|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
The language of Mngwan Jui is still spoken as a first language in some isolated parts of Mambuhk (mɑm33bʌk22), the river country. The language is used in the rest of Mambuhk as a literary and clerical language. Most of the other languages in Mambuhk are descended from Mngwan Jui. Mngwan Jui means tribal speech, but due to its high status as a lingua franca, the meaning has changed over time to mean old speech. The Mngwan Jui spoken in the isolated pockets is of a different dialect than literary Mngwan Jui.
|Plosive||p b||ʈ ɖ||k g||ʔ|
|Flap or tap|
The only possible consonant cluster is /mŋ/. The glottal stop /ʔ/ is a feature of the tone system.
There are three classes of diphthongs with base vowels/semivowels /i/, /j/, and /w/. The vowel /i/ cannot be attached to any of these bases.
The possible triphthongs can be constructed from three base vowels/semivowels, /æ/, /j/, and /w/. The triphthongs with base /æ/ are constrained to either /j/ or /w/ for the second sound, and can use any vowel for the third sound. The triphthongs with base /j/ or /w/ can use any vowel for the second sound and are constrained to use the vowel /u/ for the third sound. When the second sound is also a /u/, it becomes a long vowel.
The syllable structure of Mngwan Jui is CV(n). C is any consonant or consonant cluster, and V is any vowel or diphthong/triphthong. The optional n is any nasal or accepted stop. The possible consonants for n are /ɳ/, /ŋ/, /m/, /p/, /k/, /ʈ/, and /ɖ/. All stops are aspirated when final. If the initial sound of the syllable is the same as the initial sound of the diphthong/triphthong, then the combination is not possible.
There are eight tones in Mngwan Jui, with three flat tones and five contour tones. The tones shall be described with a lowest to highest pitch scale from one to five. In the romanization the tones are marked with the corresponding number, and in the IPA transcription they are marked with a superscript pitch scale.
|Tone Name||Contour/Pitch||No.||Pitch Scale|
The broken rising tone is characterized by a glottal stop after the rise, and then a flat high tone. The glottal stop usually comes between the base and the rest of the diphthong/triphthong, or duplicates the vowel; e.g. /e/ becomes /eʔe/ with the second e having the high tone. The extra high tone is any pitch higher than the five of the high tone.
Each of the tones have opposite pairings which are used in declensions, conjugations, etc.
|high falling||broken rising|
The morphology of Mngwan Jui is mostly agglutinative, although there are some inflections. Compound words are formed with the new word preceding the modified word.
zhap3, the root word for stick and juit2 the root word for leaf shall be used to illustrate the declension of nouns for number. The number suffixes have no defined vowel or tone, so they borrow from the word they modify. If a tone is contoured, it is reflected in the opposite contour. If the vowel borrowed is a diphthong/triphthong, only the base sound will be borrowed. If the base sound is a semivowel, borrow the next vowel. For compound words the final word is borrowed from.
The conjugation suffixes also have no defined vowel or tone, but indicate tense by the first consonant and aspect by the final nasal. The borrowing of vowels and tones rule from declension still applies. The root baeing8 which means to do shall be used as an example.
done in the far past
done in the near past
will do in the near future
will do in the far future
was doing in the far past
was doing in the near past
will be doing
will be doing in the near future
will be doing in the far future
was habitually doing in the far past
was habitually doing in the far past
was habitually doing
will habitually do
will habitually do in the near future
will habitually do in the far future
The copula kwa3 acts like the English is or the Japanese desu as it links the subject with the predicate. The copula acts like a verb, therefore it is subject to the rules of conjugation.
The prefixes are used to derive new words from the same root, and can not act as stand alone roots.
|process or state
verb/adjective to noun
the process of leaving
the process of catching
process or state noun to noun
the skill of catching
verb/adjective to noun
the act of catching
any to noun
one associated with killing; killer
verb to noun
tool used for killing; weapon
noun to adjective
verb to adjective
noun/verb to adjective
worthy of honor
the color red
noun/adjective to verb
to become red; to redden
The inflections also are used to derive new words. Any accidental homophones caused by tone inflection are distinguished by context. In the case of negative inflection of compound words the tone of the base word is reflected.
positive to negative
to not do
noun/adjective to diminutive
diminutive dog; doggie
noun/adjective to augmentative
|reduplication then tone reflection||wuhing4wuhing2
augmentative master; grandmaster
Pronouns have three root words that express grammatical person, and prefixes that denote the gender and if the pronoun is collective. Pronouns with collective prefixes can be declined by number to further specify the amount, and the singular declension is ignored.
we including addressee
we excluding addressee
you all animate
you all inanimate
Demonstratives and Indefinite
There are several classes of demonstratives that are modified by prefixes that borrow the base vowel of the root according to the rules of declension and exhibit the opposite tone regardless if it is contoured or flat. The initial consonant of the prefix mirrors that of the root and the final consonant varies based on the form of the demonstrative. Exceptions to this rule are the negative, universal, and existential forms, which vary the initial consonant and mirror the final consonant to the final consonant of the root. If there is no final consonant, there is no borrowed final consonant. The determiner kaek4 is modified by either its initial or final consonant depending on the form, and does not have any prefixes. The demonstrative precedes the noun it modifies if it in fact modifies anything. A demonstrative or indefinite can be attached to the beginning of a phrase to modify the phrase, or it can act as a pronoun. The determiners act like adjectives instead.
out of sight
this very close
that over there
that far away
that out of sight
this very close animate
that animate over there
that animate far away
that animate out of sight
this very close inanimate
that inanimate over there
that inanimate far away
that inanimate out of sight
very close here
far away over there
there out of sight
at that other time
at that other time long ago
in this manner very close to me
in this manner
in that manner
in that other manner
in that other manner far away
in that other amount far away
like this very close to me
like that other kind far away
this direction very close to me
Adverbs can be derived by attaching the prefix zhjep6 to an adjective. Not all adverbs can be derived from adjectives and vice versa. Underived adverbs always have a final e sound.
Postpositions in Mngwan Jui can modify a noun or a verb, creating a postpositional phrase. The postpositional phrase is placed preceding the modified word. All postpositions can be derived from the postposition word fjuhm4 that is inflected with sound and tone for different meanings. These are used for phrases not accounted for with the case particles. Some postpostions can only be used for verbs and some only for nouns.
next to location
arbitrary time than
arbitrary location of/the
To link two words together for titles and geographic names, one places the title or geographic descriptor after the name. Any subsequent titles/descriptors go after the most relevant title/descriptor. The name receives any declensions or particles. The titles themselves cannot receive any case particles, but any subordinate clauses within the title can receive them.
The number system in Mngwan Jui is base ten. Numbers are formed similar to Chinese. Any number larger than a million is formed with a repeat of the system, e.g. one trillion to thousand millions. They can act as nouns or adjectives.
|jid4gui6||not existing; zero|
The syntax of Mngwan Jui is highly structured with postpositional particles marking case, mood, and other.
Most particles in Mngwan Jui express case or mood, and are attached after the word for case or attached to the end of the phrase for mood. Some case particles require the attached word to be in a specific position in the sentence.
|wung4||vocative||beginning of phrase|
The other particles are also postpositional, or go at the end of the phrase. The postpositional particles replace any case particles, and in the case of listing, the first word in the list receives the case particle. The end of phrase particles are placed after any mood particles.
|kuhm5||to mark the speaker of a quote||preceding quote; after quote is verb to say|
|nuin3||to link words in a list||preceding the first word in the list|
|fik3||to mark a specific time|
|daein1||conjunction; effect and cause|
The accepted order for attaching multiple adjectives to one noun is:
- intensifier adverb
- noun adjunct
- head noun
The canon word order for Mngwan Jui is Subject Object Verb. The word order of the Subject and Object is flexible because of the accompanying case particles. The adjectives are placed preceding the head.
There are a few transformations in Mngwan Jui, which are achieved by word order or by attaching the appropiate words or particles to the subclause.
To change an absolute clause to a relative subclause, one must attach the relative word preceding the clause and place the clause after the word it modifies. If a verb in the subclause is in progressive or habitual present form, it must be changed to perfective present form.
mngwaet3wing3 mngju7 dung2di1 fuht3buhm3 jin4jing2di1 kwa3kam3
person singular nominative | relative word | fish singular accusative | to catch arbitrary past perfective | here accusative | copula present perfective
The person who caught the fish is here
dung2wing3 njuhp2 mngwaet3wing3 fuht3buhm3 jid4paei2di1 kwa3kam3
fish singular nominative | relative word | person singular nominative | to catch arbitrary past perfective | tasty accusative | copula present perfective
The fish the person caught is tasty
bet2bwuun6wing3 mngwaet3di1 zhuhim5 dung2di1 fuht3buhm3 king2kim4
I singular nominative | person singular accusative | relative word | fish singular accusative | to catch arbitrary past perfective | to hate present perfective
I hate the person who caught the fish
bet2bwuun6wing3 dung2di1 bin1 mngwaet3wing3 fuht3buhm3 ngam1bam1
I singular nominative | fish singular accusative | relative word | person singular nominative | to catch arbitrary past perfective | to eat arbitrary past perfective
I ate the fish the person caught
To change an action clause to function as a noun, one must change the subject to have the genitive case particle, and derive the verb to a noun using the derivation for process or state. The subject possesses the process with the genitive particle, and the process takes the particle of its case in the sentence. The object of the clause becomes the appropriate postpositional phrase if applicable.
bet2bwuun6wing3 dung2jid2jid4fuht3di1 gi3kim3
I singular nominative | skill of catching fish accusative | to know present perfective
I know fishing
bet2bwuun6ngim6 dung2jid2jid4fuht3 fjuhm3 jid4gi3wing3 jid4jeing1di1 kwa3kam3
I singular genitive | skill of catching fish | postposition relational of | the state of knowing nominative | state of being large accusative | copula present perfective
My knowledge of fishing is great.
Causatives are formed with a special causative particle attached to the subject, thereby allowing a causative clause to be attached after to serve as an object. The particle is tone inflected on certainty. Any verbs in the causative clause must be changed to present perfective or habitual perfective forms.
bet2bwuun6pu5 mngwaet3wing3 dung2fuht3kuhm3
I singular made causative | person singular nominative | to catch fish present perfective
I made the person catch fish
The writing system used to phonetically transcribe Mngwan Jui is kaewan3gae6, which is a set of foreign characters adapted to Mngwan Jui. The script is considered to be very unwieldy as a result, so many abbreviated or unaltered forms of characters are used in lieu of the official writing style. The official writing can be seen at the left of the box. Kaewangae is an alphabet, made by combining two graphemes for consonants and vowels into a single character, although the abbreviated forms may make it seem like a syllabary. The tone mark is always attached after the vowel of a syllable. The diphthong, tone, and stop characters were created independently to accommodate the features of Mngwan Jui.
Excerpt from the Gubaeing
The gu1baeing8, which means a tool for doing, is a classic piece of literature that is a significant part of Mambuhk culture, with many allusions to it in other works. This excerpt is from when the hero faces the two faced deity of the great river, and the deity reveals its other form to the hero.
wak1 fjuhm3 guin5wing3 bet2bwuun6di1 mim3kim3jim2 jaejeng7 mngwaet3wing3 njuhp2 bet2kui7pu3 bet2kui7di1 deit2kem4 twuhng2kuhm4jim2 waed3tim5 nui8 fjuhm6 bet2bwuun6ngim6 tak3da3wing3 wi2kim4daein1 bet2bwuun6wing3 kad1zhin1di1 zhuhim5 wak1 fjuhm8 bet2bwuun6ngim6 kad1tim5di1 ngaen2taem4 zhjaeun1kaem1ngut2
land | postposition relational of | fool singular nominative | I singular accusative | to listen present perfective imperative | worthy of fear | entity singular nominative | relative word | you animate singular caused causative | you animate singular accusative | to experience present perfective | to behold present perfective imperative | sustaining | soil | postposition relational for | I singular genitive | wrath many plural nominative | to awake present perfective conjunction effect and cause | I singular nominative | death singular accusative | relative word | land | postposition relational to | I singular genitive | providence accusative | to destroy near future perfective | to become present perfective emphasis
"Hearken to me, fool of the earth! Behold the terrible form which thou hast wrought upon thyself! My numerous wraths against the life giving soil hath woken, for I am become Death, who doth destroy mine providence to the land!"
Excerpts from Mngwan Zhede
The collection of stories called mngwan4zhe4de2, or tribal tales, is an attempt by a scholar to document the old fables and fairytales told amongst the few groups who retain Mngwan Jui as a first language. The tales have been transcribed in literary Mngwan Jui from the local dialects. These excerpts are from well known stories recognizable across Mambuhk.
kun3ja3wing3 fik6di1 wjeng1zhi3 kip4bim2 wjeng1kuhm5 mngin4mngi2 zhan1wing3 naing3 mam3di1 kwa3kam3ngut2 jaeng2mngum2 fjuhm8 bjup6bum6
tiger dual nominative | pearl accusative | fox singular dative | to give arbitrary past perfective | fox singular quote | now | stone singular nominative | across | river accusative | copula present perfective emphasis | they animate | postposition relational to | to say arbitrary past perfective
"The pair of tigers gave the pearl to the fox. The fox said to them, 'Now the stone is across the river!'"
wje2wung4 daeng3 bet2bwuun6wing3 bet2kui7ngim6 kang4da2di1 jaet5gaem8faing3nuk3 bet2kui7wing3 bet2bwuun6ngim6 kang4da2di1 jaet5gaem8
lake vocative concatenation ruler | I singular nominative | you singular animate genitive | battle many plural accusative | to fight arbitrary future perfective conditional conjunction if | you singular animate nominative | I singular genitive | battle many plural accusative | to fight arbitrary future perfective
"Lake King, I would fight your battles if you will fight my battles."
Imperial Decree of the Census
All official documents of Mambuhk are still written in literary Mngwan Jui, so that every group in the diverse nation can understand. This document is a decree from the current Emperor to declare a census of the population.
mam3jweu4wing3 daeng3daeng7 fi1wa2 daeng3 mngju7 mam3da3di1 wep3kem3 kup3 pwaem3ka3 fjuhm3 daeng3 zhwan4 fjuhm3 wuhing4 fan2 fjuhm3 tae3zhik5 teit3 muhd6duh6 fjuhm3 mait1 wip1 mam3ka3 fjuhm3 men2 fjuhm3 wuhing4wuhing2 waed3wa2 fweng1kung2tae3jaet5 man6mai1di1 bjan3kam3 mak7 zhwan4wing3 mngwaet3pain3di1 dit1tim1jim2daein1 faewing6da6 fjuhm3 waed3tim5 mjae1wing3 fai2kam4 baek4 mngwaet3wing3 kek3ngep1di1 kad1kjuun3 fjuhm6 tang4tam2jim2 zha1mngwaet3nuin3 pae2mngwaet3wing3 dit1tim1mnguhik2 mui1du1wing3 dit6tim6 waed3dit1 daeng3daeng3dae3wing3 mui1 fjuhm7 kaeng4 mngwaet3dae3di1 nek1tem1 zhip4maeng4wip1 zhwan4zhwan4da2 fjuhm3 daeng3dae3wing3 nae3 tae3fai2ka4di1 nek1tem1daein1 ngep1de1 fjuhm3 gun4 daengdaeng3dae3wing3 kad1dit1di1 baeing8taem5 kad1dit1wing3 mam3jweu4 fjuhm3 ming5 fjum3 ja2 mngan5 fjum3 wip1 mngad7 fjum3 buin5 mngu4 fjum8 kup3 mngu4di1 nge8 mngid4mngi2 daeng3dae3wing3 jeing1ngep1di1 dan1dan6 nek1tem1jim2daein1 jaeng2mngum3ngim6 ngwiuk4di2wing3 mek8tem5 fi1wa2 daeng3daeng7wing3 fjuhm3 man6mai1wing3 gu1bjan3di1 kwa3kam3kang1 tae3baeing8wing3 wai3maed3taem3daein1 buhi3mngum3wing3 baeing8taem5ngut2
mamjweu nominative concatenation augmentative ruler conc. honorworthy conc. ruler singular relative word river many plural accusative to calm present perfective conc. four wind few plural postposition relational of ruler singular conc. realm postposition relational of master conc. south postposition relational of one associated with conquering conc. loyal subject many plural postposition relational of arbiter conc. five river few plural postposition relational of order postposition relational of augmentative master conc. reverent conc. martial | this inanimate accusative | to declare in writing present perfective | entire | realm singular nominative | population singular accusative | to count near future perfective imperative conjunction effect and cause | supply many plural | postposition relational of | sustaining | ability nominative | to observe present perfective | every | person singular nominative | birthtown singular accusative | act of registration | postposition relational for | to travel near future perfective imperative | man list | woman nominative | to count near future perfective conjunction but | child many plural nominative | negative to count near future perfective | counting | diminutive ruler many plural nominative | child singular | postposition relational equalitative | what | person many plural accusative | to decide near future perfective | twenty five | diminutive realm many plural | postposition relational of | ruler many plural nominative | nine | observer few plural accusative | to decide near future perfective conjunction effect and cause | town many plural | postposition relational of | lesser | diminutive ruler many plural nominative | act of counting accusative | to do near future perfective | act of counting nominative | mamjweu | postposition relational of | reign | postposition temporal of | three | year singular | postposition temporal of | five | month singular | seven | day singular | postposition temporal to | four | day singular accusative | immediately | after | ruler many plural nominative | city accusative concatenation augmentative royal | to travel near future perfective imperative conjunction effect and cause | they animate genitive | result many plural nominative | to report near future perfective | honorworthy | augmentative ruler nominative | postposition relational of | this inanimate nominative | tool used for declaring on writing accusative | copula present perfective conjunction and | person associated with doing singular nominative | to receive honor near future perfective conjunction effect and cause | it singular inanimate nominative | to do near future perfective emphasis
"By the decree of Mamjweu Emperor, worthy of honor, lord who pacifies the rivers, lord over the four winds, master of the realm, conqueror of the south, arbiter of loyal subjects, grandmaster of the order of the five rivers, reverent, martial, the whole of the realm shall be required to undergo a census of the population to assess the state of supplies. Each individual is ordered to report to their hometown to register. Men and women will be counted, but children will be excluded from the census. The census officer will determine which individuals will be deemed as children. The lords of the twenty five provinces shall appoint nine overseers to instruct the governors of the towns to conduct the census. The census shall take place on the fourth day to the seventh day of the fifth month of the third year of the reign of Mamjweu. The lords of the realm must travel to the imperial city immediately after to report their findings. This is the decree of the honorable Emperor, may it be executed to the merit of the executor."