Conlang
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Latinino
Type Fusional
Alignment Nominative-accusative
Head direction Head-initial
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 1%
Statistics
Nouns 2%
Verbs 3%
Adjectives 1%
Syntax 1%
Words of 1500
Creator [[User:|]]


General information[]

Latinino is a descendent of Vulgar Latin, with simpler but much more regular grammar and many loan words from the Germanic languages. It has lost all the noun cases except genitive, and experienced palatalization of ce, ci, ge and gi as other Romance languages.

Phonology[]

Consonants[]

Bilabial Labio-dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Plosive p b t d k g
Fricative f v s z ʃ ʒ h
Affricate tʃ dʒ
Approximant w j
Trill r
Lateral app. l

Vowels[]

Front Central Back
High i u
Mid e o
Low a

Phonotactics[]

The syllable structure in Latinino is (C)(C)V(C)(C). Word final syllables can only end with <l>, <n>, <r>, <s>, <w>, <y> or a vowel.

Writing System[]

Letter a b c d e f g h i j k l
Sound [ä] [b~β] [dʒ] [d~ð] [e̞] [f] [g~ɣ] [h] [i] [ʒ] [k] [l]
Letter m n o p q r s t u v w x
Sound [m] [n] [o̞] [p] [tʃ] [r] [s] [t] [u] [v] [w] [ʃ]
Letter y z gn ng
Sound [j] [z] [ɲ] [ŋ] or [ŋg]

<ng> represents [ŋ] intervocalically and word-initially, [ŋg] elsewhere. <ngg> represents [ŋg] intervocalically.

Grammar[]

Nouns[]

All nouns end in -o when singular, -os when plural. Nouns do not decline in gender. The only case they decline is the genitive case, with endings -oyi in singular and -osi in plural. The genitive form inflect like an adjective. The definite articles are lo and los, and the indefinite articles are un and us. Compound nouns are formed by changing the endings of non-final components to -a.

Adjectives[]

All adjectives end in -i when singular, -is when plural. Adjectives always agree with the noun number and case. In genitive, the endings are changed to -iwi and -iwis. They have positive comparative, negative comparative, positive superlative and negative superlative forms.

Regular[]

Example: piki (small)

neg. super. neg. comp. adjective pos. comp. pos. super.
pik-asti least small pik-asi less small pik-i small pik-iri smaller pik-ismi smallest

Irregular[]

There are only four irregular adjectives: boni, mali, multi, and poki.

neg. super. neg. comp. adjective pos. comp. pos. super.
bonasti least good bonasi less good boni good meliri better optimi best
malasti least bad malasi less bad mali bad peyri worse pesmi worst
multasti least multasi less multi many pluri more plurimi most
pokasti least few pokasi less few poki few minori fewer minimi fewest

Adverbs[]

All adverbs end in -e. Adverbs are formed by changing the final -i of adjectives to -e. The comparatives and superlatives of adverbs are as follows:

Regular[]

neg. super. neg. comp. adjective pos. comp. pos. super.
ver-aste least correctly ver-ase less correctly ver-e correctly ver-ire more correctly ver-isme most correctly

Irregular[]

neg. super. neg. comp. adjective pos. comp. pos. super.
bonaste least well bonase less well bene well melye better (adv.) optime best (adv.)
malaste most badly malase more badly male badly peye worse (adv.) pesme worst (adv.)
multaste least (adv.) multase less (adv.) multe very pluse more (adv.) plurime most (adv.)
pokaste most (adv.) pokase more (adv.) poke not very mine less (adv.) minime least (adv.)

Pronouns[]

The pronouns preserve the nominative, genitive, dative, accusative and reflexive forms. The third person pronouns have no gender.

1st sing. 2nd sing. 3rd sing. 1st pl. 2nd pl. 3rd pl.
nom. yo I tu you (sing.) su he/she/it nos we vos you (pl.) sos they
gen. mi my twi your (sing.) swi his/her/its nostri our vostri your (pl.) sostri their
dat. mibe to me tibe to you (sing.) sibe to him/to her/to it nobe to us vobe to you (pl.) sobe to them
acc. me me te you (sing.) se him/her/it nes us ves you (pl.) ses them
ref. mipse myself tipse yourself sipse himself/herself/itself nostripse ourselves vostripse yourselves sostripse themselves

Numbers[]

Cardinal Ordinal Cardinal Ordinal
1 uno primi 11 unqe unqimi
2 dwo sekundi 12 doqe doqimi
3 tre terti 13 treqe treqimi
4 kwarto kwarti 14 kwarqe kwarqimi
5 kwin kwinti 15 kwinqe kwinqimi
6 ses sexti 16 seqe seqimi
7 septe septimi 17 septaqe septaqimi
8 okto oktavi 18 oktaqe oktaqimi
9 nove noni 19 nonaqe nonaqimi
10 deqe deqimi 20 vijen viqesi

 

Cardinal Ordinal Cardinal Ordinal
21 vijenuno vijemprimi 200 doqento doqentesi
30 trijin triqesi 300 treqento treqentesi
40 kwarjin kwarjesi 400 kwarqento kwarqentesi
50 kwincin kwincesi 500 kwinqento kwinqentesi
60 sejin sejesi 600 seqento seqentesi
70 septajin septajesi 700 septaqento septaqentesi
80 oktajin oktajesi 800 oktaqento oktaqentesi
90 nonajin nonajesi 900 nonaqento nonaqentesi
100 qento qentesi 1000 mila milesi
101 qentuno qentaprimi 2000 domila domilesi

Verbs[]

All verbs end in -u in infinitive. Most verbs are regular except four auxiliary verbs. Verbs are conjugated with respect to person, number, voice, mood and tense.

Regular[]

Example: edu (to eat)

Active[]

edu (to eat)

Nonfinite[]
inf. ed-u
imp. ed-uw ger. ed-uwo pass. part. ed-ur
pres. part. ed-uy past. part. ed-un fut. part. ed-ul
Indicative[]
Present Past Future
Yo ed-on Yo ed-avon Yo ed-aron
Tu ed-as Tu ed-avas Tu ed-aras
Se ed-a Se ed-ava Se ed-ara
Nos ed-aw Nos ed-avaw Nos ed-araw
Vos ed-ay Vos ed-avay Vos ed-aray
Sos ed-an Sos ed-avan Sos ed-aran
Subjunctive[]
Present Past Future
Yo ed-in Yo ed-avin Yo ed-arin
Tu ed-es Tu ed-aves Tu ed-ares
Se ed-e Se ed-ave Se ed-are
Nos ed-ew Nos ed-avew Nos ed-arew
Vos ed-ey Vos ed-avey Vos ed-arey
Sos ed-en Sos ed-aven Sos ed-aren
Passive[]

eduru (to be eaten)

Nonfinite[]
inf. ed-uru
imp. ed-uruw ger. ed-uruwo
pres. part. ed-uruy past. part. ed-urun fut. part. ed-urul
Indicative[]
Present Past Future
Yo ed-uron Yo ed-uravon Yo ed-uraron
Tu ed-uras Tu ed-uravas Tu ed-uraras
Se ed-ura Se ed-urava Se ed-urara
Nos ed-uraw Nos ed-uravaw Nos ed-uraraw
Vos ed-uray Vos ed-uravay Vos ed-uraray
Sos ed-uran Sos ed-uravan Sos ed-uraran
Subjunctive[]
Present Past Future
Yo ed-urin Yo ed-uravin Yo ed-urarin
Tu ed-ures Tu ed-uraves Tu ed-urares
Se ed-ure Se ed-urave Se ed-urare
Nos ed-urew Nos ed-uravew Nos ed-urarew
Vos ed-urey Vos ed-uravey Vos ed-urarey
Sos ed-uren Sos ed-uraven Sos ed-uraren

Auxiliary[]

The auxiliary verbs are hu, esu, yu, sapu, liqu, posu, oportu, wadu, debu, qertu, awdu, utiyu e wolu. They no have passive voice. Hu, esu, yu e wolu are the only irregular verbs.

hu (have)[]
Nonfinite[]
inf. hu
imp. huw ger. hoy
pres. part. huy past. part. hun fut. part. hul
Indicative[]
Present Past Future
Yo ho Yo huvo Yo bron
Tu has Tu huvas Tu bras
Se ha Se huva Se bra
Nos baw Nos huvaw Nos braw
Vos bay Vos huvay Vos bray
Sos ban Sos huvan Sos bran
Subjunctive[]
Present Past Future
Yo hayo Yo hwi Yo brin
Tu hayas Tu hwes Tu bres
Se haya Se hwe Se bre
Nos hayaw Nos hwew Nos brew
Vos hayay Vos hwey Vos brey
Sos hayan Sos hwen Sos bren
esu (be)[]
Nonfinite[]
inf. esu
imp. esuw ger. eso
pres. part. esuy pass. part. esun fut. part. esul
Indicative[]
Present Past Future
Yo suy Yo fuy Yo eron
Tu ey Tu fwis Tu eris
Se es Se fwe Se era
Nos saw Nos fiw Nos eriw
Vos say Vos fay Vos eray
Sos san Sos fan Sos eran
Subjunctive[]
Present Past Future
Yo soy Yo foy Yo erin
Tu esis Tu foris Tu eras
Se ese Se fore Se ere
Nos sew Nos foriw Nos eraw
Vos sey Vos foray Vos erey
Sos sen Sos foran Sos eren
yu (go)[]
Nonfinite[]
inf. yu
imp. yuw ger. yuwo
pres. part. yoy past. part. yon fut. part. yol
Indicative[]
Present Past Future
Yo ew Yo ivon Yo iron
Tu is Tu ivas Tu iras
Se ye Se iva Se ira
Nos iw Nos ivaw Nos iraw
Vos yi Vos ivay Vos iray
Sos yun Sos ivan Sos iran
Subjunctive[]
Present Past Future
Yo yen Yo ivin Yo irin
Tu yas Tu ives Tu ires
Se ya Se ive Se ire
Nos yaw Nos ivew Nos irew
Vos yay Vos ivey Vos irey
Sos yan Sos iven Sos iren
wolu (want)[]
Nonfinite[]
inf. wolu
imp. woluw ger. wolwo
pres. part. woloy past. part. wolon fut. part. wolol
Indicative[]
Present Past Future
Yo wel Yo wolevon Yo woron
Tu wis Tu wolevas Tu woris
Se wol Se woleva Se wori
Nos wolaw Nos wolevaw Nos woraw
Vos wolti Vos wolevay Vos waray
Sos wolan Sos wolevan Sos woran
Subjunctive[]
Present Past Future
Yo welin Yo welvin Yo worin
Tu weles Tu welves Tu wores
Se wele Se welve Se wore
Nos welew Nos welvew Nos worew
Vos weley Vos welvey Vos worey
Sos welen Sos welven Sos woren

Syntax[]

Latinino follows an SVO syntax. Pronouns are often omitted, as they are embedded in the verb.

Three auxiliary verbs, hu, esu and yu are used with the past, present and future participles, respectively, to indicate different aspect. For example,

Eda bananos. He eats bananas.

Ha edun bananos. He has eaten bananas.

Es eduy bananos. He is eating bananas.

Ye edul bananos. He is going to eat bananas.


Both the gerund and the present participle correspond to the English -ing form, but they have different usage in Latinino. Example:

Eating is forbidden here. Eduwo es prohibur stado.

I am eating. Suy eduy.

Both the passive participle and the past participle correspond to the English past participle form, but they have different usage in Latinino. Example:

The eaten bird died. Lo avo edur moriyava.

The bird that has eaten died. Lo avo edun moriyava.

Lexicon[]

I yo
you (singular) tu
they (singular) su
we nos
you (plural) vos
they (plural) sos
this (pn.) sto / (det.) sti
that (pn.) so / (det.) si
that over there (pn.) glo / (det.) gli
here stado
there sado
over there glado
who kwen
what kwe
where kwado
when kwando
how kwido
yes ta
no na
not non
all toti
many multi
some alkwi
few poki
most pleri
a few parvi
other otri
one uno
two dwo
three tre
four kwato
five kwin
six ses
seven septe
eight okto
nine nove
ten deqe
big magni
long longgi
wide lati
thick krasi
heavy gravi
small piki
short korti
narrow angusti
thin tenwi
woman mulyo
man (adult male) mazo
man (human being) homo
child filyo
wife uxo
husband viro
mother matro
father patro
animal animalo
fish pisqo
bird avo
dog kano
louse pediko
snake serpeno
worm vermo
tree arbo
forest selvo
stick bakolo
fruit fruto
seed semeno
leaf folyo
root radixo
bark (of a tree) kortexo
flower floro
grass grameno
rope funo
skin kuto
meat karno
blood sangwo
bone oso
fat (noun) adepo
egg ovo
horn korno
tail kawdo
feather plumo
hair kapilo
head kaputo
ear oryo
eye okolo
nose nazo
mouth boko
tooth dento
tongue (organ) lingwo
fingernail ungwo
foot pedo
leg perno
knee cenwo
hand mano
wing alo
belly ventro
guts visko
neck kolo
back dorso
breast pekto
heart kordo
liver yekoro
to drink bibu
to eat edu
to bite mordu
to suck sugu
to spit spuwu
to vomit vomu
to blow flu
to breathe aspiru
to laugh ridu
to see vidu
to hear awdiyu
to know nosku
to think kojitu
to smell odoru
to fear metuwu
to sleep dormiyu
to live vivu
to die moriyu
to kill neku
to fight pugnu
to hunt venu
to hit pulsu
to cut sqindu
to split dividu
to stab punggu
to scratch skabu
to dig exkavu
to swim natu
to fly volu
to walk gradiyu
to come veniyu
to lie (as in a bed) rekumbu
to sit sedu
to stand stu
to turn (intransitive) flektu
to fall kadu
to give du
to hold tenu
to squeeze exprimu
to rub friku
to wash lavu
to wipe exterju
to pull trahu
to push premu
to throw yaqu
to tie nektu
to sew suwu
to count numeru
to say diku
to sing kantu
to play ludu
to float emergu
to flow fluytu
to freeze glaqu
to swell influ
sun solo
moon luno
star stelo
water akwo
rain pluvo
river rivo
lake lako
sea maro
salt salo
stone lapo
sand areno
dust polvo
earth tero
cloud nubo
fog nebulo
sky qaylo
wind vento
snow nivo
ice glaqo
smoke fumo
fire igno
ash qinero
to burn flagru
road viyo
mountain monto
red rubro / rubri
green virido / viridi
yellow flavo / flavi
white albo / albi
black nigro / nigri
night nokto
day diyo
year ango
warm tepidi
cold frijidi
full pleni
new novi
old veti
good boni
bad mali
rotten potri
dirty sordidi
straight rekti
round retondi
sharp (as a knife) afili
dull (as a knife) romi
smooth levi
wet madidi
dry seki
correct veri
near viqini
far remoti
right dextro / dextri
left sinistro / sinistri
at a / ar
in in
with kon
without sin
of de
by per
as komo
and e / ye / er / i
or o / wo / or / u
for pro
if xi
because prokwo
why kwo
name nomo
to have (own) habu
to have (auxiliary verb) hu (aux)
to be esu (aux)
to go (plan to) yu (aux)
to go (head to) vu
can (be able to) sapu (aux)
may (be allowed to) liqu (aux)
may (it is possible that) posu (aux)
shall (it is desirable that) oportu (aux)
shall (it is likely that) wadu (aux)
must (be obligated to) debu (aux)
must (it is certain that) qertu (aux)
to dare awdu (aux)
to need (auxiliaty verb) utiyu (aux)
to need (require) neqesu
to want (auxiliary verb) wolu (aux)
to want (desire) kwayru


Example text[]

Universal Declaration of Human Rights

English Latinino
Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Article 1

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.


Article 2

Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status. Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under any other limitation of sovereignty.

Deklaraxo Universali de Homayuros

Artikulo Uno

Totis homos naskan liberte i ekwale in dignito e yuro. Awtoruran razo e konsqiyenqo, e oportan agu a inviqos in lo spirito de fraternito.


Artikulo Dwo

Omno inskribura totis yuros e libertos in sti deklaraxo, sin distinkxo de kwali ceno, komo raqo, koloro, lingwo, relijo, opigno politiki or otri, orijo naqi o soqali, propreto, stato naski or otri. Pluramulte, nili distinkxo oporta faquru funduy a lo stato politiki, yuridiki o internaqi de un pago o un teritoro a kwe un homo pertena, sive ese independenti, fiduqi, nonpropri, rejimeni o sube kwale otri prinqipatoyi limitaqo.

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