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A post-apocalyptic descendant of Mexican Spanish. Sound change and lexical shift has resulting in a language that bears little resemblance to its ancient ancestor, featuring consonant mutation, inflecting prepositions, and an fairly unrecognizable verb system.

A Mun Dechiz[]

"A tear makes mud from the ash,

A flame makes sand into glass,

Fear makes nightmares out of dreams,

Pain makes the wind into screams.

For what reason do they scatter

When all left of our world is shattered?"

-Áje the Bloody



"Sinis par luz da zuloro

Arin par bij da eplusho

Séño par mez da tilonush

Aled par ghif da zulo mush.

Pále ghaso ta n-ekafan zho,

Pan mu dechiz a mun so?"

-Áje ko Zánge



The world didn't end in a bang or a cough, but with a shriek.

The collapse of human society came as hordes of interdimensional parasites called Shriekers swarmed into our world. As they leeched biolectricity from their victims and transformed them into horrific killing machines, only the brave, the ruthless, and the dangerous were able to survive.

As Mexico was overrun with vampiric predators and supernatural monsters, clans of warring raiders and pirates fought over the scraps left in the ruined cities. What civilization was left was forced brutal in its efficiency and cruel in its drive to survive.

And all the while, the Spanish we know today shifted with the people, becoming something altogether unrecognizable.

This is Míkhan, the language of ash.


Phonology[]

Inventory[]

The language left over after hundreds of years of evolution and isolation is very different from the Spanish of old. It has simultaneously retained archaic elements and innovated a vast number of phonemes and features.

Consonants

Labial Alveolar Postalveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Stop p b t d k g
Fricative f s z ʃ ʒ ɣ χ h
Affricate tʃ dʒ
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Approximant w l
Tap ɾ

There is a far amount of allophonic variation among the consonants. In particular, /χ/ ranges from [x~χ] and even to [ħ] in certain dialects, and /ɣ/ follows a similar gradient as [ɣ~ʁ]. /ɾ/ can be found as a trill [r] following stressed vowels. Certain northern dialects pull the post-alveolars forward to palato-alveolars, pronouncing /ʃ ʒ tʃ dʒ/ as [ɕ ʑ tɕ dʑ]. By far the most tenuous position is the alveolars, which as often as not are pronounced as dental.

Vowels

Unlike the heavily shifted consonants, the vowel inventory of Míkhan is remarkably unchanged from its Spanish roots. Only two major sound changes- the loss of diphthongs and the raising of mid vowels- occurred to affect the system.

Front Central Back
High i u
Mid e o
Low a

The amount of variation among vowels is fairly manageable. The pronunciation of /a/ ranges wildly, on a continuum from [æ~ɑ]. However, the most common realization is as the central low vowel [ä]. Many common single syllable particles that end in /a/ are pronounced [ə]. Mid vowels lower in closed syllables, with /e/ becoming [ɛ] and /o/ becoming [ɔ]. There are no diphthongs. Sequences of vowels + /w/ are analyzed as just that, vowel followed by approximant.

Stress

Stress is a contrastive feature in Míkhan. The vast majority of the time, the stress falls on the final syllable. In the romanization system, final stress is unwritten, and all other stress is marked by an acute accent.

The most common grammatical elements that tend to shift stress are noun plurals and the present plural 2nd person/3rd person plural, which almost always contrasts with the infinitive.

kume /ku.ˈme/- "to eat"

kúme /ˈku.me/- "you/they eat"

ñalag /ɲa.ˈlag/- "claw"

ñalága /ɲa.ˈla.ga/- "claws"

It can also act as a lexical marker.

sáwan /ˈsa.wan/- "blanket"

sawan /sa.ˈwan/- "grassland"

Phonotactics

The phonotactics of Míkhan are fairly stringent. Max syllable structure is CVC. Onset can be any consonant, except no word starts with /ɾ/. The coda can be any consonant except /l/. /h/ does not occur in clusters. Nasals assimilate in place of articulation to what follows them. Most clusters also assimilate in voicing.

a- V "the"

bo- CV "I will"

paj- CVC "father"

ghepef - CVCVC "respect"

seksho- CVCCV "chapter"

kozhjuzher- CVCCVCVC "they built"


Phonological Evolution[]

Over several hundred years, Spanish underwent numerous sound shifts and changes that resulted in a language that sounds very different than its ancestor. The major sound changes and their effect on the grammar and nature of Míkhan are documented here.

Note: These sound changes are not given in exact order of occurrence, and not all changes are documented, only ones majorly important to Míkhan's evolution.

Palatalization

The dental/alveolars palatalized to postalveolars in many circumstances:

  • Before semivowel /j/
  • Before /ɾ/
  • /ʝ/ shifts to /dʒ/ initially and /ʒ/ intervocalically

Labialization

When /w/ or an equivalent semivowel followed a velar or /n/, they shifted to labial sounds.

  • Before semivowel /w/
  • Before /ɾ/

This will prove important in the mutations, when a subset of labials will mutate to velar forms as the mutations overrode the labialization shift.

Spirantilization

Between vowels, obstruents were drawn out into fricatives. This was the direct cause of the Siwban mutation. It led to the development and phonemicization of several sounds, namely, /w z ɣ h/. Earlier in Míkhan's history, it produced /ð/ from /d/ and /θ/ from /t/, but these shifted to /z/ and /f/ respectively.

Nasalization

Nasals caused heaving assimilation to the sounds that followed them and the vowels that preceded them. In vowels, this nasalization prevented the later vowel raising. Among consonants, voiceless sounds were voiced, voiced stops became nasals, and voiced fricatives hardened into stops. This directly produced the Koghilan mutation.

Coda Loss

Most of the coda consonants of Spanish disappeared in one way or another. Nasalization claimed coda nasals, coda /ɾ/ would vocalize and coda /s/ debuccalized. All of these prevented the later vowel raising. Words that had such final sounds do not allow mutation nowadays. Also important is that these sounds prevented final vowel loss, resulting in much of the modern plural and verb conjugation systems.

R-shift

The trill /r/ was lost in various ways. Final /r/ left from final vowel loss remained as /ɾ/. Intervocalically, /r/ shifted to /l/. Following /n/, it became /z/. And finally, initially, /r/ became /ʁ/, then shifted to /ɣ/. This has created a two way mutation split among words beginning with /ɣ/, with those descended from /g/ not lenited and nasalizing to /ŋ/, and those descended from /r/ leniting to /l/ and nasalizing to /z/.

Vowel Raising

In non-final open syllables, /e/ rose to /i/ and /o/ rose to /u/. This basically steamrolled the already tenuous distinction between -er and -ir verbs. Final codas prevented this shift.

Monophthongization

The loss of diphthongs occured in tandem with palatalization and labialization. For most diphthongs, the semivowel was simply lost. Among falling diphthongs, /au/ remains as /aw/, /ei/ and /ai/ became /e/, /ou/ and /oi/ became /o/, and /ui/ became /u/.

Vowel Loss

Vowels disappeared in several contexts. Final vowels were the most conspicuous, destroying the Spanish gender marking and most of its verb system in its wake. Unstressed medial vowels also were liable to disappear. Among verbs, this created a class of verbs that gain internal vowels in all present tense forms except 1st person plural. And finally, many unstressed initial vowels disappeared, which resulted in the phonemicization of many fricatives.

Coda Shift

Finally, certain of the new coda phonemes were disallowed. /l/ became /w/ following vowels, which dissimilated to /v/ then /b/ following /o/ and /u/. /ɲ/ and /h/ were disallowed as final codas, changing to /ŋ/ and /s/ respectively. These all produce irregular plurals, where the singular form's final consonant changes to the disallowed variant once a vowel is suffixed.

Mutations[]

One of the major developments in Míkhan is the system of initial consonant mutations. Mutations like these develop when the sound changes that generally occur within a word bleed over into the words that follow them. Usually this occurs with particles, prepositions, articles, and auxiliary verbs, and in other circumstances where the modifier and word occur together often enough for such sound changes to drift past sandhi barriers. In Míkhan, mutations are used to mark varied information, including noun gender, tense, negation, possession, and and status as a prepositional object. There are two major mutations, namely Siwban (hissing) or lenition, and Koghilan (congealing) or nasalization. The closely mirror the Irish séimhiú and urú mutations, though many of the individual changes are unique.

Siwban

Siwban mutations, or lenition, developed from obstruents in intervocalic position. Consonants that undergo Siwban soften into fricatives.

Words that receive Siwban include:

  • Feminine nouns following the definite article
    • chikh "girl"
    • a shikh "the girl"
  • Adjectives following feminine nouns
    • bad "good"
    • maj wad "good mother"
  • Verbs occurring after the future particles bo, bam, and ba
    • kume "to eat"
    • bo khume ju "I will eat"
  • Verbs in the 3rd person singular after the progressive particle ta
    • gochan "finding"
    • ta ghochan ew "he is finding"
  • Singular possessed nouns following the prefixes u- (2nd and 3rd person singular) and mech- (1st person plural)
    • pir "dog"
    • u-fir "your dog"
  • Verbs following the accusative prefixes i- (2nd person plural) and a- (3rd person singular)
    • biwim "we drink"
    • a-wiwim nuzuch "we drink it"
  • Verbs following the dative prefix i- (2nd and 3rd singular)
    • tiras "you gave"
    • i-firas tez "you gave to him"
  • Verbs following all dative-accusative paired pronouns based on 2nd and 3rd person singular accusative
    • tirari "might give"
    • ila-firari zho "they might give it to me"
  • Human or animate definite direct objects (optional, marks focus)
    • ghizh "lords"
    • Ngéjo mafar lizh "The monsters massacred the lords"
  • Nouns following the prepositions par (for, specifically in the forward sense, see below), da (of, from), sikaz (at, near), and others
    • karíños "women"
    • par kharíños "for women"

Koghilan

Koghilan mutations, or nasalization, developed due to contact between coda nasals and obstruents. Kogilan causes voiceless obstruents to voice, voiced stops to transform into nasals, and voiced fricatives to harden into stops.

Words that receive Koghilan include:

  • Masculine nouns following the indefinite article
    • kis "cheese"
    • o gis "a cheese"
  • Verbs in the 2nd or 3rd person plural after the progressive particle ta
    • jewan "going"
    • La síño ñewan "The men are going"
  • Negated verbs following the negative particle nug
    • sango "I died"
    • Nug zango ju "I did not die"
  • Objects of the copula so when describing a plural subject
    • izedikh "equal"
    • So n-izedikh túzla másho "All men are equal"
  • Singular possessed nouns following the prefix i- (1st person singular)
    • totizh "bread"
    • i-dotizh "my bread"
  • Verbs following the accusative prefixes i- (1st person singular) and o- (1st person plural)
    • sawb- "Save!"
    • o-zawb- "Save us!"
  • Verbs following the dative prefixes i- (1st person singular) and o- (1st person plural)
    • jála "talks"
    • o-jála zha "She talks to us"
  • Verbs following all dative-accusative paired pronouns based on 1st person accusative
    • tiro "he gave"
    • imi-diro "he gave me to them"
  • Nouns following the prepositions e (in, on), ko (with, using), and others
    • Suchon "heaven"
    • e Zuchon "in heaven"

Mutations

Radical Siwban Koghilan
p f b
b w m
f h b
w - b
t f d
d z n
s - z
z - d
sh - zh
zh - j
ch sh j
j zh ñ
k kh g
g gh ng
kh h gh
gh - ng
gh l z
Vowel - n-

The reason for the two sets of mutations of gh are due to the twin evolution from Spanish g and rr. Which mutation to use must be memorized.

There are also a number of irregular mutations that apply to labials.

Radical
p kh g
b gh ng
f h gh
w gh ng
m n n

The source of these mutations was labialized velars and /n/. Mutations had evolved before the labialization could occur, and they overrode the /w/ semivowel that causes it. These are irregular and must be memorized.

Also, a small number of words take the prefix na- in when undergoing Koghilan. This developed from the lost initial vowels of many of these words.

Orthography[]

Most speakers of Míkhan are illiterate. What is the point to reading when surviving is such a daily battle? As well, the language is, as most new languages are at first, generally seen as a corruption of the purer Spanish of old, a true child of the apocalypse in which it was birthed. As such, writing in Míkhan is looked down upon in favor of writing in Spanish and sometimes English in the northern regions. The writing system shown here is a romanization system, used as a tool for readers here.

Letter IPA
A a /a/
B b /b/
Ch ch /tʃ /
D d /d/
E e /e/
F f /f/
G g /g/
Gh gh /ɣ/
H h /h/
I i /i/
J j /dʒ/
K k /k/
Kh kh /χ/
L l /l/
M m /m/
N n /n/
Ñ ñ /ɲ/
Ng ng /ŋ/
O o /o/
P p /p/
R r /ɾ/
S s /s/
Sh sh /ʃ/
T t /t/
U u /u/
W w /w/
Z z /z/
Zh zh /ʒ/

The only major rule to the romanization system is the placement of the accent mark. No monosyllabic word can receive the accent mark. If a multisyllabic word receives stress on the final syllable, it is unwritten. Any other stress placement is however marked with the accent mark.

Also, as a nod to its ancestor, question marks and exclamation points are reversed and doubled.

Nominal Morphology[]

Nouns[]

Nouns in Míkhan bear great resemblance to the nouns of Spanish. They inflect for number and gender, albeit in a much more irregular fashion than the meticulously simple pattern of Spanish.

Gender[]

Míkhan has inherited the masculine and feminine genders of Spanish. The vast majority of words retain the gender of their ancestors, but shuffling has still occurred. Unlike in Spanish, one cannot easily guess the gender based on the noun itself. The simple -o/-a distinction was lost when final vowels were lost. Thus, to tell gender, one must look at plural behavior, relationship with articles, derivational suffixes, and other less-than-immediately-obvious-means.

Note: The plural-gender relationship is the same as Spanish, where a group of mixed gender is treated as masculine.

Masculine

Noted via:

  • General plural ending -o
  • Plural adjective ending -o
  • Undergoes Koghilan after the indefinite article
  • Undergoes L-epenthesis after the definite article (if begins with vowel)
  • Corresponding pronoun ew
  • Agentive suffixes -ázo, -o
  • Augmentative suffix -a, -of
  • Pejorative suffix -ush
  • Abstract suffix -im
  • Process suffix -med

Feminine

Noted by:

  • General plural ending -a
  • Plural adjective ending -a
  • Undergoes Siwban after the definite article (if begins with vowel)
  • Corresponding pronoun zha
  • Agentive/Diminutive suffix -if
  • Augmentative/Agentive suffix -o
  • Abstract suffixes -sho/zho, -zaz
  • Locative suffix -iri
  • Objective suffix -zur

Plurals[]

Just like gender endings, pluralization is much more of an irregular process in Míkhan. Generally, masculine plurals end in -o and feminine plurals end in -a. However, this is only true is the noun is a regular noun that ends in a consonant. Nouns that end in vowels have many different endings, and numerous changes and shifts can be documented. Here are the most common.

Regular

Gendered

As stated, most nouns that end in consonants take the endings -o and -a for masculine and feminine respectively. Stress remains on the final syllable of the root.

Masculine:

  • cheb "day"
  • chébo "days"

Feminine:

  • totizh "bread"
  • totízha "breads"

The derivational endings -ush , -im, and -med take the masculine -o in the plural (-úsho, -ímo, -médo), and the suffixes -if and -zur take the feminine -a (-ífa, -zúra).

E-Plural

A number of other nouns take the suffix -e as plural. This is indicative of neither gender, but the noun still has an inherent gender. As above, the stress remains on the final syllable of the root. Masculine:

  • belúkh "brick"
  • belúkhe "bricks"

Feminine:

  • pew "skin"
  • péwe "skins"

The masculine augmentative suffix -of takes the E-plural (-ófe).

Non-Ending Plural

These nouns take no ending to indicate plurality. However, unlike uncountable nouns, they still encode plurality, as indicated on adjectives and articles. They can also be of either gender.

Masculine:

  • pírfu "spirit"
  • pírfu "spirits"

Feminine:

  • pañob "language"
  • pañob "languages"

The feminine suffix -zaz indicates plural with no marking.

Adding Consonant Plurals

These words are regular, but highly unpredicatable. Most of these end in vowels and fall into one of 3 main patterns.

Add -S Plural

  • karíño "woman"
  • karíños "women"

Add -N Plural

  • seksho "chapter"
  • sekshon "chapters"

The feminine derivational suffixes -o and -sho/-zho take n in the plural (-shon/-zhon).

Add -R plural

These nouns end in vowels and take -r in the plural.

  • amo "love"
  • amor "loves"

The masculine derivational suffixes -ázo and -o take r in the plural (-ázor, -or).

Consonant Shift Plurals

These words are irregular. The endings added to them are usually basic regular endings, but in adding them, the final consonant changes form. There are several common varieties.

Note: Usually, nouns derived from consonant shift nouns retain the shifted consonant in the derived form.

W-L Plural

  • khimew- "sibling"
  • khimélo- "siblings"

B-L Plural

  • abob "plant"zdx
  • abóle "plants"

R-L Plural

  • pir "dog"
  • pílo "dogs"

B-W Plural

  • lub "wolf" (dated)
  • lúwo "wolf" (dated)

S-H Plural

  • us "eye" (dated)
  • úho -"eyes" (dated)

Ng-Ñ Plural

  • ning "boy"
  • níño "boys"

Irregular Plurals

-iri Plural

The feminine locative suffix -iri has the irregular plural -eri.

  • juriri "grave"
  • jureri "graves"

Other Irregular Plurals

Many irregular nouns are entirely unpredictable.

  • ghe "lord"
  • ghizh "lords"

Articles[]

The system of 8 Spanish articles has collapsed into only 4 in the time of Míkhan. Specifically, gender is no longer indicated by the article itself, but by the mutations inflicted on the modified noun. The four articles are a (definite singular), la (definite plural), o (indefinite singular), and un (indefinite plural).

The mutations caused by the articles are as follows:

Masculine Feminine
a Definite

Singular

Insert l- before

initial vowel

Siwban
la Definite

Plural

None None
o Indefinite

Singular

Koghilan None
un Indefinite

Plural

None None


As you might notice, plural nouns are not mutated. However, these nouns are generally the only ones to explicitly show the gender (via plural suffix) anyways, so the system remains largely symmetrical in that regard.

Typically, articles are used in many more circumstances than in English, similar to Spanish.

The definite article is used:

  • With definite individuals or groups (ones that are expected to be known)
    • Bizh ju a pir "I saw the dog"
  • When speaking of the noun in a general sense
    • Ta sighiz a pizhe ew da a wis "He is made of stone"
  • When speaking of abstract concepts
    • Seri bad kha a nukléwman o-nirigh. "Conscience should guide us"
  • When referring to the referent's own body parts
    • A pizif disozaz ghimuwi a uris da látim. "The disgraced prince cut off his own ear in shame"
  • When referring to institutions
    • Pan puzzafna bin, seri bad kha jéwa bu pára iglish. "When temptation comes, you should go to church"
  • When referring to dates and days (equivalent to English on)
    • Ba ghuhe zho a mekule "They will fight on Wednesday"

Pronouns[]

Pronouns in Míkhan have changed quite a bit since the days of Spanish. Old nominative pronouns remain, albeit somewhat changed from older forms. The older reflexive, dative, and accusative pronouns have weakened to simple proclitics that help indicate previously mentioned referents. The old genitive pronouns have been lost, and the old genitive adjectives have become simple possesive proclitics. Both proclitical systems are supplemented by the inflecting prepositions.

Nominative

The subject pronouns of Míkhan are mandatory to use, regardless of the conjugation of the verb. In intransitive sentences, as with all nouns, they follow the verb. However, unlike most nouns, subject pronouns still follow the verb in transitive sentences.

Note: replace any singular third person argument with the pronoun of the corresponding gender.

  • Kazdi uzh ju "I run everyday"
  • Kozhjim nuzuch etakh shuzaz e gukhajob "We built this city on rock-and-roll"

The nominative pronouns are:

Singular Plural
1 ju nuzuch
2 bu tez
3 masc. ew zho
3 fem. zha

These pronouns see little use aside from their role as subject pronouns. Inflecting prepositions and proclitics take up most of the rest of the pronominal load.

Accusative

This set of pronouns is actually derived from an inflecting preposition, but the preposition itself has been lost except for the leniting effect it has on animate objects. Thus, most grammarians count these as pronouns in their own right. These co-occur with the accusative proclitics. Mostly, the pronouns are used to initial introduction and emphasis, and the proclitics carry their weight from there.

Singular Plural
1 ami anus
2 afi otez
3m aw ázho
3f azh


The accusative proclitics are:

Singular Plural
1 ^i- ^o-
2 *i- o-
3m *a- o-
3f *a-

*Causes Siwban ^Causes Koghilan

Dative

There are no explicitly dative pronouns. Instead, inflected forms of the prepositions par are used.

The dative proclitics are:

Singular Plural
1 ^ i- ^ o-
2 * i- i-
3 *i- i-

*Causes Siwban ^Causes Koghilan

Accusative/ Dative Combinations

If both both direct object and indirect object are stated, and both referents are marked by proclitics, special "combined forms" are used to indicate them.

Direct Object
Indirect

Object

1s 2s 3s 1p 2p 3p
1s - *idi- *ila- ^ ino- ilo- ilo-
2s ^ imi- - *ila- ^ ino- ilo- ilo-
3s ^ imi- *ifi- *ila- ^ ino- ilo- ilo-
1p ^ omi- *odi- ola- - oli- oli-
2p ^ imi- *iti- ila- ^ ino- - ilo-
3p ^ imi- *iti- ila- ^ ino- ilo- ilo-

*Causes Siwban ^Causes Koghilan

Genitive

The old genitive pronouns of Spanish have been completely revamped in Míkhan. Ownership is expressed with a triplicate system: A series of genitive possessed pronouns, a set of possessed proclitics, and the inflections of the prepositions da.

Singular Plural
1 ^ i- *mech-
2 * u- u-
3 *u- u-

*Causes Siwban ^Causes Koghilan

Genitive proclitics are sort of like possession-based definite articles. When a possessor is first introduced, expecially with second and third person referents, it is typical to use both the proclitics and follow with the preposition da (inflected as needed). From there, subsequent mentions of object or even objects possessed by the same possessor can then take the proclitics without specifying the owner.

  • A lajo nug ngifo pan ghimuwi ju u-uris. Dihired da u-migh. "The thief did not scream when I removed his ear. Unlike his partner."

The possessed pronouns are:

Singular

Possessor

Plural

Possessor

Singular

Possessee

Plural

Possessee

Singular

Possesee

Plural

Possessee

1 mikhus mechkhus mikúsa mechkúsa
2 tukhus sukhus tukúsa sukúsa
3 sukhus sukhus sukúsa sukúsa

These are used as the old Spanish possessed pronouns are, or as the English mine, yours, ours, ect. They can replace a possessed noun in just the same way.

  • Eshazh so mikhus! "That's mine!"
  • Kus so mikúsa so tukúsa "What's mine is yours"

Reflexive

The old reflexive pronouns of Spanish, along with the vast majority of reflexive verbs in general, went the way of the Dodo as the apocalypse hit. To take their place, a new reflexive system developed for modern Míkhan. In this system, dative or accusative markers are attached to the verb, declined to the same person and number as the verb, and the object (direct or indirect) of the verb is replaced with a reflexive pronoun.

Singular Plural
1 mimim mechmímo
2 tumim sumímo
3 sumim sumímo


Adjectival Morphology[]

Adjectives follow the noun in Míkhan. They inflect almost identically to nouns, following the same patterns of inflection. However, the addition of a comparative form is a new innovation in Míkhan.

Adjective Declension

Regular

Regular forms of adjectives all occur in similar forms to nouns.

Gendered adjectives take -o in the masculine plural and -a in the feminine plural.

  • awt "big" (singular)
  • áwto "big" (masc. plural)
  • áwta "big" (fem. plural)

Non-gendered adjectives take -e in the plural.

  • bad "good" (singular)
  • báde "good" (plural)

Non-ending plurals take no agreement marking.

  • hika "fast" (singular & plural)

Adding Consonant plurals take -n, -r, and -s in the plural.

  • baslo "happy" (singular)
  • baslon "happy" (plural)

Irregular

Irregular adjectives are few and far between, but consonant shift adjectives of all the same varieties as nouns can be found.

  • char "uncivilized, barbarian" (singular)
  • chálo "uncivilized, barbarian" (plural)

A form or irregularity present in adjectives but not nouns are the Pluralless Gender adjectives, which consist of those few adjectives that take seperate forms for each gender but remain the same regardless of plurality.

  • níbo "black" (masculine)
  • níba "black" (feminine)

Only a very few are truly irregular.

  • mawbaz "bad" (singular)
  • málo "bad" (masculine plural)
  • mála "bad" (feminine plural)

Adjective Use

Adjectives used attributively generally follow the noun, except for most quantifiers and demonstrative pronouns. Adjectives that modify feminine nouns undergo lenition, but quanitifiers that precede do not.

  • o bir tod "a dead dog"
  • la chíkha gháde "the good girls"
  • túzla karíños "all women"
  • numet ghizh "many lords"
  • echakh wis "this rock"

If used predicately, adjectives occur in the "So Adjective Noun" constructions. Plural subjects cause so to cause nasalization to the adjective.

  • So ging katizh "The castle is ugly"
  • Er n-áwta la ñalága "The claws were long"

Multiple adjectives can occur both predicatively or attributively. In predicative constructions, ima "and" is used to link the adjectives.

  • Er n-áwta ima níba la ñalága "The claws were long and black"
  • So ging ima char a mash "The man is ugly and brutish"

Simple juxtaposition does the duty for multiple attributive adjectives.

  • shef pes malon ghínga "seven ugly brown fish"
  • la siñífa áwta muwáfa "the tall beautiful women"

Finally, adjectives can be rendered as nouns if preceded with the definite article a. Depending on context, this can be interpreted as Adjective things or Adjectiveness or the quality of being Adjective. These are rendered as masculine.

  • A hika ima a tod "the quick and the dead"
  • Kunok ju kha bu chíne a bad edi "I know there is good in you"

Comparative

The Míkhan comparative form is a relatively new innovation and remains fairly regular and predictable in its use. The vast majority of comparatives are formed via the prefix ma(s)-, with stress remaining on the root. The root used will always be the singular masculine.

  • masawt "bigger"
  • mabaslo "happier"
  • maníbo "blacker"

Though a few take the prefix masa-.

  • masahika "faster"
  • masazifaz "more acceptable"

And a few of the most common adjectives have entirely irregular forms.

  • mo "better" (comparitive of bad or ben)
  • po "worse" (comparitive of mawbaz)
  • mazh "bigger" (comparitive of awt)

Comparative Use

Most of the time, the comparative functions as it would in Spanish or English. When used attributively, it follows directly after the noun.

  • O mash mo "A better man"
  • A chiwu machar "The more uncivilized tribe"

When used predicatively, use it exactly as any other predicative adjective.

  • So po i-boblem dimi "My problem is worse"
  • So hika a ghasiw, míno so masahika a gafokhulen "The gazelle is fast, but the cheetah is faster"

And contrastive statements indicate the other party using kha.

  • So masazifaz a l-efi kha a khuwadi "Death is more acceptable than cowardice"
  • Kunok ju kha so mo ju kha bu "I know I am better than you"

One can indicate the superlative of the adjective by preceding it with the definite article. The leniting effect of feminine is used in this context, as is the n-epenthesis of plural so. Predicatively, this is treated as a noun equalitative, with a "Noun so Adjective" pattern rather than the "So adjective noun" as in a positive or comparative statements.

  • I-ghimew dimi so a fo "My sister is the worst"
  • Fa da Shiwaw so a maging "Fa of the north is the ugliest"
  • Eshazh ngéjo er na matod kha to biz ju "Those monsters were the deadest I've ever seen"

When used attributively, the superlative occurs before the noun, with the definite article.

  • A mamew níño bíne bíña o chiwu shar "The youngest boys hail from one of the uncivilized tribes"
  • Okh Aslan so a masawt shiwaw e n-etakh jir "South Aztlan is the biggest city in this land"

Verbal Morphology[]

The verbs of Míkhan have become something very different from its ancestral days of Spanish's full Romance splendor. Though some of Spanish's fusional endings are still alive and kicking, most of the weight of meaning is carried in auxilliaries, periphrastic verb constructions, and particles. Though quite different from its ancestor, there is still recognition in modern Míkhan's verbs. You just need to know where to look.

Fusional Forms[]

Infinitive

The three verb groups of Spanish have collapsed into only two in Míkhan, with -ar forming modern Type-A (-a) verbs, and -er and -ir forms merging into the Type-E (-e) conjugations. All verbs fall into one of these two conjugations. Each group will behave differently when conjugated.

Some Regular Type-A verbs:

  • obiza "to forgive"
  • chala "to talk, speak"
  • jewa "to go"

Some irregular Type-A verbs:

  • pizha "to do, make"
  • aka "to kill"
  • khugha "to fight, duel"

Some regular Type-E Verbs:

  • sighe "to follow"
  • biwe "to drink"
  • kume "to eat"

Some irregular Type-E Verbs:

  • kuse "to cook"
  • be "to see"
  • tine "to have"

Present Tense

Regular Verbs

The full spectrum of person marking found in Spanish has collapsed somewhat in Míkhan. Vowel and consonant loss has resulted in there being 3-present tense forms for Regular Verbs.

Type-A Type-E
1s None (consonant) None (consonant)
2s -a (stress shift forward) -e (stress shift forward)
3s None (consonant) None (consonant)
1p -am -im
2p -a (stress shift forward) -e (stress shift forward)
3p -a (stress shift forward) -e (stress shift forward)

All but the 1st person plural forms of the present tense are stressed on the last syllable of the root.

Regular Verb Examples

tukha

"to fight in large battles"

Singular Plural
1 tukh tukham
2 túkha túkha
3 tukh túkha


jewa

"to go"

Singular Plural
1 jew jewam
2 jéwa jéwa
3 jew jéwa


Consonant Shift Stems

Just as in nouns, the verbs of Míkhan are subject to shifting consonants at the stem level. Specifically, in the present tense, the 1st person singular/ 3rd person singular form has no vowel ending. This is thus subject to change. Simultaneously, this is regular and less than regular. For verbs in which the final consonants is ñ, h, or w after o or u, the change is to be expected:

  • oña → ong "to prepare → I/he/she/it prepares"
  • baha → bas "to travel → I/he/she/it travels"
  • ghuwa → ghub "to steal I/he/she/it steals"

With verbs in which the final consonant of the stem is l, you can be sure it is irregular, but exactly which form of irregularity the verb takes is difficult to be sure of.

  • ghiwila → ghiwiw "to rebel I/he/she/it rebels"
  • kule → kur "to sprint I/he/she/it sprints"
  • ebola → ebob "to poison I/he/she/it poisons"

Unlike nouns, where these changes are entirely unpredicable, one can usually assume the form or possible forms of these verbs based on the infinitive, which is the given form. As such, they remain more regular than one would imagine. However, due to similarity to the consonant shifting plurals of nouns, and the unpredictability of many L-stem verbs, these are usually considered irregular.

As shown, the six consonant shifts of nouns are all present among verbs, although they are flipped among verbs: L-W verbs, L-B verbs, L-R Verbs, Ñ-Ng Verbs, H-S verbs, and W-B verbs are all present.

All other forms of these verbs in the present tense are regular.

oña
Singular Plural
1 ong oñam
2 óña óña
3 ong óña

Vowel-Changing Verbs

The older, simple stem-changing verbs of Spanish have taken on new shapes. Specifically, stem changing verbs are less common and of higher variety than they used to be. The old E-I, E-IE, and O-UE distinctions have become the modern E-I, O-E, and U-I verbs. The stem change will manifest in all present tense forms except for the 1st person plural.

E-I Verbs

There are only 3 modern E-I verbs: sebe "to serve", bete "to become, change", and ghene "to fail, give up" or "to take over". All three are shown here.

sebe

"to serve"

Singular Plural
1 sib sebim
2 síbe síbe
3 sib síbe


bete

"to change, become"

Singular Plural
1 bit betim
2 bíte bíte
3 bit bíte


ghene

"to fail, give up, take over"

Singular Plural
1 ghin ghenim
2 ghíne ghíne
3 ghin ghíne


O-E Verbs

There are far more O-E verbs than E-I verbs. All O-E verbs in which the consonant before the O is a velar (k, g, kh, gh) or n are also labializing verbs (see below).

Examples:

mocha

"to show, flaunt"

Singular Plural
1 mech mecham
2 mécha mécha
3 mech mécha


awzobe

"to make good, pay off"

Singular Plural
1 awzeb awzobim
2 awzébe awzébe
3 awzeb awzébe


dome

"to be dead"

Singular Plural
1 dem domim
2 déme déme
3 dem déme


U-I Verbs

This is the most common stem change. All U-I verbs in which the consonant before the U is a velar (k, g, kh, gh) or n are also labializing verbs (see below).

Examples:

ngusa

"to swell"

Singular Plural
1 ngis ngusim
2 ngísa ngísa
3 ngis ngísa


ghimuwe

"to cut off"

Singular Plural
1 ghimiw ghimuwim
2 ghimíwe ghimíwe
3 ghimiw ghimíwe


mure

"to die peacefully"

Singular Plural
1 mir murim
2 míre míre
3 mir míre

Consonant Changing Stem

In addition to the vowel changing stem verbs listed, there are two forms of consonant changing stem: palatalizing verbs and labializing verbs.

Palatalizing Verbs

Palatalizing verbs occur among certain verbs whose stems occur with the pattern TFCV, where T is one of the consonants t, d, s, z, f, or n, F is one of the front vowels e or i, C is any consonant, and V is either infinitive ending, -a or -e. In all present tense forms except for the 1st person plural, the given consonant changes to a palatal consonant. This change can occur at the beginning or in the middle of a word. This change never cooccurs with a vowel change. The changes are:

  • t → ch
  • d → j
  • s → sh
  • f → sh
  • z → zh
  • n → ñ

Examples:

teda

"to trick"

Singular Plural
1 ched tedam
2 chéda chéda
3 ched chéda


edene

"to understand"

Singular Plural
1 ejen edenim
2 ejéna ejéna
3 ejen ejéna


susigha

"to incapacitate, put to sleep"

Singular Plural
1 sushigh susigham
2 sushígha sushígha
3 sushigh sushígha


afila

"to terrify"

Singular Plural
1 ashir afilam
2 ashíla ashíla
3 ashir ashíla


kozene

"to concern, behave improperly"

Singular Plural
1 kozhen kozenim
2 kozhéne kozhéne
3 kozhen kozhéne


niwa

"to crumble to dust"

Singular Plural
1 ñiw niwam
2 ñíwa ñíwa
3 ñiw ñíwa


There are also two vowel initial palatalizing verbs: ila and ire. These verbs take zh at the beginning of the stem in all present tense forms except for the 1st person plural.

ila

"to crumble to dust"

Singular Plural
1 zhiw ilam
2 zhíla zhíla
3 zhiw zhíla


ire

"to wound, cut"

Singular Plural
1 zhir irim
2 zhíre zhíre
3 zhir zhíre


Labalizing Verbs

Palatalizing verbs occur among certain verbs whose stems occur with the pattern KBCV, where T is one of the consonants k, g, kh, gh, or n, B is one of the back vowels o or u, C is any consonant, and V is either infinitive ending, -a or -e. In all present tense forms except for the 1st person plural, the given consonant changes to a labial consonant. This change can occur at the beginning or in the middle of a word. This change always cooccurs with a O-E or U-I vowel change. The changes are:

  • k→ p
  • g→ b
  • kh→ f
  • gh→ w
  • n→ m

Examples:

kuse

"to cook"

Singular Plural
1 pis kusim
2 píse píse
3 pis píse


goja

"to find"

Singular Plural
1 bej gojam
2 béja béja
3 bej béja
ghikhoda

"to memorialize"

Singular Plural
1 ghifed ghikodam
2 ghiféda ghiféda
3 ghifed ghiféda
ghugha

"to ask, beg"

Singular Plural
1 wigh ghugham
2 wígha wígha
3 wigh wígha
ghinuwa

"to do again, redo"

Singular Plural
1 ghimiw ghinuwam
2 ghimíwa ghimíwa
3 ghimiw ghimíwa


There are also one vowel initial labializing verb: ule. This verb takes w at the beginning of the stem in all present tense forms except for the 1st person plural.

ule

"to smell"

Singular Plural
1 wiw ulim
2 wíle wíle
3 wiw wíle

Consonant Insertion Stems

Vowel Addition Stems

Consonant Additin Stems

There is a subset of stem changing vowel addition verbs that either develop or change a consonant from its stem in the process of being conjugated in the 1st person singular, 2nd, or 3rd person forms. Usually one of two things will happen: either the stem changed v

Vowel Insertion Stems

Hidden-Zh Verbs

Special Ju Verbs

Past Tense

Conditional

Optative

Participles

Analytic Forms[]

Ba and Ta: The Particles

Auxilliaries and Periphrastic Constructs

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