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Lingula is an international auxiliary language that seeks to facilitate relationships within Romance languages and to be easy to understand. Lingula is based on Vulgar Latin and its daughters. It was constructed to respond to many of the problems with Interlingua.


Lingula
Type
Alignment
Head direction
Tonal No
Declensions No
Conjugations No
Genders
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 0%
Statistics
Nouns 0%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 0%
Words of 1500
Creator [[User:|]]


Classification and Dialects[]

Phonology[]

Consonants[]

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal
Plosive
Fricative
Affricate
Approximant
Trill
Flap or tap
Lateral fric.
Lateral app.
Lateral flap

Vowels[]

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
High
Near-high
High-mid
Mid
Low-mid
Near-low
Low

Phonotactics[]

Writing System[]

Letter A B C
Sound
Letter
Sound
Letter
Sound

Grammar[]

Morphology

Superlatives/Comparatives

Superlative= stem + -ISSIMO, -A

Comparatives=plus+adjective

Beatissimo,Beatissima, felicissimo, felicissima

plus beata= more blessed


Adjective of felice

Singular

Plural

Masculine

felice

felices

Feminine

felice

felices


Adjective of beato, beata

Singular

Plural

Masculine

beato

beatos

Feminine

beata

beatas


Noun of auto: car

Nominative

Singular

auto

Plural

autos


2nd Declension Nouns; example Pane: bread

Nominative

Singular

Pane

Plural

Panes


Personal Pronouns:


Eo/Me: I

Tu/Te: You

Illo/illa: She/He

Nos: We

Vos: You (all)

il/la/los/Ias: the

Se(noun): himself(lava se)

esso/essa(adjectival): himself, herself

se/lo: it



Possessives:

Possessives agree with their possession in declension and number.


Meo/Meos/Mea/Meas: Mine

Tuo/Tuos/Tua/Tuas: Yours

Suo/Suos/Sua/Suas : Theirs

Nostro/Nostros/Nostra/Nostras-: Our

Vostro/Vostra: Your “all”’s


-ore :

Adding -ora to the stem of a verb indicates an actor. Here are some examples:


bebo, beber

bebore- Drinker, One who drinks

manjo,manjar

Manjore: Eater, One who eats

lacte e bebo, beber

lacte bebore: milk drinker


Demonstrative Pronouns:

Similar to Latin, Lingula will be using the demonstrative pronouns Aquello for that and isto for this.



Aquello/Aquella: That

Isto/Ista: This



Interrogative/Relative Pronouns/Useful Phrases:



Qui: Who/Whom



perque: because



per que?: why



Per favore: please



Per: by/through



Quale: Which



No: No



Non: Not



Gratias: Thank you



Bono jorno: good day



Bono nocte:  good night



Patre: father



Matre: Mother



Aqui: Here(Compare pronunciation of Lingula with Italian qui, Portuguese Aqui, Spanish Aqui)



Fratre: Brother



Sorore: Sister



Bona vespera: good evening



Homo, Homines: Man(this is because of Romanian, Italian, Catalan, etc)



Regno: Kingdom



Humano/Humana: Human(adj), Human Being



Salute: Hello



Sanita: Health



Sano/Sana: Healthy



Infermo/Inferma: Sick



Hospitale: Hospital



Troppo: too much



perdonar: to forgive



vender: to sell



comprar: to buy



mas: but



Como stas?: How are you(feeling)?



Goodbye: Salute



basio: kiss



Que:  That



Que: What



Quando: When?



Quanto: How much/many?



Sine: Without



Como: How/like



Onde: Where?



Quantitative / Negative Pronouns:



Qualque parte: somewhere

Qualuno: somebody

Nullo parte: nowhere

Ninuno: nobody, no man

Nada: Nothing

Toto parte: everywhere

Toto,Tota: everything(one), all(adjectival)



Numerals:

1. Uno

2. Duo

3. Tres

4. Quatro

5. Cinc

6. Sei

7. Sete

8. Octo

9. Nove

10. Dece


  Verbal Morphology:

Lingula will keep three conjugations of verbs: 1st, 2nd, and 3rd with slight modifications for simplicity. The conjugations are simplified.  Also, we have reduced the number of tenses for simplification purposes. Future, Past, and Present. Subjunctive will also still exist but only in the present.



Esser: to be


Indicative:

Present:

So

Somo

Es

Estis

Es

Son

Past:

Ero

eramos

Eras

eratis

Era

eran

Future:

sero

seremos

seras

sereis

sera

seran

Subjunctive:

Present:

Sea

Seamos

Seas

Seais

Sea

Sean

Imperative:

Affirmative

Negative

sea

Non+esser







Poder: to be able/can


Indicative:

Present:

posso

podemos

podes

podeis

pode

poden

Past:

podia

podiamos

podias

podiais

podia

podian

Future:

podere

poderemos

poderas

podereis

podera

poderan

Subjunctive:

Present:

possa

possamos

possas

possais

possa

possan

Imperative:

Affirmative

Negative

pose

Non+poder







Conjugation: “-ar”

Example Verb: (laudar:to praise)


Indicative:

Present:

Laud-o

Laud-amos

Laud-as

Laud-ais

Laud-a

Laud-an

Past:

Laud-ava

Laud-avamos

Laud-avas

Laud-avais

Laud-ava

Laud-avan

Future:

Laud-aro

Laud-aremos

Laud-aras

Laud-areis

Laud-ara

Laud-aron

Subjunctive:

Present:

Laud-e

Laud-emos

Laud-es

Laud-eis

Laud-e

Laud-en

Imperative:

Affirmative

Negative

Lauda

Non+laudar


Non-finite Forms:

Laud-ar: Infinitive

Laud-ato: Past Participle

Laud-ando: Present Participle


Conjugation: “-er”

Example Verb: (ved-er: to see)

Indicative:

Present:

Ved-o

Ved-emos

Ved-es

Ved-eis

Ved-e

Ved-en

Past:

Ved-ia

Ved-amos

Ved-ias

Ved-ais

Ved-ia

Ved-ian

Future:

Ved-ero

Ved-eremos

Ved-eras

Ved-ereis

Ved-era

Ved-eran

Subjunctive:

Present:

Ved-a

Ved-amos

Ved-as

Ved-ais

Ved-a

Ved-an

Imperative:

Affirmative

Negative

Vede

Non+veder


Ved-er: Infinitive

Ved-ato: Past Participle

Ved-endo: Present Participle


Conjugation “-ir”:

Example Verb: (dormir: to sleep)

Indicative:

Present:

dorm-o

dorm-imos

dorm-es

dorm-is

dorm-e

dorm-en

Past:

dorm-ia

dorm-iamos

dorm-ias

dorm-iais

dorm-ia

dorm-ian

Future:

dorm-iro

dorm-iremos

dorm-iras

dorm-ireis

dorm-ira

dorm-iran

Subjunctive:

Present:

dorm-a

dorm-iamos

dorm-as

dorm-iais

dorm-a

dorm-an

Imperative:

Affirmative

Negative

Dormi

non+dormir


dorm-ir: Infinitive

dorm-ito: Present Participle

dorm-endo: past participle


Example Verb: (ir: to go)

Indicative:

Present:

vo

vamos

vas

vais

va

van

Past:

ia

ivamos

ias

iais

ia

ian

Future:

iro

iremos

iras

ireis

ira

iran

Subjunctive:

Present:

va

viamos

vas

viais

va

van

Imperative:

Affirmative

Negative

va

non+ir


Indicative:

Present:

ho

h-emos

has

h-eis

ha

h-en

Past:

Havia

Haviamos

Havias

Haviais

Havia

Havian

Future:

Havero

Haveremos

Haveras

Havereis

Havera

Haveran

Subjunctive:

Present:

Havea

Haveamos

Haveas

Haveais

Havea

Havean

Imperative:

Affirmative

Negative

have

Non+haver



Syntax:



Introduction:

In classical Latin, the word order is fairly free due to the declensions. This allows for more expression with a minimal impact on comprehensibility. In Lingula, similar to the Romance languages, word order is S-V-O.

In the Romance languages, adjectives are generally placed after the nouns they modify. In Lingula, the pattern is the same. The adjectives do not have to follow their nouns however that is their neutral position. Possessive adjectives come before the noun.

Lexicon[]

https://www.memrise.com/course/970911/lingula-clave-pro-apprender-entre-linguas/

Example text[]

The Lord's Prayer


Patre Nostro,
que es in cielos,
sea sanctificato il tuo nome,
venga tuo regno,
sea facta la volonta tua,
como in cielo,
assi in terra.

Da nos oje  nostro Pane quotidiano,
e perdona nostras debitas,
como assi perdonamos nostros debitores.
E non inducer nos in tentatione,
mas libera nos del malo.
Amen

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