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Makalan
Makāla'ītam
Type Agglutinative
Alignment
Head direction
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations No
Genders 4
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 0%
Statistics
Nouns 0%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 0%
Words of 1500
Creator [[User:|]]


Classification and DialectsEdit

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Labial-Velar Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive p b t d k g ʔ
Fricative s z h
Approximant l j w

VowelsEdit

Front Back
High i u
Mid e o
Low a

PhonotacticsEdit

Syllables are restricted in the (C)V(C) form, but there are 10 vowels instead of 5. The first 5 are the short vowels an the last 5 are the long vowels. The lenght of the vowel usually changes, well, the lenght of the vowel, but it also dictates where to put the primary and secondary stresses, and occasionally, glottal stops are added at the last vowel if the letters are configured in a right way.

Writing SystemEdit

They have 2 different ways of writing, in the Latin Alphabet, and in the Magōna Script.

Latin Alphabet Edit

Letter Aa Āā Bb Dd Ee Ēē Gg Hh Ii Īī Kk Ll
Sound a b d e g h i k l
Letter Mm Nn Oo Ōō Pp Ss Tt Uu Ūū Ww Yy '
Sound m n o p s t u w j ʔ

Magōna Script Edit

Letter [repetition of the last letter] Aa Bb Dd Ee Gg Hh Ii Kk Ll Mm Nn
Sound ː a b d e g h i k l m n
Letter Oo Pp Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww '
Sound o p s t u w j ʔ

Side Note Edit

In untranscripted loan words, the spelling is completely different

Switching between Latin and Magōna Edit

Latin

Magōna

Makāla'ītam Makaala'iitam
Gātal Gaatal
Magōna Magoona

GrammarEdit

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes No No No Yes
Nouns No No Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


NounsEdit

Makalan is an agglutinative language. This means that it has markers that act as affixes. The lenght of the vowel in an affix changes based on the previous vowel. If that previous vowel is the rootword, it will copy its vowel lenght. If that previous vowel is part of an another affix, it will take the default vowel lenght of that vowel, most of the time.

NOTE: Every affix is a marker unless specified.

?- noun -sī -pī -ta -pā -sa -kī -ka
Marker Temporal Self-Comparing Prefix (TSCP)1 Rootword Definite Indefinite Plural Object (Word Order)2 Object

(Adjective)3

Possessed Possessive
Optional? (if yes, when?) *1 No Yes, when using auxiliary words like the word for "all" or "none" No

Notes:

  1. TSCP is used if you are comparing a noun to itself but just at a different time.
    1. For Example: "It is much more brighter than usual". "It" and "Usual" is referring to the same thing, just at different times.
    2. In Makalan, These words must be a prefix of a noun that they are referring to, so it would be like "It is much more brighter than usual-it" or in a more understandable way, "It is much more brighter that it usually is.".
  2. This is the "Object" in "Subject-Verb-Object".
  3. This marker is satisfied when the noun is being described by an adjective.

TSCP (Temporal Self-Comparing Prefix) Edit

I have explained this in the Notes just above, so here are words/prefixes that you can use for TSCP.

NOTE: If the first vowel of the rootword and the last vowel of the prefix are long vowels, the last vowel of the prefix will automatically become short and the consonant after that vowel is also dropped off if the rootword starts with a consonant (if that consonant exists).

English Makalan (Prefix) Example
Prefix + Rootword Rootword
Makalan English (Meaning)
Before tis- Tisdūpi Dūpi Water
After das- Daslūkis Lūkis Light
Usual māl- Malōpa Ōpa Land
Normal nāl- Nagātal Gātal Sun
Yesterday dākas- Dākasbānin Bānin Sand
Tomorrow tīkas- Tīkaskālpa Kālpa Alpha
Previously Expected tiskād- Tiskapōltompūtel Pōltompūtel Laptop
Previously Thought Tiskādmelōputēl Melōputēl Tablet

Here is a translation example:

"The sun is much more brighter than usual" ---> "Gātalsisā mī lūminsa nū'ut magātalsipāsā."

Makalan Sentence

Gātalsisā

lūminsa

nū'ut

magātalsipāsā

Morphemes Gātal si lūmin sa 'ut ma gātal si
Word-by word translation sun The (Adj. Obj. Marker) is brighter than much more usual (sun) (the) (Obj. Marker) (Adj. Obj. Marker)

VerbsEdit

Like nouns, Makalan also builds verbs using affixes. Only action verbs get these markers. Linking verbs like "mī" (is/are) don't have these markers

Verb -1 -2 -3
Rootword Tense Aspect Number

Tense (-1) Edit

Normal/Unspecific Distant
Past (<30*) Present Future (<30**) Past (≥30*) Future (≥30**)
-tas -'ā -'as -dīs -kīs

* = years ago

** = years from now

NOTE: When there is a consonant before the apostrophe, the apostrophe will be automatically removed.

Aspect (-2) Edit

Imperfect Perfect
Simple Progressive Perfect Perfect Progressive
-tā -nī -pī -mī

NOTE: Past tense, normal or distant, will always either have perfect or progressive. Simple becomes Perfect Aspect and Perfect Progressive becomes Progressive.

Number (-3) Edit

Singular Plural
-sa -ta

Adverbs Edit

Sentence Adverbs Edit

Sentence Adverbs are used to give extra information about the sentence, like if the sentence is declarative or interrogative, or if the action in the sentence is accidental or intentional. These are always placed after the object.

Meaning Order Particle
Negation 1st (Negation) gī/'ingī
Interrogative 2nd (Sentence Type) pa
Imperative

SyntaxEdit

The word order for Makalan is SVO, but if you include all of the parts of speech that Makalan has, it would look like this:

Subject-Adjective(describes Subject)-"mī"-Verb-Adverb-Adjective-Particle

LexiconEdit

Example textEdit

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