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Mésylþo is my ongoing effort - one that's been scrapped and reworked a good number of times - to create the most beautiful language possible to my sensibilities.

Name: Mésylþo

Type: Fusional

Alignment: Nominative-Accusative

Head Direction: Initial

Number of genders: 2

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect

General information[]

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Nouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adjectives Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article Yes No Yes No Yes No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No



Labial Labiodental Dental Alveolar Alveopalatal Palatal
Nasal m ‹m› n ‹n›
Fricative Voiceless f ‹f› θ ‹þ› s ‹s› ɕ ‹š› ç ‹c›
Voiced v ‹v› ð ‹ð›
Lateral l ‹l›
Approximant w ‹w› r ‹r› j ‹j›

/r/ has many possible realizations, including a trill, rhoticization of the previous vowel, an alveolar approximant, or a uvular fricative.

Consonant clusters within syllables do not exist.


Front Back
Unround Round
High ɪ (iː) ʏ (yː) ʊ (uː)
Mid ɛ (eː) œ (øː) ɔ (oː)
Low a (aː)

Length and tenseness is represented by an acute accent over the nuclear vowel of the accented syllable.


Diphthong formation is complex. There are four diphthongs: øy, ai, oi, and au. The second monophthong in contact between vowels dictates the roundness of the resulting diphthong (ie ‹øi› > ‹øy›; ‹ay› > ‹ai›). Vowel contact that would result in an opening diphthong instead result in a glide followed by a monophthong (ie ‹ia› > ‹ja›).  Vowels with a similar openness and roundness in contact, or back vowels in contact, cause the initial vowel to be deleted and the second to become long and tense.  ‹ei› becomes ‹é›.


Mésylþo allows V, VC, CV, and CVC syllables.

Approximants only appear in onset position.

/ç/ only appears in coda position. When it appears after a consonant, the previous consonant is unpronounced and typically unwritten.

Posterior coronal fricatives assimilate regressively when adjacent.

Nasals and coronal fricatives in contact regressively assimilate.  /s/ in prefix þis- also may assimilate to a nasal.

Voicing of consonants in contact regressively assimilates.


Mésylþo has two grammatical genders, also called classes: animate and inanimate. These are by and large also semantic classes, but there are a number of nouns that are semantically inanimate while grammatically animate and so are better treated as genders.

"Root" refers to the word as shown in the lexicon: a single open-class morpheme. "Stem" refers to a word without affixes; that is, the open-class morpheme and any clitics.


Possessor STEM Plural Possessor Case/Number

Nouns are inflected for person, case, animacy, and number, with the latter three features typically expressed together within a single suffix.

Eight cases exist: Nominative, Accusative, Dative, Instrumental/Associative (considered a single case), Locative, Comparative, Ablative, and Vocative, though for semantic reasons, not all exist for both animate and inanimate classes.

Many adjectives may also be attached to nouns in a clitic form, as a prefix closest to the root.

Animate Paradigm[]

Singular Plural
Nominative wa wes
Accusative na nes
Dative nar neras
Associative jer jafer
Comparative þi þaji
  • The vocative is a postposed particle.

Inanimate Paradigm[]

Singular Plural
Nominative ja jøs
Accusative ma møs
Dative mar møras
Instrumental yr jafyr
Locative šu šul
Ablative si safi
Comparative þi þaji


Singular possessive markers are prefixes. Plural markers are suffixes paired with the appropriate singular marker.

Singular Plural
1 il ve
2 yr ø
21 a(w) yr þis es
3> šin en


Person Negative Intensifier STEM Tense Aspect Mood Plural Subject Object

Verbs come in four different paradigms: Animate Intransitive (AI), Inanimate Intransitive (II), Transitive Animate (AI), and Transitive Inanimate (AI). Crucially, this means that verbs must be used appropriately for their paradigm: for instance, the root for throwing an inanimate noun such as a ball is hílo, while throwing an animate object (whether actually alive or not) is arrówe.

Verbs are obligatorily inflected for person and number (in a single prefix). Transitive verbs are obligatorily inflected for the person and number of the object (in a single suffix). They may also be inflected for tense, aspect, and voice as individual agglutinations.

The verb to be does not exist; a noun may be derived as a verb with the suffix vi immediately following the stem.  In a similar fashion, to possess takes the form of the suffix lowe (plural lovø).


Subject prefix is always furthest from the root. The plural suffix is paired with the singular prefix, before the object suffix.

Singular Plural
1 il ve
2 yr ø
21 a(w) yr þis il sin il


Object suffixes are always furthest from the root.

Singular Plural
1 ji waji
2 me wame
21 mer þa þari ša šali

The object suffix placement is also that of the passive suffix -oc.


Gloss Mésylþo
Past øs
Nonpast+singular subject ja


Gloss Mésylþo
Inchoative so
Cessative šy
Habitual þiwa


Gloss Mésylþo
Desiderative wol

Other Affixes[]

Gloss Mésylþo
Intensifier ǿc
Negative mál


Adjectives can be treated as verbs ("to be X") but also tend to have clitic forms that prefix the noun, closest to the root. In the lexicon here, verbal adjectives will be marked with (v), and clitics with (c).



Demonstratives precede the noun.

an.s in.s
This by me óma ómes ómis ómsi
That by you ána ánes ánis ánsi
That over there amówa amówes amójis amósi


English Mésylþo
Question marker
Greeting šurá
But ruf
And ic
From wi
Or el


Base-12 system. Numbers are prefixes or particles (cardinal). Ordinals are prefixes immediately before the stem.

Arabic Clitic Cardinal
1 néþo neþóša
2 níðo niðóca
3 jóci jocís
4 jíso jisós
5 síðo síðom
6 son sónom
7 ycís ycísi
8 ymán ymáni
9 vári varíð
10 vis visíð
11 névo nevói
12 šúwo šuwói
13 šúwo néþo šúwo neþóša
24 nýšuwo nyšuwói
36 jóšuwo jošuwói
48 jýšuwo jyšuwói
60 sýšuwo šuwói
72 sóšuwo sonšuwói
84 ýcšuwo ycšuwói
96 ýmšuwo ymšuwói
108 vášuwo vašuwói
120 výšuwo vyšuwói
132 néhšuwo šuwói
144 hánja hánjai

Open Class[]

English Mésylþo
Ability ( úr
All (c) wa
(An)other (c) anðé
Begin, Start (AI) ( šíce
Big (c) oma
Black ( sicsi
Brick ( mácnicsa
Build (TI) monác
Bone ( jórryþ
Burn (TI) vóršu
Child ( wóijin
City ( þáfolas
Come (AI) namó
Confuse (TA) musmúr
Disperse (TA) voréð
Do (AI) jǿ
Drown (AI) lacná
Earth, World ( vórra
Face ( ném
Father ( šýr
Field ( lác
Find (TI) olló
Girl ( ánja
How, Why (adv) sijúr
Live (AI) éssis
Look, See (TI, TA) þíða
Love (TA) ácsolin
Man ( ér
Many (clit) aji
Mother ( þam
Move (AI) róva
Name ( acál
Nothing ( málin
Only (adv) úsyþ
Person ( þáfi
Place ( folás
be Possible (II) icanðó
Sea (n) aváš
See (TA) veóv
Sex (TA) šéþic
Sing, Song (AI) ( waláli
Skin ( foléš
Sky ( éli
Small (c) fyrin
Speak, Speech ( (AI) sylþo
Spirit ( áfisþa
Spit (,AI) cifúþ
Stone ( sucéna
Thing (
Throw (TA) arrówe
Throw (TI) wílo
Time ( þír
Top end ( jíf
Tower ( mocéli
Understand (AI) wacáji
What ( sisí
Whisper (AI) fissíwa
When ([dat]) siþír
Where ([loc]) sivél
White ( sycsy
Who ( simáni
Woman ( ǿm


The Tower of Babel (Genesis 11: 1-9)[]

  1. Now the whole earth had one language and the same words.
    Óma þírmar, waþáfiwes þissýlþolowøsil.
    (At this time, all people had one language.)
  2. And as people migrated from the east, they found a plain in the land of Shinar and settled there.
    Ic þáfiwes þisróvahøsil wi avášmar, þisollǿsil folášma Šinaršu ic þiséssisøsil amójiššu.
    (And at the time people moved from the sea, they found a field in Shinar and lived there.)
  3. And they said to one another, "Come, let us make bricks, and burn them thoroughly." And they had brick for stone, and bitumen for mortar.
    Ic þissýlþøsil þísana, "Yrnamója, mácnicsamøs ilmonácvešali, ic ilǿcvoršuvešali." Ic þimmácnicsalovél sucénamøras, ic þimvíþumenlovél morþarmar.
    (And they said to them, "You all should come, bricks we will make, and we will burn them much." And they had bricks for stones, and bitumen for mortar.)
  4. Then they said, "Come, let us build ourselves a city and a tower with its top in the heavens, and let us make a name for ourselves, lest we be dispersed over the face of the whole earth."
    Amójis þáfiwes, þissýlþøsil, "Yrnamója, ilmonácvešali þáfolasma ic mocélima, jífyr élišu, ic ilmonácvešali acálma ísenes, el ilvoréðveoc vórra némsi.
    (At that time, they said, "Come, we will build a city and a tower, the top in the sky, and we will make a name to us, or we will be dispersed across the world's face.
  5. And the Lord came down to see the city and the tower, which the children of man had built.
    Ic Áfisþawa þinnamǿs þisveóvøs amósi þáfolasma ic mocélima. Ér enwoijin þimmonácøsilšali.
    (And Spirit came and saw the city and tower. Men's children built them.)
  6. And the Lord said, "Behold, they are one people, and they have all one language, and this is only the beginning of what they will do. And nothing that they propose to do will now be impossible for them.
    Ic Áfisþawa þissýlþøs, "Yrveóvøsja, þisneþóšavíl, ic sí þisjéil sinšícevi úsyþ ómisji. Ic málinja þiswoljøyl simmálicanðoil þísawes.
    (And Spirit said, "See, they are one, and this is only the beginning of the things they will do. And nothing they want to do will be impossible to them.)
  7. Come, let us go down and there confuse their language, so that they may not understand one another's speech."
    Yrnamója, ilróvave ic ilmusmúrveþari, ic þiswacájílša ilmésylþovena."
    (Come, we will go and confuse them, and they will not understand their own speech.")
  8. So the Lord dispersed them from there over the face of all the earth, and they left off building the city.
    Ic Áfisþawa vóreþþari wi amójis folássi vórra némsi, ic þismálmonácøsilša þáfolasma.
    (And Spirit dispersed them from that place across the world's face, and they did not build the city.)
  9. Therefore its name was called Babel, because there the Lord confused the language of all the earth. And from there the Lord dispersed them over the face of all the earth.
    Ic acálja sinVávelvjøs. Amójis foláššu Áfisþawa ilmusmúrveþari vórra šinþáfiwes. Ic wi amójis foláššu vóreþþari vórra némsi.
    (And its name was Babel. From there Spirit confused the world's people. And from there Spirit dispersed them across the world's face.)