Type fusional
Alignment Nominative Accusative
Word Order SVO
Head direction final
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Topic-Prominence No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar
Nasal m n ŋ
Stop p t k
Sibilant s ʃ
Affricate ph ts
Voiced Fricative ð ɣ
Unvoiced Fricative ɸ θ x
Approximant ʋ l j
trill r


vowels are written in stressed~unstressed counterparts, the pairs are connected/seperated with a ~.

Front Unrounded Front Rounded Back Rounded
High i~ɪ y~ʏ u~ʊ
Mid e~ɛ ø~œ o~ɔ
Low (ɑ)~a ɑ(~a)

Dipththongs (irregular glides)Edit

- ɪ - ʏ - ʊ
ɛ -
a - ɑɪ ɑy ɑʊ
œ - œy øʊ
ʊ -
ɔ -

Instead of a hiatus in between vowels, speakers of Mareðyl tend to glide all vowels, this normally goes regularly, but the list of "diphthongs" shows the glides that are not following the rule, they have a slight sound change.

These "diphthongs" are always unstressed. Stressed vowels do not change their form while gliding.


In theory a syllable in Maraðyl can be formed up to (C)(C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C) where some consonant combinations are more frequent than others.

Writing SystemEdit

Letter M m N n (NG) ng P p B b D d T t K k G g G' g' S s
Sound /m/ /n/ /ŋ/ /ɸ/ /p/ /t/ /t:/ /k/ /ɣ/ /k/ /s/
name em en ang peþ béð déð dett kann garr garr þug’ és
Letter Ʃ ʃ F f Ts (TS) ts Tʃ (TƩ) tʃ Ð ð (H) h Þ þ C c V v W w ẞ ß
Sound /ʃ/ /ph/ /ts/ /tʃ/ /ð/ depends /θ/ /x/ /ʋ/ /ʋ:/ /ʃ/
name tsirt tʃin chàrnn þorn chill varr wan eßell
Letter L l J j R r Í í I i Ý ý Y y É é E e Á á A a
Sound /l/ /j/ /r/ /i/ /ɪ/ /i:/ /ɪ:/ /e/ /ɛ/ /ɑ/ /a/
name lið jav rar íl il ýn yn él enn ág' ann
Letter Ú ú U u Ò ò È è Ʌ́ ʌ́ Ʌ ʌ Ó ó O o À à Ù ù Q q
Sound /y/ /ʏ/ /ø/ /œ/ /u/ /ʊ/ /o/ /ɔ/ /ɑy/ /œy/ depends
name úrr unn òj èj ʌ́ð ʌnn óm onn àgh ùþ ùqel

Spelling rules :Edit

k and gEdit

/k/ is written k initially and medially, but g’ finally.

ʃ and ßEdit

/ʃ/ is written as ß if it is enclosed within two vowels in the same word.

if <ʃʃ> is written in between two vowels in the same word, it becomes <ʃß>

the rules about ʃ above, do not occur when the /ʃ/ is grammatically put in between two vowels, so if the (root of the)

noun ukpòʃ gets the -en suffix, it remains ukpòʃen and does not become ukpòßen.


/kʋ/ is written as <q> medially.

/kj/ is written as <q> initially.

/ɣ/ (geminiated) is written as <q> finally.

geminiation and enloungingEdit

Vowels are written double if enlounged, except for <i> which is written as <y> when long and <à> and <ù> which cannot be enlounged.

Most consonants are written double for geminiation, except for

<ð>, <g>, <p> and <c> which are followed by an <h> for geminiation. <b> and <d> get gaminiated by <pp> and <tt> respectively.

<v> is written <w> geminiated.

<ng><f><ts> and <tʃ> have no geminiated form.


/kj/ is written as <cj> medially, this does not occur when it is made medially due to affixes.

/x/ can be written both as <h> and <c> initially, this has no regularity in occurance.



common male abstract plural negative
defenite direct - - -i -nje
dative -ann -ʌn -en -inne -njem
genitive -as -ʌs -es -innes -njeme
instrumental -ag' -ig' -eg' -ig' -nje
indefenite direct -annen -ʌnne -ekke -ynne -njekke
dative -am -ʌnnen -ekken -ynnen -njekken
genitive -amas -ʌnnas -ekkas -ynnas -njekkes
instrumental -amag' -ʌnnag' -ekke -ynne -njekke
obviate direct -anner -ʌnner -emmer -ynner -njemmer
dative -ar -ʌr -emme -ynne -njemme
genitive -ase -ʌre -emmes -ynnes -njemmes
instrumental -anneg' -ʌreg' -emmer -ynneg' -njemmer

if the root ends on a vowel in common, male and abstract forms the initial vowel of the suffix tends to disappear.


The direct case is used for subjects, direct objects, with some prepositions and everything not listed below

The dative is used for indirect objects and some prepositions.

The genitive is used for ownership.

The instrumental is used for something that is used, something that is a goal, someone/thing with who/which the action is done, or with some prepositions.


A word either has the class of common or abstract, common class words can have either (in some cases both) a common or a male version. If a word has both, changing the class only changes the gender of the word if it actually is an animal or plant (or something that can have a gender), otherwise the other gender only has a use for variation in speech.

The plural and negative are shared suffixes for the common and abstract words.

Some nouns only exist in plural and/or negative class. 


The indefinite form is like adding an 'a' or 'an' before the english word. The definite is like adding 'the' in english. The obviate acts like there’s nothing in front of the noun in english, this is used for general things.


1 plain narrative gnomic perfective momentane
active indicative -- -an- -aran- -ak- -aðy-
potential -y- -ayn- -aray- -anak- -amby-
imperative -u- -un- -uran- -uk- -uky-
optative -ura- -van- -uran- -urak- -uðy-
potential optative -yra- -vyn- -yran- -yrak- -iðy-
passive indicative -o- -on- -oran- -ok- -oðy-
potential -oy- -oyn- -oray- -onak- -omby-
imperative -or- -orn- -vorn- -ong- -oky-
optative -òra- -vòn- -òran- -òrak- -òðy-
potential optative -oyra- -voyn- -oyran- -oyrak- -oidy-
2 present past future
1st 2nd 3rd 4th 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 1st 2nd 4rd 4th
singular - -s


-eð -ðeð -seð -erð -al -ðal -sal -ers
plural -v -ði -si -ner -veð -ðið -sið -nerð -val -ðil -sil -nal
negative -kyn -ðen -sen -ren -kynð -ðenð -senð -reneð -kynal -ðel -sel -renal




person and moodEdit



Originally Mareðyl is SOV, but if a sentence is a question or a subjunctive the sentence is turned into VSO.

All parts of the sentence but the verb are head final. The verb however is head initial.


personal pronounsEdit

1st person 1st person exclusive 2nd person female 2nd person male 3rd person female 3rd person male 3rd person abstract 4th person
direct singular ig' ðin ði han hʌn her her
plural ve vir ðen hinne hene
dative singular in ðir hannan hʌnnʌ hennen hen
plural ven vin dennen hinnen henen
instrumental singular ig' ðig' di hag' hʌg' her heg'
plural veg' vir deg' hinneg' heneg'


Mareðyl name wordcount
nouns 14
adjectives 3
verbs 5
copulative and irregular verbs 2
prepositions 1
particles and conjunctions 3
total words : 28

Example textEdit

Gsfa Graded Sentences for Analysis


Mareðyl Han kpòʃans qlennym
Gloss she.DIR laughs.NAR.3P small.ADV
English She laughs a little.
Community content is available under CC-BY-SA unless otherwise noted.