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Mbörösling - The People's Language
Mbörösliŋ - Мбӧрӧсліҥ
Type
Mixed - Fusional
Alignment
Tripartite with Volition
Head direction
Mixed
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


"м Ўнсёг ӓ хӦ, тахі ӓл Пӧр кӧ" - м Мбӧрӧсліҥ Пражма
"m Ynsëg ä hÖ, tahi äl Pör kö" - m Mbörösliŋ Pražma
"Into the Sky of the Back of an Axe, a mad Person comes" - Mbörösling Proverb

General InfoEdit

Mbörösling /mbɔ.ɾɔs.liŋ/, (natively Мбӧрӧсліҥ from м Бӧрӧс Ліҥ, m Börös Liŋ, lit: People's Language) is the language of the People of the Siberian Lake Baikal, called м Бӧрӧс Баїка, m Börös Bajka, lit: People of the Lake, it is an language isolate with only the dialect of Bajka-Sëlen surviving since the age of the Mongols, taking vocabulary from the Buryat Branch of Mongolic (eg. Даї Daj lit: war), Russian (eg. Пѥзд Pjëzd lit: Train) and Chinese (Мы Mji lit: Rice).

  • Mongolic Buryat: for War terms, Horses, Equipment:
  • Russian: for Modern Terms, Transportation;
  • Chinese: for food, agriculture, farm animals;

"м Ўнсёг ӓ хӦ, тахі ӓл Пӧр кӧ" , "m Ynsëg ä hÖ, tahi äl Pör kö" , "Into the Sky of the Back of an Axe, a mad Person comes" - Mbörösling Proverb - Interpretation - In battle, the back of the axe was usually amorphous compared to the sharp front, but when in brutal conquests, the vision of warriors hitting people with the back of the axes meant abduction, only a mad person would come into the range (sky) of back of the axe. Meaning only mad persons would go and meet with the back of the axe. An easier way to read would be , "tahi äl Pör kö ä m Ynsëg hÖ", "A mad Person comes into the Back of an Axe's Sky" .

Family tree:

  • Proto-Bajka [NA-600AD] (extinct, no records)
    • Old Bajka-Sëlen [600AD-1400AD] (influenced by the Mongol Buryat and Chinese, extinct, almost no records, only in Pictogram form)
      • Middle Bajka-Sëlen [1400AD-1800AD] (Influenced by Chinese and Russian, extinct, records in Extended Cyrillic )
        • (Modern) Bajka-Sëlen [1800AD-Now] (Influenced by Russian, records in Extended Cyrillic )
    • Old Aŋara [600AD-1400AD] (extinct, almost no records, records only in written Pictogram form)
      • Aŋara-Sëlen [1400AD-1800AD] (extinct, records only in written in Chinese Hanzi and Extended Cyrillic)

Main events:

  • Foundation of the Proto-Bajka around the banks of the Baikal Lake;
  • Arrival of Mongol Trades from 600 AD to 1100 AD;
  • Conquest of the Mongols in the beginning of the 11th century to 13th century, changing Old Bajka-Sëlen into Middle Bajka-Sëlen;
  • Arrival of the Russians in the 16th to 18th century, changing Middle Bajka-Sëlen into Modern Bajka-Sëlen, extinction of the Aŋara-Sëlen dialect;

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

In Mbörösliŋ there are two main types of consonants: clean (no Palatalization) and iotized (Palatalized), Semi-Vowels are treated as Vowels, so they appear in the chart but are not considered Consonants.

There are 23 Clean Consonants:

Stops
Sound p b t d k ɡ
Letter П Б Т Д К Г
Name Petr Bodl Taw
Петр Бодл Таӱ Дӓ Кӓ Гӧ
Sonorants
Sound m n ŋ r/ɾ/ʀ l   
Letter М Н Ҥ Р Л
Name Mum Nun Ŋäŋ Rör Löl
Мум Нун Ҥӓҥ Рӧр Лӧл
Fricatives
Sound f v θ ð s z
Letter Ф В Ҫ Ҙ С З
Name Fàþrè Vàðrè Þrö Ðrum Sër Zäd
Фӑҫрӗ Вӑҙрӗ Ҫрӧ Ҙрум Сёр Зӓд
Sound ʃ ʒ ʧ ʤ χ/h ts
Letter Ш Ж Ч Ԫ Х Ц
Name Šöd Žäm Cöl Çak Häg Tsë
Шӧд Жӓм Чӧл Ԫак Хӓг Цё

And 22 Iotized Consonants:

Iotized Stops
Sound ɡʲ
Letter ПЬ БЬ ТЬ ДЬ КЬ ГЬ
Name Pja Bja Tja Dja Kja Gja
Пьа Бьа Тьа Дьа Кьа Гьа
Iotized Sonorants
Sound ɲ    ɾʲ ʎ   
Letter МЬ Њ РЬ Љ
Name Mja Nja Rja Lja
Мьа Ња Рьа Ља
Iotized Fricatives
Sound θʲ ðʲ
Letter ФЬ ВЬ ҪЬ ҘЬ СЬ ЗЬ
Name Fja Vja Þja Ðja Sja Zja
Фьа Вьа Ҫьа Ҙьа Сьа Зьа
Sound ʃʲ ʒʲ ʧʲ ʤʲ ç tsʲ
Letter ШЬ ЖЬ ЧЬ ԪЬ ХЬ ЦЬ
Name Šja Žja Cja Çja Hja Tsjë
Шьа Жьа Чьа Ԫьа Хьа Цьё

They are distributed in the following manner:

Bilabial Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m mʲ n ɲ ŋ
Plosive p b pʲ bʲ t d tʲ dʲ k g kʲ gʲ
Fricative f v fʲ vʲ θ ð θʲ ðʲ s z sʲ zʲ ʃ ʒ ʃʲ ʒʲ ç χ/h
Affricate ts tsʲ ʧ ʤ ʧʲ ʤʲ
Approximant w h͡ʍ/ʍ l j ʎ
Trill r/ɾ/ʀ ɾʲ
Flap or tap

VowelsEdit

Semi-Vowels Edit

The Semi-Vowels that exist in the language are /j/ , /w/ and /h͡ʍ | ʍ/, formed from the i and u vowels with diaeresis, Ь Jëvj is mostly used to signify Iotized Consonants/Vowels.

Semi-Vowels
Sound j w h͡ʍ/ʍ ʲ
Letter Ї Ӱ ХӰ Ь
Name Jöl Wöl Hwöl Jëvj
Їӧл Ӱӧл ХӰӧл Їёвь

Proper Vowels Edit

Proper Vowels are divided into three types:

Front Vowels
Sound a ɛ e i
Letter А Ё Е І
Name Ar Ër Er Ir
Ар Ёр Ер Ір
Back Vowels
Sound ɑ ɔ o u
Letter Ӓ Ӧ О У
Name Är Ör Or Ur
Ӓр Ӧр Ор Ур
Middle Vowels
Sound ɐ ə y æ / ae
Letter Ӑ Ә/Ӗ Ѧ/Ꙟ/Ў Ӕ
Name Àjr Èr Yr Ær
Ӑїр Әр/Ӗр Ѧр/Ꙟр/Ўр Ӕр

They are distributed in the following manner:

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
High i y u
Near-high
High-mid e o
Mid ə
Low-mid ɛ ɔ
Near-low (æ) ɐ
Low a ɑ

Iotized Vowels Edit

Beyond the Proper Vowels, some of the Vowels can be Iotized, meaning that either they are preceded by a /j/ or /ʲ/.

Iotized Vowels
Sound ʲɑ ʲo ʲu ʲy
Letter Ю Ѫ Ѩ
Name jär jor jur jyr
Ꙗр Юр Ѫр Ѩр
Sound ʲa ʲɛ ʲae ʲi
Letter Я Ѥ Ԙ Ы / Ӹ
Name jar jër jær jir / jir tjäp
Яр Ѥр Ԙр Ыр / Ӹр Тьӓп

Vowel Harmony Edit

Words in the language can have either front or back vowels, no word has both. Middle and Semi-vowels can be in both, if a word is entirely with Neutral vowels, it becomes a Back Vowel Word. The only exception are compound words like the name of the language, which derived from two words, in this case, the first vowel dictates the word harmony.

Writing SystemEdit

The Written System of Mbörösliŋ is based on the Cyrillic Extended Alphabet, brought by the Russians along with transportation during the first expansion into Siberia from 16th to 18th centuries, during the 19th century, various transportation and other related vocabulary entered the language along with a more standardized writing system.

For Example:

Ў/Ѧ/Ꙟ were used by the Bajka, Sëlen and Aŋara Tribes to represent the sound /y/, while Ѩ represented /ʲy/, so while in old texts these can still appear, in modern writing Ў and Ѩ are used, Ѧ is still used in modern texts due to similarities to Ѩ by some old writers but in decline.

Ә/Ӗ were used by the Tribes to represent the sound /ə/, now in modern texts Ӗ is used, but Ә can still be viewed in some signs and old texts.

Ӕ was divided into two branches of sounds /æ/ and /ae/ depending on the tribe, modern uses more the /ae/ sound that the Bajka originally used.

Ь on its own is not considered part of the alphabet, only when pared with consonants or vowels, so all the letters that have it are considered one letter.

Special non-allowed strings: due to ХЬ /ç/ and Х /h/ having the same sound when І or Ѧ/Ꙟ/Ў are after them /çi/ and /çy/ respectively, when this happens Ь cannot be placed between them and Iotization has no effect. Example: Тахі Tahi /tahi/ --> /taçi/; so string like ХЬІ and  ХЬЎ cannot exist and are instead rendered ХІ and  ХЎ, with special attention to the iotized vowels versions ХЫ and ХѨ as these aren't allowed as well.

Due to the similarity between Jëvj+Ir and Jir letters, ЬІ and Ы respectively, only differing in spacing, some initial and kids textbooks use Ӹ. Ӹр Тьӓп Jir Tjäp, as a substitute to Jir to be easier to distinguish the two, however it by following the rules of thumb next described Ӹ isn't needed.

When multiple Iotizations are considered, there can be various ways to write a word: the following rules of thumb can be use:

  • ja Trjav | я Тряв (VOC + Tree): When Iotization is triggered by grammar, if there is a consonant cluster, the first vowel is the one that gets iotized;
  • vj Pjör | вь Пьӧр (INS + person): When it is a single consonant, the consonant is iotized;
  • ja Mji | я Мы (VOC + Rice): Already iotized words cannot be double iotized;
  • Otherwise, the consonant gets more priority at the beginning of the word and the vowel gets more priority in the middle and end of the word.
Sound p b t d k ɡ ɡʲ
Letter П Б Т Д К Г ПЬ БЬ ТЬ ДЬ КЬ ГЬ
p b t d k ɡ pj bj tj dj kj ɡj
Sound m n ŋ r/ɾ/ʀ l    ɲ    ɾʲ ʎ   
Letter М Н Ҥ Р Л МЬ Њ РЬ Љ
m n ŋ r l    mj nj    rj lj   
Sound f v θ ð s z θʲ ðʲ
Letter Ф В Ҫ Ҙ С З ФЬ ВЬ ҪЬ ҘЬ СЬ ЗЬ
f v þ ð s z fj vj þj ðj sj zj
Sound ʃ ʒ ʧ ʤ χ/h ts ʃʲ ʒʲ ʧʲ ʤʲ ç tsʲ
Letter Ш Ж Ч Ԫ Х Ц ШЬ ЖЬ ЧЬ ԪЬ ХЬ ЦЬ
š ž c ç h ts šj žj cj çj hj tsj
Sound j w h͡ʍ/ʍ ʲ a ɛ e i ɑ ɔ o u
Letter Ї Ӱ ХӰ Ь А Ё Е І Ӓ Ӧ О У
j w hw j a ë e i ä ö o u
Sound ɐ ə y æ / ae ʲɑ ʲo ʲu ʲy ʲa ʲɛ ʲae ʲi
Letter Ӑ Ә/Ӗ Ѧ/Ꙟ/Ў Ӕ Ю Ѫ Ѩ Я Ѥ Ԙ Ы/Ӹ
à è y æ jo ju jy ji

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

Nouns in the language can differ in number and case, gender and definiteness are not expressed.

Singular Plural
Back Front
(ö)s (ë)s

Case and Mutations Edit

Before talking about the declensions by case, Mutations in the language are one of the bases of the grammar, and they come in three forms:

  • Iotization: Palatalization of the Vowel or Consonant;
  • Darkening: Unvoiced -> Voiced -> Nasal;
  • Vowel H: the words beginning with vowel gain a H;

Examples: Пӧр Pör - Person, Трав Trav - Tree

Case Back  Front
NOM Nominative äl äl Pör | ӓл Пӧр al al Trav | ал Трав
ACC Accusative äšj + (Iotization) äšj Pjör | ӓшь Пьӧр a + (Vowel H) a Trav | а Трав
 ABS Absolutive cä + (Vowel H) cä Pör | чӓ Пӧр að + (Darkening*) að Drav | аҙ Драв
DAT Dative tö + (Vowel H) tö Pör | тӧ Пӧр të + (Vowel H) të Trav | тё Трав
VOC Vocative jä + (Vowel H) + (Iotization) jä Pjör | ꙗ Пьӧр ja + (Vowel H) + (Iotization) ja Trjav | я Тряв
LOC Locative ä + (Vowel H) ä Pör | ӓ Пӧр jæ + (Vowel H) jæ Trav | ԙ Трав
INS Instrumental vj   + (Iotization) vj Pjör | вь Пьӧр kj  + (Iotization) kj Trjav | кь Тряв
GEN Genitive m  + (Darkening) m Bör | м Бӧр nj + (Darkening) + (Iotization) nj Drjav | њ Дряв
ABL Ablative py + (Vowel H) py Pör | пў Пӧр py + (Vowel H) py Trav | пў Трав

*when unvoiced

Usage of the NOM, ACC and ABS cases:

Transitive Sentence A = Agent O = Object
Intransitive Sentence Sa = intentionally So = unintentionally
Sa and A are marked with Nominative, O is marked with Accusative when intentionally, and the Absolutive when unintentionally , So is marked with Absolutive.

Nouns between cases: In some cases, nouns can go between the case marker and the noun it changes eg: "ä m Ynsëg hÖ", "into the Back of an Axe's Sky", lit: LOC GEN Back of an Axe Sky. The GEN case + noun can normally go between the case marker and the noun possessed by it. It may even be rendered as "äm Ynsëg hÖ" joining the two cases. The only exception is with another Genitive case, in that case, all of the genitives go between the case marker the main noun but maintain the order. eg: "m Ynsëg m Ër ä hÖ" "the Back of an Axe's Blade's Sky" can be rendered as "ä m Ynsëg m Ër hÖ".

VerbsEdit

Verbs come in three declensions, and differ in tense, aspect, number and person.

  • 1st Declension: Transitive;
  • 2nd Declension: Intransitive;
  • 3rd Declension: Irregular, only has to be, to do, to come.

3rd Declension - to be (e e) Edit

This declension is based in three stems, *sem/*e(non-past to be), *ëšt(present to be) and *fö/*ö(past to be), standardized by the Bajka dialect.

to be - e - 3rd Present Present Progressive Present Habitual Past Past Imperfect Past Perfect Future
1ST S ëšë osö fu ër för sër
2ND S ëš ëštaš ëëš fušt ëra förä sëras
3RD S ë ëšt ëë fju ëran förän sëra
1ST P sym syšt esym fjym ëryn föryn sërm
2ND P söš ëšëšt osöš fjys ërjæ förjä sërë
3RD P säšt osä fjund ërand föränd sëren
Volitive Mood Imperative
to be - e - 3rd Present Future
1ST S k sej kand se se
2ND S k sedas kand sed sed
3RD S k sëdës kand sëdë sëdë
1ST P k semys kand sem sem
2ND P k sërdës kand sëd sëd
3RD P k sërdan kand sëjan sëjan

3rd Declension - to do (фач fac) Edit

This declension is based on two stems, *fac/*fäc(non-future to do), *hic/*ic(non-present to do), standardized by the Bajka dialect.

to do - fac 3rd Present Present

Progressive

Present Habitual Past Past Imperfect Past Perfect Future
1ST S fäso fäcjo ofäso fac facëv is harë
2ND S fase fäj efase facët facëvi isist haras
3RD S fäš ofäš fäce facëva iz hara
1ST P fasemjy fäcjämo efasemjy facëm facëvamy isimy harëmy
2ND P fasej fätè efasej facëd facëvat isiz harëj
3RD P fasem fäno efasem facën facëvan isijan haràn
Volitive Mood Imperative
to do - fac 3rd Present Future
1ST S k asa kand az az
2ND S k asas kand ased ased
3RD S k asë kand asa asa
1ST P k asamy kand asamy asamy
2ND P k asajsj kand ased ased
3RD P k asàn kand asàn asàn

3rd Declension - to come (кьў/кѩ kjy) Edit

This declension is based on three stems, *kjy(present to come), *vë(past to come), *ir(future to come), standardized first by the Sëlen and then introduced to the Bajka and remodeled.

to come - kjy 3rd Present Present

Progressive

Present Habitual Past Past Imperfect Past Perfect Future
1ST S kör körän okör vëni vënirà irë
2ND S kön könän okön vën vënir vëniràs iras
3RD S köän okö vës vënin vënirà ira
1ST P köry körjän oköry vënam vënim vëniràm irëmy
2ND P könèn könjän okönèn vënèn vënjid vëniràd irëd
3RD P köm kömän oköm vënan vënind vëniràn iran
Volitive Mood Imperative
to come - kjy 3rd Present Future
1ST S k kör kand irë kjë
2ND S k kön kand iras kjad
3RD S k kö kand ira kja
1ST P k köry kand irëmy kjamy
2ND P k könèn kand irëd kjadë
3RD P k köm kand iran kjan

1st Declension - to attack (вўрту vyrtu) Edit

Pay attention to the Past Perfect that use the auxiliary verb to be in the same tense, and the particle "e" in the Present Habitual that causes Vowel H Mutation.

to attack - vyrtu - 2nd Present Present Progressive Present Habitual Past Past Imperfect Past Perfect Future
1ST S vyrtu vyrtušy e vyrtu vyrtujè vyrtur för vyrtujè vyrtus
2ND S vyrtuš vyrtušty e vyrtuš vyrtujèš vyrturà förä vyrtujèš vyrturàs
3RD S vyrturè vyrtušt e vyrturè vyrtujèry vyrturàny förän vyrtujèry vyrturàm
1ST P vyrtum vyrtujyšt e vyrtum vyrtujèm vyrtujyn föryn vyrtujèm vyrturèŋ
2ND P vyrturèš vyrtujyštyš e vyrturèš vyrtujèrèš vyrtujynèš  förjä vyrtujèrèš vyrturàn
3RD P vyrturèn vyrtušyšt e vyrturèn vyrtujèrèn vyrturànd föränd vyrtujèrèn vyrturènè
Volitive Mood Imperative
to attack - vyrtu - 2nd Present Future
1ST S k vyrtu kand vyrtus vyrtujy
2ND S k vyrtuš kand vyrturàs vyrtuj
3RD S k vyrturè kand vyrturàm vyrtujà
1ST P k vyrtum kand vyrturèŋ vyrtumjà
2ND P k vyrturèš kand vyrturàn vyrtud
3RD P k vyrturèn kand vyrturènè vyrtujàn

2nd Declension - to die / to close eyes (ані ani) Edit

Pay attention to the Present Progressive and Past Perfect that use the auxiliary verb to be in the same tense, and the particle "e" in the Present Habitual that causes Vowel H Mutation.

to die - ani - 1st Present Present Progressive Present Habitual Past Past Imperfect Past Perfect Future
1ST S ani ëšë hani e hani anije | jo anir för anije | jo anis
2ND S aniš ëštaš aniš e haniš aniješ | još anira | rä förä aniješ | još aniras | räs
3RD S anire | ro ëšt anire | ro e hanire | ro anijery | jory anirani | ränu förän anijery | jory aniram | räm
1ST P anim syšt anim e hanim anijem | jom anijyn föryn anijem | jom anireŋ | roŋ
2ND P anireš | roš ëšëšt anireš | roš e hanireš | roš anijereš  | joroš anijyneš  | jynoš  förjä anijereš  | joroš anirë | rö
3RD P aniren | ron säšt aniren | ron e haniren | ron anijeren | joron anirand | ränd föränd anijeren | joron anirene | rono
* when it is a back vowel, the terminations have to be adapted to the ending after the |
Volitive Mood Imperative
to die - ani - 1st Present Future
1ST S k ani kand anis anijy
2ND S k aniš kand  aniras | räs anijë | jö
3RD S k anire | ro kand  aniram | räm anija | jä
1ST P k  anim kand  anireŋ | roŋ animja | mjä
2ND P k  anireš | roš kand  anirë | rö anid
3RD P k  aniren | ron kand  anirene | rono anijan | jän

Pronouns Edit

There are pronoun declensions for several cases, if not specified use the case marker + the NOM pronoun table. Eg:VOC + 2nd S : jä Tju

NOM/Other Male Female Neuter-Inanimate Neuter-Animate
1ST S Ëj
2ND S Tu
3RD S Ël Ëljà Ëws Ëly
1ST P Ëjs
2ND P Tus
3RD P Ëlës Ëljàs Ëwsës Ëlys
ACC Male Female Neuter-Inanimate Neuter-Animate
1ST S Mëj
2ND S Ti
3RD S Mël Mëljà Mëws Mëly
1ST P Mëjs
2ND P Tis
3RD P Mëlës Mëljàs Mëwsës Mëlys
ABS Male Female Neuter-Inanimate Neuter-Animate
1ST S Sëj
2ND S Tsi
3RD S Sël Sëljà Sëws Sëly
1ST P Sëjs
2ND P Tsis
3RD P Sëlës Sëljàs Sëwsës Sëlys
GEN Male Female Neuter-Inanimate Neuter-Animate
1ST S Mew
2ND S Tew
3RD S Dël Dëljà Dëws Dëly
1ST P Mejs
2ND P Tews
3RD P Dëlës Dëljàs Dëwsës Dëlys

SyntaxEdit

With the case system, the word order is relatively free, however the mainly used is the AVO and SV where A = Agent, O = Object, S = Subject,V = Verb phrase.

LexiconEdit

Example textEdit

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