The author wishes to make it clear this project is currently undergoing significant construction or revamp.
By all means, take a look around. Thank you.
The author requests that you do not make significant changes to this project without first seeking approval.
By all means, please either help fix spelling, grammar and organization problems or contact the author about them. Thank you.
Name: Nòcara

Type: Synthetic

Alignment: Tripartite

Head Direction: First

Number of genders: None

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


Nòcara has 10 vowels, and 18 consonants. In Nòcaran alphabetical order, they are è, ù, a, u, e, i, o, à, ò, ì, l, r, m, n, p, t, c, b, d, g, f, s, š, v, z, ž, č, j.


è - [i]

ù - [u]

a - [a]

u - [ʌ]

e - [ɛ]

i - [ɪ]

o - [ɔ]

à - [e]

ò - [o]

ì - [y]


Consonants without diacritical marks are pronounced as in English.

š - [ʃ]

č - [ʧ]

ž - [ʒ]


The usual syllable structure is a simple CV. However, affixes deviate from this. Prefixes are allowed to be simply V, and suffixes are usually CVC.



Nouns have six cases: Intransitive/Absolutive, Ergative, Accusative, Dative, Prepositional, and Genitive. Cases are marked with vowel prefixes. Nouns are also declined based on number: singular, dual, or plural and this is marked with a suffix.

In transliterated foreign words beginning with a vowel, an l is added between the prefix and the word. For example, America would be written as Umàricu in the absolutive case, but in the ergative case, it would be written as Alumàricu.

Intransitive/Absolutive Case[]

Unmarked case (dictionary word), used for the arguement of an intransitive verb. The word for ring, tumòma, for example:

Singular Dual Plural
tumòma tumòmalèn tumòmalùn

"The ring(s) sparkled."

Ergative Case[]

Marks the subject of a transitive verb. Using tumòma again:

Singular Dual Plural
atumòma atumòmalèn atumòmalùn

"The ring(s) hit him."

Accusative Case[]

Marks the object of a transitive verb. Keeping with tumòma:

Singular Dual Plural
ètumòma ètumòmalèn ètumòmalùn

"The goldsmith forged the ring(s)."

Dative Case[]

Marks the indirect object.

Singular Dual Plural
utumòma utumòmalèn utumòmalùn

"The jeweler added diamonds to the ring(s)."

Prepositional Case[]

This marks the object of a prepositional phrase.

Singular Dual Plural
ùtumòma ùtumòmalèn ùtumòmalùn

"The diamonds on the ring(s) sparkled."

Genitive Case[]

A noun modifying another noun to indicate a relationship, frequently posession.

Singular Dual Plural
etumòma etumòmalèn etumòmalùn

"The ring's owner dropped it."/"The rings' owner dropped them."


Personal Pronouns[]

Pronouns are declined in the same manner and using the same affixes as normal nouns, as can be see by the dual and plural forms in the table below. One exception is going from I to we, the inclusive form changes slightly from the root. The dual and plural forms of he and she are used when the group being referred to is all one gender. For mixed groups, the plural of it is used.

Singular Dual Plural
I (exc.) maca macalèn macalùn
I (inc.) - maculèn maculùn
You (for.) còtì còtìlèn còtìlùn
You (inf.) còtè còtèlèn còtèlùn
He cèdo cèdolèn cèdolùn
She cèdà cèdàlèn cèdàlùn
It cèdò cèdòlèn cèdòlùn


Query This That Some No Every Relative
Adjective cilašù solašù golašù mulašù nìlašù dòlašù belašù
Person cisa sosa gosa musa nìsa dòsa besa
Thing cica soca goca muca nìca dòca beca
Place cina sona gona muna nìna dòna bena
Time cifa sofa gofa mufa nìfa dòfa befa
Way cita sota gota muta nìta dòta beta
Reason ciža soža goža muža nìža dòža beža


There are three tenses (past, present, future), and four aspects (perfective, habitual, continuous, simple), all indicated with prefixes. Number (as with nouns) and mood (infinitive, indicative, imperative, potential, interrogative) are indicated with suffixes. Affix order is tense-aspect-root-mood-number. The verb number agrees with the subject, and uses the same suffixes.

Infinitive Mood[]

The basic, unconjugated form. In English, usually indicated by the word "to" in front: "to go". In Nòcara, unconjugated verbs end with rà. For example, "to speak" is nòcarà.


The tenses are indicated with a vowel prefix. Past tense is marked with à-, present tense is marked with ò- and future tense is marked with ì-.


Simple aspect is unmarked. The other three have infixes that follow the tense prefix and precede the root word. Perfective is -ba-, habitual is -pa-, and continuous is -ta-.

Indicative Mood[]

Indicative mood is a statement of fact. "She speaks to him." A verb is conjugated for indicative mood by adding -lo. So, "nòcarà", "to speak" becomes "nòcaràlo", which then has prefixes for tense and aspect added, as mentioned above and as demonstrated in the nifty table below.

Past Present Future
Simple ànòcaràlo ònòcaràlo ìnòcaràlo
Perfective àbanòcaràlo - ìbanòcaràlo
Habitual àpanòcaràlo òpanòcaràlo ìpanòcaràlo
Continuous àtanòcaràlo òtanòcaràlo ìtanòcaràlo

Simple: She spoke to him. She speaks to him. She will speak to him.

Nòcara: Cèdà ucèdo ànòcaràlo. Cèdà ucèdo ònòcaràlo. Cèdà ucèdo ìnòcaràlo.

Perfective: She has spoken to him. She will have spoken to him.

Nòcara: Cèdà ucèdo àbanòcaràlo. Cèdà ucèdo ìbanòcaràlo.

Habitual: She used to speak to him. She speaks to him regularly. She will speak to him regularly.

Nòcara: Cèdà ucèdo àpanòcaràlo. Cèdà ucèdo òpanòcaràlo. Cèdà ucèdo ìpanòcaràlo.

Continuous: She was speaking to him. She is speaking to him. She will be speaking to him.

Nòcara: Cèdà ucèdo àtanòcaràlo. Cèdà ucèdo òtanòcaràlo. Cèdà ucèdo ìtanòcaràlo.

Imperative Mood[]

Imperative mood is used when giving an order. "(You) speak to him." Verbs in the imperative mood are conjugated by adding -mo. Nòcarà ---> nòcaràmo. The you is implied in all forms, however, it may be added for emphasis.

Present Future
Simple ònòcaràmo ìnòcaràmo
Habitual òpanòcaràmo ìpanòcaràmo

Simple: Speak to him. You will speak to him.

Nòcara: Ucèdo ònòcaràmo. Ucèdo ìnòcaràmo.

Habitual: Speak to him regularly. You will speak to him regularly.

Nòcara: Ucèdo òpanòcaràmo. Ucèdo ìpanòcaràmo.

Potential Mood[]

Potential mood is used when something is not certain. "She might have spoken to him." Potential-mood verbs take the -so suffix. Nòcarà ---> nòcaràso.

Past Present Future
Simple ànòcaràso ònòcaràso ìnòcaràso
Habitual àpanòcaràso òpanòcaràso ìpanòcaràso
Continuous àtanòcaràso òtanòcaràso ìtanòcaràso

Simple: She might have spoken to him. She might be speaking to him. She might speak to him.

Nòcara: Cèdà ucèdo ànòcaràso. Cèdà ucèdo ònòcaràso. Cèdà ucèdo ìnòcaràso.

Habitual: She might have regularly spoken to him. She might be speaking to him regularly. She might speak to him regularly.

Nòcara: Cèdà ucèdo àpanòcaràso. Cèdà ucèdo òpanòcaràso. Cèdà ucèdo ìpanòcaràso.

Continuous: She might have been speaking to him. Interchangeable in present and future tense with simple; used for emphasis.

Nòcara: Cèdà ucèdo àtanòcaràso.

Interrogative Mood[]

This mood is used to ask simple questions by itself and, in conjunction with various "question words", more complex questions. It is marked with -zo. Nòcaràzo.

Past Present Future
Simple ànòcaràzo ònòcaràzo ìnòcaràzo
Perfective àbanòcaràzo - -
Habitual àpanòcaràzo òpanòcaràzo ìpanòcaràzo
Continuous àtanòcaràzo òtanòcaràzo ìtanòcaràz

Simple: Did she speak to him? Is she speaking to him? Will she speak to him?

Nòcara: Cèdà ucèdo ànòcaràzo? Cèdà ucèdo ònòcaràzo? Cèdà ucèdo ìnòcaràzo?

Perfective: Has she spoken to him?

Nòcara: Cèdà ucèdo àbanòcaràzo?

Habitual: Did she speak to him regularly? Does she speak to him regularly? Will she speak to him regularly?

Nòcara: Cèdà ucèdo àpanòcaràzo? Cèdà ucèdo òpanòcaràzo? Cèdà ucèdo ìpanòcaràzo?

Continuous: Was she speaking to him? Present tense interchangeable with simple; used for emphasis. Will she be speaking to him?

Nòcara: Cèdà ucèdo àtanòcaràzo? Cèdà ucèdo ìtanòcaràzo?

Adjectives and Adverbs[]

Adjectives and adverbs are created in the same way, by adding a suffix onto a root word. For example the noun speed, geda, can be turned into the adjective fast by adding -šù: gedašù. Speed can be turned into the adverb quickly by adding -šò: gedašò. Adverbs and adjectives follow the words they modify and agree with them in number and case. Adjectives modifying other adjectives also add - čì- between the case marker and the root.

Infixes between the root and -šù can modify adjectives, for comparative or other purposes.

Best: -bà-

•Fastest: gedašù

Better: -pà-

•Faster: gedašù

Opposite: -čù-

•Slow: gedačùšù

Weakening of meaning: -mò-

•Sort of fast: gedašù

Strengthening of meaning: -mè-

•Extremely fast: gedašù


There is only one optional definite article in Nòcara, and no indefinite ones. The article is nè.


Coordinating conjunctions[]

Nòcara has four coordinating conjunctions.

da: and

vatò: but

: or

sàla: and/or