QU /kʷ/ The 'q' is used to prevent any ambiguity between /kʷ/ and /ku/ sequences. This is the only time when the letter 'q' is seen.
SH /ʃ/
SCH /ʃ/ Sch represents /ʃ/ where it descends from a previous labialised /ʃ/.
TY /c/
ZH /ʒ/
ZCH /ʒ/ Zch represents /ʒ/ where it descends from a previous labialised /ʒ/.

Irregular Letters[]

Letter C[]

The letter 'c' is found in several cases, although rarely seen alone. It is part of the very common sequence ch, representing /tʃ/. It is also seen in the slightly less common sequences of sch and zch, which represent /ʃ/ and /ʒ/ respectively. Finally, it is seen in the suffix -cao, where the 'c' represents the sound /s/.

Basic Grammar[]


There are four declensions in Late Boselenan. The first declension is words ending in plain vowels, the second is words ending in consonants, the third is words ending in circumflex vowels, and the fourth is words ending in labialised consonants.


Declension Ending Example
Declension 1 The vowel(s) are dropped, and replaced with -ér. vóro "meat" > vórér "meats"
Declension 2 The ending -ér is added. ivén "start" > ivénér "starts"
Declension 3 The circumflex is removed, and the ending -ssér is added. bevargâ "eyelash" > bevargassér "eyelashes"
Declension 4 The final 'e' is dropped, and replaced with -ér. ghurque "slug" > ghurquér "slugs"


Each of the four declensions have slightly different suffixes for all of the noun cases that Boselenan has to offer. The table below uses examples from each of the declensions.

Case Declension
vóroje ivénje bevargaje ghurqueje
Dative vórotta ivénta bevargasta ghurquetta
Genitive vóroche ivénche bevargasche ghurqueche
Ablative vóruk ivénuk bevargassuk ghurquek
Illative vórovot ivénbot bevargasspot ghurquevot
Inessive vórotiek ivéntiek bevargasstiek ghurquetiek
Elative vóroquot ivénquot bevargassquot ghurquequot
Allative vóroshpe ivénshpę bevargashpe ghurqueshpe
Instrumental vóroveo ivénveo bevargassveo ghurqueveo
Comitative vóroke ivénke bevargasske ghurqueke

Adjectives and Adverbs[]

Late Boselenan uses a prepositional system to indicate the intensity of adjectives and adverbs. This is in direct contrast to Early Boselenan, which had a system of suffixes. These prepositions are all inherited from Portuguese.

Preposition Meaning Example
maxivo "most" "-est" maxivo zhiliv "nicest"
maî "more" "-er" maî zhiliv "nicer"
menô "less" menô zhiliv "less nice"
minivo "least" minivo zhiliv "least nice"

Adverbs are formed from Adjectives by adding the suffix -kai, for example vezedau zhiliv "nice talk" versus vezed zhilivkai "talk nicely". Adjectives and adverbs are placed after the nouns and verbs they are describing.


To make a comparison, for example My couch is nicer than yours, the word ment is used to link the clauses. sofa lache au maî zhiliv "my couch is nicer", is linked to sofa diéche "your sofa" by the word ment, resulting in sofa lache au maî zhiliv ment sofa diéche.


Word Order[]

Like Early Boselenan, Late Boselenan follows a VSO word order. For example Kurvan la hugt ha dezei diè "I know what you want" literally means "Know I what want you".


Most verbs in Boselenan can take on a transitive and an intransive form, without any morphological change. Transitive verbs take on the usual VSO form, for example Tieschet là taló mennshét "I read the book all the time". However, intransitive verbs (ones which only take a subject, with no object) require a separate noun case to represent the fact that there is no object to follow. This case is known as the intransitive case, and is represented by the suffix -je in most words, and by other means in pronouns. They all result from the previous grammatical word ie.

Ergative Intransitive
la laje
lér léje
die diè
diér diére
sheu sheje
shér shére

Tense and Aspect[]

- Past Present Future
Simple sunde
(to) go
will go
Progressive sundéshaok
was going
am going
will be going
Perfect te sundéshaok
had gone
te sundaok
have gone
te sundaichaok
will have gone
Perfect Progressive date sundéshaok
had been going
date sundaok
have been going
date sundaichaok
will have been going


The active voice is the base voice, the most common, and the form which verbs take in dictionaries. The passive voice is formed by adding the prefix e- to the front of the verb.

So for example Lenei là seche "I like the cat", can be changed to Elenei là seche "I am liked by the cat".


Late Boselenan Dictionary

Example text[]