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Magdir
Maydhir
Magdáár
Type a-priori fusional
Alignment Nom - Acc
Word Order SVO
Head direction initial
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Topic-Prominence Yes
Classes
(m) male (f) female
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



Classification and DialectsEdit

Magdir is the language spoken by the mountain people of Mag, a small monarchic nation located in and around the Tatra mountains bordering both modern day Poland and Slovakia. It is a more conservative language of the Mayen language family. The only other related language in this family that is still spoken is may, spoken in another micronation in northeastern europe. The Magdir language, due to being spoken in only a small area, has little dialectal difference, even the two major dialects, northern and eastern, differ not much in use of words and grammar, and only slightly in sound.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive p t k
Fricative β(~ʋ) ɸ ð(~θ) s ʃ x ɦ(~ɣ)
Affricate ps ts ks
Approximant l j
Trill ʀ(~ʁ)

VowelsEdit

Front unrounded Front rounded Back unrounded Back rounded
High i iː y u
Near-high ɪ ɪː
High-mid e eː ø øː
Low-mid ɛ ɛː ɔ ɔː
Low ɑ ɑː

PhonotacticsEdit

Writing SystemEdit

In modern times a latin writing system is used, for compatibility and translatability reasons. This practice has already been going on for ages since the times the Mag people kept positive relationships with the nations around. However there is a locally created writing system that has been in use before the introduction of latin. With recent sentiment for nationalism however this writing system is gaining more favour.

Letter a á b c d e é f g h i
sound ɔ / ɑ ɑ / ɑː β(~ʋ) ð(~θ) ɛ / e e / eː ɸ j ɦ(~ɣ) ɪ / i
Letter í j k l m n o ó p q r
sound ɪ / ɪː ʃ k l m n ɔ / u ɔː p x ʀ(~ʁ)
Letter s t u (v) (w) (x) (y) (z) (ψ)
sound s t y / ø β(~ʋ) u / ʋ ks ø / øː ts ps

In the latin script, the letters v, w, x, y and z are only used to in foreign names and sometimes in loanwords. In some older texts, before the centralised regulation of the language, the letter ψ was used for the ps sound, it is part of the group of three letters that each form a combined sound ending in s, these letters are x for ks, z for ts, and ψ for ps.

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

The language, unlike most languages spoken in europe, does not distinguish between singular and plural at all. It does however distinguish gramatically between male and female words, the gender of words sometimes seems arbitrary, and often the genders are interchangable, with the notable exeption of animals where gender actually is used to distinguish between the two different genders common with animals. Besides this the language uses cases extensively.

CasesEdit

There are 7 cases, these cases often are formed by either adding a suffix to words, or changing the regular endings of words. The locative is rarely used on its own to indicate location, often a postposition or preposition is used in combination with this case. There however are multiple postpostitions and prepositions that also use other cases for (slightly) other meanings.

Male Female
-o irregular -ir -en irregular
Nominative -o - -ir -en -
Accusative -ot -t -it -it -t
Genitive -um -m -in -in -n
Dative -on -jon -icit -encen -cen
Ablative -or -r -ir -ir -r
Locative -áán -n -iréén -één -n
Instrumantal -oq -q -irid -ened -d

The following table shows example words of all of the five different declensions, with the exception of irregular declensions.

Male Female
oko (man) fón (telephone) Magdir (Maidhir) sagren (Queen) ámsoll (woman)
Nominative oko fón Magdir sagren ámsoll
Accusative okot fónot Magdit sagrit ámsollet
Genitive okum fónom Magdin sagrin ámsollen
Dative okon fónjon Magdicit sagrencen ámsollcen
Ablative okor fónor Magdir sagrir amsoller
Locative okáán fón(on) Magdiréén sagréén amsollen
Instrumental okoq fónoq Magdirid sagrened amsolled

VerbsEdit

There are three types of common regular verbs, -a, -e and -m verbs. These indicate the ending they have in the third person. Verbs in official dictionaries are always listed using their third person form, not their stem or the first person form as might be more common for other languages.

conjugationEdit

The conjugation for person and the imperative mood generally are combined together, as an imperative command never has a person.

-a verbs -e verbs -m verbs
first person -an -en -n
second person -ag -i -bi
third person -a -e -m
imperative -o -bo

The following table shows example verbs conjugated for person/imperative.

ijara (to give) bose (to cry) gom (to burn)
first person ijaran bosen gon
second person ijarag bosi gobi
third person ijara bose gom
imperative ijaro boso gobo

SyntaxEdit

The general sentence structure is SVO, grouping all verbs at all times, any extra arguments are most commonly found after the verb, this however is not exclusive. Anything in front of the verb that is not a subject is seen as exceptionally important information, slightly alike to a topic.

LexiconEdit

Leipzig-JakartaEdit

The following table has all vocabulary of the Leipzig-Jakarta list, excluding pronouns, demonstratives and other grammatical words alike. If either (pol) or (slo) is used after any of the words in Magdir it means that the relative word is a loanword from either polish or slovenian respectively.

English Magdir
fire Huun (f)
nose ardo (m)
to go
water jáán (f)
mouth mosen (f)
tongue goro (m)
blood cen (f)
bone hogro (m)
root ben (f)
to come
breast
rain
name
louse
wing
meat
arm
hand
fly (animal)
night
night
ear
neck
far
to do
to make
house
stone
bitter
to say
tooth
hair
big
to hit
leg
foot
horn
fish psojo (m) psojen (f)
to drink
black
navel
to stand
to bite
win
smoke
child
egg
to give ijara
new
to burn gom
good
to know
knee
sand caren (f)
to laugh
to hear
soil
leaf
red
liver
to hide
skin
hide
to suck
to carry
ant
heavy
old
to eat
thigh
longto blow
wood
to run
to fall
eye
ash
tail
dog 
to cry bose
to tie
to see
sweet
rope
shadow
bird migir (f)
salt sóll (m) (pol)
small
wide
star
hard
to crush
to grind
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