Nāmic is an Indo-European influenced, mixed a priori-posteriori language, by Waahlis. Formely known as Nāmaς, until wikicode drove it to extinction.

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Head direction
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect

General information[]

Nāmic, [ˈnɑːm.ɪk], natively Naṃkrthāvāka [ˌnã.kr̩ˑ.ˈtʰaː.faː.xa] translated as "named constructed speech" and written "नँक्र्थावाक", in the Nāharā script- is a mixed constructed a priori/ a posteriori language. It draws inspiration from mainly the Indo-European branch, yet makes a decisive stance to preserve artificial features.

Since there is a tendency in Nāmic to blend characteristics of both artificial and natural languages, a rather unholy mixture has arisen, for example: It is a fusional language, like its predecessors Latin, Sanskrit, Greek and Germanic - yet displays the highly unnatural ergative-accusativ alignment, or tripartite, - which is rarely seen outside conlanging.

Concerning the vocabulary, both words derived from Indo-European stems, as well as complete a priori words, appear; such as "dhrā" - tree, from Indo-European *dóru, and the word for heaven, "ıāmna" - from... me.

Nāmic language

Nāmic language on Google Maps.


The Nāmic language is a Indo-Aryan language with a number of speakers totalling over 5.6 million. It is designed to be closely related to the Sanskrit language with clear influence from the Old Avestan language. Naṃkrthāvāka is spoken in Central Asia and Indian subcontinent, but is not the official language of any region.

The language has remained extant especially in the Namasthani and Maharaya regions in India, Pakistan and Tibet, despite the lack of official status. There is an exclave of speakers of the Pārsa dialect of the Nāmic language in Iran, spoken around the Sistan Lake. The dialect is heavily influenced by the Farsi language.


See also: IPA for Nāmic


The following table portraits Nāmic's phonetic inventory of consonants. All consonants, except aspirated ones, may be geminated, which is phonemic, and represented by doubling the grapheme. The letter /h/ represents aspiration when succeding consonants, and breathy-voice when preceding vowels. "Nh", is an exception, being a velar nasal.

Phonology and Orthography
Bilabial Labiodental Dental Retroflex Palatal Velar Glottal
aspirated unaspirated aspirated unaspirated aspirated unaspirated aspirated unaspirated
Nasal m [m] n [n̪] ṇ [ɳ] (ɲ) (ŋ)
Plosives voiced bh [bʱ] b [b] dh [d̪ʱ] d [d̪] ḍh [ɖʱ] ḍ [ɖ] ȷ [ɟ] gh [gʱ] g [g]
voiceless ph [pʰ] p [p] th [t̪ʰ] t [t̪] ṭh [ʈʰ] ṭ [ʈ] ȷ [c] kh [kʰ] k [k]
Affricatives voiced py [p͡ɸ] dy [ɖ͡ʐ] ȷy [ɟ͡ʝ]
voiceless by [b͡β] ty [ʈ͡ʂ] ky [c͡ç]
Fricatives voiced v [v] y [ʐ]
voiceless v [f] s [s̪] ṣ [ʂ] h [x]
Trills r [r]
Approxim. voiced (v [w]) ı [j] h [h]
voiceless (v [ʍ])

Please note that all retroflex consonants and the dental trill rhoticise the surrounding consonants. The pronunciation of v is considered dialectal.


In addition to the consonants above, Nāmic suffers from severe allophony, lenition, caused when:

  • Consonants lie in medial position between two vowels.
  • Consonants lie in final position in lexemes - Not in syllables.

The aspirated consonants become completely spirantisised, whilst the unaspirated phonemes become affricates. The exceptions are the velars, which all become fricatives. The nasal consonants, affricates, trills and approximants remain unaffected.

Please note that the phonemes without brackets are the non-lenitioned consonants.

Bilabial Labiodent. Dental Retroflex Palatal Velar
aspirated unaspirated aspirated unaspirated aspirated unaspirated aspirated unaspirated
Plosives voiced b d̪ʱ ɖʱ ɖ ɟ g
voiceless p t̪ʰ ʈʰ ʈ c k
Affricatives voiced b > [b͡β] d̪ > [d̪͡ð] ɖ > [ɖ͡ʐ] ɟ >[ ɟ͡ʝ]
voiceless p > [p͡ɸ] t̪ > [t̪͡θ] ʈ > [ʈ͡ʂ] c >[c͡ç]
Fricatives voiced bʱ > [β] v d̪ʱ, > [ð] ɖʱ > [ʐ] gʱ, g > [ɣ]
voiceless pʰ > [ɸ] t̪ʰ, s̪ > [θ] ʈʰ > [ʂ] h ,kʰ, k > [x]
Approxim. voiced v > [w]

Nota bene

There is additional allophony, regarding phonation. The pairs [c - ɟ], [ç -ʝ], and [v - f]/[w - ʍ], are only represented by one grapheme each: ȷ, hy, and v respectively. Their voiced counterpart is an allophone - see Consonant Assimilation.

Thus, our conclusion is that the word vāka- voice, speach - shouldn't be pronounced [ˈvaːka], but rather [ˈfaːxa].


In addition to these, there's a multitude of digraphs with corresponding affricates. It is important to note that the four digraphs pt, vt, kt, and ȷtsymbolise consonant clusters with an affricate onset. They are not affected by lenition.

Affricate clusters
Cluster Grapheme
[p͡ɸt] Pt
[b͡βd] Bt
[t͡ʃt] Kt
[d͡ʒd] Jt

Consonant Assimilation[]

Nāmic possesses a progressive consonant assimilation word-internally, based upon phonation, or voicedness.

The consequence is that a consonant, a cluster, or an affricate, is pronounced differently, depending on whether it is preceded by a voiced or voiceless consonant. There are exceptions to this rule, since the alveolar trill [r] and the retroflex tap [ɽ] do not differ between voicedness.

The nasal stops are affected quite differently, with a complete nasalisation of the preceding vowel - and loss of the stop - if the initial or first consonant is voiced. However, nasals are perceived as neutral in nature, and does therefore not affect voiceless nor voiced phonemes.

There are, however, two dialects of Nāmic;

  • Sthānta, which means "current, dominating".
  • Austikā, which means "golden, posh".

The Sthānta dialect will be featured in this article, and is the main dialect that distinguishes consonant assimilaton upon voicedness.

Example Translation Sthānta Austikā
hkantrā moon [s̪an̪.ˈt̪raː] [s̪an̪.ˈd̪ra]
dāntha tooth [ˈd̪ãːða] [ˈd̪aːn̪.t̪ʰa]
āsvyaṭ he has [ˈaːs̪.fʂas̪] [ˈaːs̪.vʐas̪]
nāmastıkā naming [naː.mas̪.t̪ɪ.ˈkaː] [naː.mas̪.t̪ɪ.ˈkaː]


The representation of Nāmic's vowels. There are are 12 vowel phonemes, yet only 6 graphemes, thus, it may be assumed some are allophones during certain circumstances. It is obvious that many of the vowel graphemes are recycled, since many phonemes are allophones. The background is covered in the Metaphony section.

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close ı [ɯ] · u [u]
Near-close ı [ɪ] · ә [ʊ]
Close-mid · u [ɵ]
Mid ә/e/o [ə]
Open-mid e [ɛ] · o [œ] · o [ɔ]
Near-open e [æ]
Open a [a] a [ɑ]


There are a limited number of diphthongs in Nāmic, with the same amount rising as falling diphthongs. [ɪ̯] is most often equivalent to [j], and [u̯] is often just [w]. The left diphthong is its front value, and the right one is the back value. All other vowel clusters are diaeresis. The main phoneme in all diphthongs may be geminated.

Rising Falling
Front Back Front Back
ıa [ɪ̯a] [ɪ̯ɑ] [aɪ̯] [ɑɪ̯]
ıe [ɪ̯ɛ] [ɪ̯ə] [ɛɪ̯] [əɪ̯]
ıu [ɪ̯ɵ] [ɪ̯u] [ɵɪ̯] [uɪ̯]
ıo [ɪ̯œ] [ɪ̯ɔ] [œɪ̯] [ɔɪ̯]
ua [u̯a] [u̯ɑ] au [au̯] [ɑu̯]
ue [u̯ɛ] [u̯ə] eu [ɛu̯] [əu̯]
uo [u̯œ] [u̯ɔ] ou [œu̯] [ɔu̯]

Similarly to Sanskrit and Modern Greek, the Nāmic language is affected by synaeresis, which causes diphthongs to collapse into monophthongs.

No falling diphthongs occur in between consonants, as a nucleus, nor do the falling diphthongs appear geminated in open coda position. They are transformed into geminated or short monophthongs , depending on the length of the diphthong. The arisen monophthongs are inconsistently written as their monophthong equivalents., however it isn't compulsory. The allophony adheres to this schedule:

Front diphthongs on the left, back ones at the right.

Diphthong Allophony
Front Back
Diphthong Monophthong Diphthong Monophthong
[aɪ̯] [ɛ] [ɑɪ̯] [ə]
[ɛɪ̯] [ɪ] [əɪ̯] [ɯ]
[ɵɪ̯] [ɵ] [uɪ̯] [u]
[œɪ̯] [œ] [ɔɪ̯] [ə]
au [au̯] [œ] [ɑːu̯] [ɔ]
eu [ɛu̯] [æ] [əːu̯] [ə]
ou [œu̯] [ɵ] [ɔːu̯] [u]

Vowel Metaphony[]

The Naṃkrthāvāka suffers from a certain kind of vowel harmony, called progressive vowel metaphony. This urges all vowel phonemes in a lexeme to be of the same kind of the preceding one. That is: Va = type-a vowel, Vb = type-b vowel, C = consonant: VaVbVb > VaVaVa

There are tqo exception, causing the metaphony to be regressive instead; when a word is initialised by an [ɛ], or an [ә]. The [ɛ] and [ә] the gets assimilated by the succeeding consonant: VbVaVb > VaVaVa

These modified [ɛ-ә] -sounds will occurr later in text, and will be referred to as "affected" [ɛ-ә].

Nāmic's metaphony is based upon backness, with exceptions being when /ә/, /e/ and /o/ are followed by an [r], which ignores the harmony, and modifies the phoneme.

Grapheme Aa Ee Әә Uu Oo
Front Phoneme [a] [ɛ] Unchanged [ɪ] [ɵ] [œ]
Back Phoneme [ɑ] [ə] Unchanged [ɯ] [u] [ɔ]
[r] Phoneme - [æ] [ʊ] - - [ə]

Vowel Quality[]

There are four different vowel qualities:

  • Short and geminated Oral
  • Short and geminated Nasal

The vowels will be represented by a default /a/. Please note that any nasal can nasalise the preceding vowel, however in non-voiced environments, only the letter may.

Oral Nasal
Phoneme /a/ /aː/ /ã/ /ãː/
Grapheme a ā aṃ āṃ


  • Any consonant - C
  • Sonorant - S
  • Fricative - F
  • Nasal - N
  • Vowel, also diphthong when final - V

A Nāmic syllable have two different maximal syllabic structures, the by far most common structure is (F)(C)(C)V(C)(F/N) initially, and (F)(C)CV(C)(F/N) medially and finally. The conclusion is that a syllable's maximal consonant cluster is FCC, that a medial and final syllable minimally must look like CV, and that all syllables must terminate in either a F, fricative, a nasal- N, or a vowel - V. Since most lexemes in Nāmaς are disyllabic, a common lexeme might look like this: FCVN.CV, like stānta - "state" [ˈstaːn.ta]. It should herefore be noted that ēkva - either, is pronounced [ˈɛː.kʍa], and not [ˈɛːk.ʍa].

The second structure is very uncommon, but does occur: (C)CS(C), and sometimes (C)CVS(C), where a sonorant occupy the syllable nucleus. Most of the syllables are free, that is, without the coda. Examples include vṙkas - wolf [ˈfr̩ˑ.kas], and ēktrva - any of them [ˈɛː.ktr̩ˑ.ʍa]. Interestingly, all syllabic sonorants are half-geminated.


Some phonemes develop new pronunciations when adjacent to each other:

  • [h] + [r] = [xr]
  • [s] + [r] = [ʂr]
  • [s] + [u] + [vowel] = [sfV]


The grammar of the Nāmic language is that of a constructed language, that is, fairly regular.


Lexical Stress[]

The lexical stress of the Nāmic language is completely irregular in the lemma forms. Declension, conjugation and prosodic stress may manipulate the stress however. All stressed polysyllables in Nāmic are geminated, but note that all geminated syllables are not stressed. That is, a lexeme may contain several geminated syllables. If so, the second one is stressed.

Stress must always be marked in all polysyllabic words - except verbs in the infinitive, or rather lemma, to avoid confusion in the vocabulary.

Lexically Phonetically
Standard Naṃkrthāvāka [nã.kr̩ˑ.tʰaː.ˈfaː.xa]
Alternative Naṃkrthàváka

The alternative set of diacritics, the acute (´) and grave (`) accents, are not commonly used, but provide information which syllable to stress - both being geminated, but with the acute accent signifying stress in polysyllabic lexemes.

Stress Apophony[]

A pecurious detail of Nāmic is that it is possible to manipulate the stress to convey different meanings. In Nāmic linguistics called stress apophony.

The manipulation of stress in conjugations and declensions change the meaning of the word radically. The most common usage of changing the stress, is in the conjugations; the stress may be pressed forward to the ultimate syllable, to change the tense from present to preterite. See the Verbs section.

Stress Apophony
Radical Manipulated
Example nākyәm āha nakyə̄m āha
Phonetically [ˈn̪aː.c͡çəm ˈaː.ha] [n̪aˈ.c͡çəːm ˈaː.ha]
Grammatically "I" "dance" "I" "danced"

In the first nominal declension, nouns terminating in an unstressed open syllable, may be stressed on the ultimate syllable in the genitive case.

Stress Apophony
Radical Manipulated
Example ma nāma ma namā1
Phonetically [ˈma ˈn̪aː.ma] [ˈma n̪a.ˈmaː]
Grammatically "the" "name" "the" "name's"

1 This form possesses an irregular form present in the language's name: Naṃkrthāvāka, pronounced: [nã]. The genitive is quite often used in compound words.



The intonation of the Nāmic language is phonemic, and is primarily used to distinguish grammatical moods. There are three common pitches used in Nāmic, and one for further emphasis. The intonation is not phonemic, but should be used to keep a native pronunciation.

  • Rising [↗] Intonation.
  • Falling [↘] Intonation.
  • Rising-Falling or Peaking [↗↘] Intonation.
    • Falling-Rising or Dipping [↘↗] Intonation.

The intonation is used to emphasise certain words - that is, if you want to stress a certain action, location or noun in the sentence. It is very similar to the case in English. If not necessarily sad, the pitch is normaly rising [↗].

English Nāmic
I want to go home! - Not somewhere else. kāṇam gaȷyāram gṛhan
[aɪ̯ wɒnt tuː gəʊ̯ ↗həʊ̯m] [ˈkaːɳam gaˈɟ͡ʝaːrã ↗gr̩ˈɣã]
I want to go home! - That is, walk. Not bike. kāṇam gaȷyāram gṛhārә
[aɪ̯ wɒnt tuː ↗gəʊ̯ həʊ̯m] [ˈkaːɳam ↗gaˈɟ͡ʝaːrã gr̩ˈɣaːrә]
It is on top of the table. - Not below the table. Āhta mīsau ūpar.
[ɪt ɪz ɒn ↗tɒp ɔf ðə teɪ̯bɫ̩] [ˈaːxt̪a ˈmɪːs̪au̯ ↗ˈuːpɑr]

For the grammatical intonation, certain moods are associated with certain intonation, which may vary by dialect and accent. The standard however dictates a rising pitch [↗] during interrogative moods and the interrogative words, followed by a dipping intonation in the end [↘↗].

Interrogative Mood
English Nāmic
Example Why are you here? Kātva tāhar āssә?
Phonetically [↗waɪ̯ ɑː juː ↗heːə̯] [↗ˈkaːt̪fa ↘ˈtaːxar ↗ˈaːsːә]

The conditional mood however - the subjunctive mood when used in main clauses - is characterised by a peaking [↗↘] intonation. The English language doesn't really distinguish the intonation in the conditional mood, but a rising pitch is fairly common.

Conditional Mood
English Nāmic
Example If so, I would sing. Yātva, hangābhran.
Phonetically [ɪf soʊ̯ aɪ̯ wʊd ↗sɪŋ] [ˈʐaːd̪va xa↗ˈnkaː↘pʰran]

Prosodic Stress[]

Another use of the stress manipulation, other than grammatically, is prosodically. The interrogative mood is not expressed phonemically in the Naṃkrthāvāka, other than by intonation - see above. It is therefore possible to manpulate the stress on certain non-interrogative pronouns and pro-adverbs. This is equivalent to the English rise in pitch on interrogative nouns:

  • Here. →
  • Here? ↗
Prosodic stress in pro-adverbs
Radical Interrogative
Example Tāhar. Tāhar?
Phonetically [ˈˈt̯aːxar ] [t̯aˈxaːr ]
Translation Here. Here?


Considering the fusional nature of the Naṃkrthāvāka, the word order's rather free. It does possess tendencies towards SOV and SVO. It sould however be noted that the word order may alter depending on transitivity. Only SOV, VSO and SVO orders will be presented here.

Transitive Orders[]

SVO with ergative verbs is rather common, similarly to English.

Transitive SVO
Inflectional phrase
(noun phrase) verb phrase noun phrase
"I" "killed" "the man" sg.acc.def

Since focus lies on the patient, the verb phrase often moves further back.

Transitive SOV
Inflectional phrase
(noun phrase) noun phrase verb phrase
"I" "the man" sg.acc.def "killed"

Intransitive Orders[]

The intransitive order SV(O) is not very common, but it does occur.

Intransitive SVO
Inflectional Phrase
noun phrase verb phrase
āha kaskrbhām
"I" "wrote"

Since focus lies on the verb in the Nāmic languages intransitive orders, the VS(O) is much more common. Please note that the pronoun may be dropped, but it is not custom regarding intransitive verbs.

Intransitive SVO
Inflectional Phrase
verb phrase noun phrase
kaskrbhām āha
"wrote" "I"


Noun Phrase[]

The Naṃkrthāvāka does not possess particular positions for the adpositional phrase, thus it will be prepositional for the sake of simplicity. It is quite similar to English.

Noun Phrase
demonstrative adjectival phrase modifier prepositional phrase noun
"Those" "very" u.adv."nice" "university" "by" u.prep."house" "students"
"Those very nice university students by the house"

Possessive noun phrases can be formed by the means of a possessive pronoun, or a dative construction. Nevertheless, they remain after the noun.

Noun Phrase
noun postpositional phrase prepositional phrase
"chair" "brown" "mark" "with" u.prep. "to" u.prep."me"
"My chair with brown marks"
Verb Phrase[]

In the Naṃkrthāvāka, adverbial phrases always precede the modified verb. The noun phrase may be freely positioned,or it may depend on transitivity - see further up.

Verb Phrase
adjverbial phrase verb noun phrase
"very" u.adv."closely" "looked" trans. "that" u.dem."brown" "chair"
"(He) looked closely at that brown chair"


I have, out of simplicity, assembled a table of correlatives of corresponding pronouns and pro-adverbs. They are a mixture of irregular and regular structures, and are by no means the full collection. It is a selection.

Please note that the pronouns decline as common nouns, according to the phonological characteristics, except kō, keı, kā, and their respective relative pronouns. See the "Declensions" section.

  1. The "elective" pro-forms, is quite obsolete. It always identified with the similar "existential". For example, for Nāmic native speakers the difference between "Do you have any peas?" and "Do you have some peas", translated as "a tvāya ēke phāpama hānṭ"? The difference ıs determined simply by context.
  2. Many adverbs are simply hyperbolic, and "auhrauyār", is simply translated as from "from everywhere", which of course is not possible.
  3. Likewise, the adverb "ahrauyār" - "to everywhere", or "going everywhere."


The nouns of Nāmic decline according to case, gender, and number. There is no inflection for definiteness, however. There is a sparingly used article though.


There are two proper persons in the Nāmic language, the first and second, known as addresser and addressee respectively. These are irregular and only present in the personal pronouns and verbs. Other than that, the language possesses a number of demonstratives, which serve as, and are called, the third person.

Impersonal Person[]

In addition, the Nāmic has an impersonal person. This is a substitution for the passive voice in the language, which melded with the subjunctive. It could be variously called a fourth person or autonomous person, and is equivalent to the English indefinite pronouns of "you","one" and "they".

Other corresponding pronouns are the German, Swedish, Danish and Norwegian "man", the French "on" and the Finnish "ei", with similar uses. The Irish Gaelic autonomous person is the closest correspondent.


There are three genders in the Nāmic language. They are the following:

  • Masculine
  • Feminine
  • Neuter

They do not simply represent natural gender. The distinction between genders is irregular and difficult, though there is for example a tendency among feminine nouns to be abstract. The demonstratives, or third person, decline according to three genders, though the personal pronouns do not.


Nāmic possesses nine cases, and all nouns in a clause must be declined by one, and one only. The cases are often followed by a particle, for example the instrumental and locative cases that often are preceded or replaced by such particles as sām [saːm] "with" and ım [ɪm] "in, within". The links will display the usage of each case.

  1. Absolutive
  2. Ergative
  3. Accusative
  4. Dative
  5. Instrumental
  6. Locative
  7. Genitive
  8. Benefactive
  9. Ablative

Please note that the ergative-absolutive distinction is not made in the third nominal declension, nor in the comparative, cercative nor the superlative degrees of comparison of adjectives, whence they form the Nominative case.

  1. In Nāmic, should the focus lie on the patient, and not the object, the patient ought to be marked with the benefactive case.
  2. In Nāmic, the following Adpositions correspond to the locative case.
  3. The dative can also be used to construct different dative constructions.
  4. Considering the use with movement, a better name ought to be benefactive-allative, or alike.
  5. "Species" should be in the genitive case.


There are two standard numbers and one other number in Nāmic. All nouns decline by the singular and plural numbers. In addition, the first and second person personal pronouns decline according to the archaic dual number.


Nāmic pronouns are no different to other languages' pronouns, with exception of the rather uncommon impersonal person. There are relative, interrogative, personal and demonstrative pronouns which decline similarly to other nouns. There are no reflexive pronouns, thus, you'll be forced to use the objective personal pronouns.

  • It ought to be noted that the Impersonal has merged with the old reflexive pronouns in appearance.
  • The declension is irregular.

Pronominal Declension[]

Personal Pronouns
Person → First Second Impersonal
Case ↓ Singular Dual Plural Singular Dual Plural Singular
Absolutive āha ēbhәm vәı ūbham ȷūhma suāyam
Ergative āhәm ēbhәm āhma tva ūbham ȷam sua
Accusative ēbhma vәm daı ūbhama ȷāma suām
Enclitic maı yan yahm taı yan ūhm sua
Dative mayā ēbhya āhmәbha tvayā ūbhaya ȷūhmabha sәyā
Enclitic mya bhya yahm tya bhya ūhm saı
Instrumental mābhәm ēbhya āhmәbha tūbhya ūbhaya ȷūhmabha sābhәm
Locative mıā ēbhәı ahmıə̄ dıā ūbhaı ȷuhmıā suā
Genitive maı ēbhәı vāı ūbhaı ȷāṃ suaı
Enclitic ma ua nau tau ua sa
Benefactive mēnṭa bhēnṭa və̄nṭa tūnṭa ūbhenṭa ȷānṭa sāna
Ablative māṭ ēbhәṭ āhmaṭ tūṭ ūbhaṭ ȷūhmaṭ suaṭ

Nota Bene:

  • The first person singular pronouns, and the impersonal, possesses more formal alternatives to the accusative. In respective order: mēga, tēga and sāga.
  • The dual number pronouns sort as plural in conjugations.
Word order[]

In transitive phrases with pronouns, the syntax is modified. The subject is most often omitted, however, if enclitic pronouns are used, the subjects become almost compulsory. The cause is the phonological change in the verb.

Transitive (S)OV
Inflectional phrase
noun phrase verb phrase
ūbhama kyāhroı
"you two" pro.2.du.acc. "I hate"
Transitive SV(O)
Inflectional phrase
noun phrase verb phrase
āhәm kyāhrәyan
"I" "I hate you two" trans.pre.pfv.2.du


The demonstratives serve as determinatives. However, since Nāmic doesn't have a third person personal pronoun in the English sense, its demonstratives fulfil this function instead, by standing independently without a noun to be modified. The demonstratives decline by gender, number, and case. The declension is equivalent to English he, she and it, and will be called the third person in conjugations. Consider the following:

tāṇa kāntham gāryәm
"this" "book" "I read"
Demonstrative Pronoun
tāṇa gāryәm
"this" "I read"
Third person Pronoun
"this" "It (this) reads"

Nota Bene:

  • The demonstratives only decline according to singular and plural, and not the dual number - unlike the personal pronouns.
  • The declensions are irregular.

Distal Declension[]

The distal, or normal declension, corresponds either to he, she and it, or that. It is a cognate to the Sanskrit distal "ayám"-declension.

Distal Demonstratives
Person → Masculine Feminine Neuter
Case ↓ Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Absolutive ahmā ahmāı āya āyaı әmā әmānı
Ergative āyam әmāı yām әmāı ādam әmāı
Accusative әmām āmau yāma āyau ādam әmāı
Enclitic әṭām әṭāma әṭām әṭāma әṭēm әṭēma
Dative āhmaya āhmayaı āhmaya āhmayaı әdām әdāma
Enclitic ayā ayāı ayā ayāı ṭa ṭaı
Instrumental āṇan āṇana āṇan āṇana āṇaya āṇaya
Locative āhmau āhmaṿa yau yāṿa āsyau āsyaṿa
Genitive ahmīṇ ahmīṇa ayīṇ ayīṇa ādam adām
Enclitic aṇ yīṇa aṇ yīṇa yīṇ īṇa
Benefactive ahmāṇta ahmāṇtaı yāmaṃ yāmama әmāṇta әmāṇtaı
Ablative āhmaṭ әbhāṭ āsyaṭ asyāṭ āhmaṭ әbhāṭ

Proximal Declension[]

The proximal declension, corresponds well to the English demonstrative this. It is a cognate to the Sanskrit distal "etát"-declension.

Proximal Demonstratives
Person → Masculine Feminine Neuter
Case ↓ Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Absolutive tāha tāhaı tāha tāhaı tāṇ tāṇa
Ergative әtā teı әṣā taı tāṇ
Accusative tām tāma tāṃ tāva tāṇa tāṇaı
Enclitic ātam ātaı ātam ātaı āta ātaı
Dative tyā tāyaı tāṣya tāṣyaı tyā tyaı
Enclitic ātaya ātayaı ātaya ātayaı ātya ātyaı
Instrumental tēṇa tēṇaı tāya tāyaı tāṇa tāṇaı
Locative tīu tau tīa tau tīṇ tīṇa
Genitive tēṇa tēṇaı tāṣva tāṣvaı tīṇ tīṇa
Enclitic әtēṇ әtēṇa әtēṇ әtēṇa ētıṇ ētıṇa
Benefactive әtānṭa әtānṭa ṣyānṭa ṣyānṭaı tīnṭa tīnṭaı
Ablative taṭ tāṭ ṣaṭ ṣāṭ taṭ tāṭ


There is but one interrogative pronoun, kyā, which declines. It congruates with gender, but does not distinguish the dual number. It is essentially similar to the First front declension, though it's somewhat irregular.

Interrogative Declension[]

Interrogative Declension
Gender → Masculine Feminine Neuter
Case ↓ Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Absolutive koı keı kıā kaı
Ergative kyō kyoı kyī kyeı kyā kyaı
Accusative kyōm kyōmau kyīm kyīma kyām kyāma
Dative kōya kōyoı kīya kīyaı kāya kāyaı
Instrumental kyōṇa kyōṇoı kīṇ kīṇa kāṇ kāṇa
Locative kyōu kyōva keu kēva kau kāva
Genitive kyōnә kyōnoı kīṇa kīṇaı kāṇa kāṇaı
Benefactive kyōṃ kyōma kīnṭa kīnṭaı kānṭa kānṭaı
Ablative kyoṭ kyōṭ kәṭ kēṭ kaṭ kāṭ

Relative Declension[]

The relative declension is indeed identical to the interrogative one, with exception for three enclitics. In case they are suffixed postvocally, they receive an initial a⟩.

Relative Enclitics
Gender → Masculine Feminine Neuter
Case ↓ Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Accusative yām yāma yәm yēma yām yāma
Dative-Instrumental yaı yei yaı
Genitive yōnә yōnoı yīn yīna yān yāna

Nominal Declension[]

There are four nominal declensions in the Naṃkrthāvāka, each declined differently, based upon phonological differences in the terminating syllable.

Nota bene:

First Declension[]

The characteristic of the First declensions is the vowel stem. There is little difference between gender, however [...]. The pluralisation of the nouns is mainly due to diphthongisation of the ultimate vowel.

Front First Declension[]

The First declension is split into two suptypes, depending on the vowel metaphony of the word. The Front declension is recognised should the lexeme:

  • Initiate with a front vowel.
  • Initiate with an [ә] or [ɛ] and continue with front vowels.
  • Contain only front vowels.
  • Contain only [ɛ]'s.
Front Declension
Sdē chair Kēma fire Nāra person
Gender → Masculine Feminine Neuter
Case ↓ Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Absolutive sdē sdēı kēma kēmaı nāra nāraı
Ergative sdēsya sdēsyaı kēmasya kēmasyaı nāraṭta nāraṭtaı
Accusative sdēm sdēma kēmam kēmama nāram nārama
Dative sdēya sdēyaı kēmaya kēmayaı nāraya nārayaı
Instrumental sdēṇ sdēṇa kēmaṣta kēmaṣtaı nāraṇ nāraṇa
Locative sdeu sdēṿa kēmau kēmaṿa nārau nāraṿa
Genitive1 sdēṇa sdēṇaı kēmaṣua kēmaṣuaı nāreṇa nāreṇa
Benefactive sdēnṭa sdēnṭaı kēmanṭa kēmanṭaı nāranṭ narānṭ
Ablative sdēṭ kēmaṭ nāraṭ
  1. For polysyllables which are not stressed on the first syllable, the genitive may be formed through postponing the stress of the absolutive to the ultimate vowel.
Back First Declension[]

There are, as mentioned, two separate subtypes of the first vowel stem declension. These are distinguished through whether the word has a back or front vowel harmony. The back declension is used should the word have a single back vowel, have an initial one, or a second one succeding an "affected" [ɛ/ә].

Please note,

  • that ⟨ṃ⟩ is pronounced /n/ intervocally.
  • the ⟨ṿ⟩ indicates an intervocal ⟨u⟩, pronounced /w/.
Back Declension
krṭō work bhūva mud dhēnu bull
Gender → Masculine Feminine Neuter
Case ↓ Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Absolutive krṭō krṭoı bhūva bhūvuı dhēnu dhēnuı
Ergative krṭōsya krṭōsyoı bhūvasua bhūvasvuı dhēnusya dhēnusyuı
Accusative krṭōm krṭōmau bhūvam bhūvamau dhēnum dhēnumau
Dative krṭoı krṭoyau bhūvoı bhūvoyau dhēnoı dhēnoyau
Instrumental krṭōṇa krṭōṇoı bhūvaga bhūvagoı dhēnuga dhēnugoı
Locative krṭou krṭōṿa bhūvou bhūvaṿa dhēnu dhēnuı
Genitive krṭon krṭonau bhūvan bhūvanau dhēnun dhēnunau
Benefactive krṭōṃ krṭōṃu bhūvaṃ bhūvaṃu dhēnuṃ dhēnuṃu
Ablative krṭ bhūvaṭ dhēnuṭ

Second Declension[]

The second declension declines nouns with a fricative coda. There is no distinction of number in the accusative, locative or ablative cases.

Please note that the ⟨ṭ⟩ is pronounced /ʂ/ intervocally and finally.

Second Declension
kaṭ hair ȷēnas knee khōros chorus
Gender → Masculine Feminine Neuter
Case ↓ Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Absolutive kaṭ kāṭ ȷēnas ȷenās khōros khorōs
Ergative kātya kātyaı ȷēnasya ȷēnasyaı khōrosya khōrosyoı
Accusative kāṭ ȷenās khorōs
Dative kāṭya kāṭyaı ȷēnahya ȷēnahyaı khōrhya khōrohyaı
Instrumental kāṭta kāṭtaı ȷēnasṭa ȷēnasṭaı khōrosṭa khōrosṭoı
Locative kāṭau ȷēnau khōrou
Genitive kāṭna kāṭnaı ȷēnasṇa ȷēnasṇaı khōrosṇa khōrosṇaı
Benefactive kāṭta kāṭtaı ȷēnaṣsa ȷēnaṣsaı khōroṣsa khōroṣsoı
Ablative kāṭa ȷēnasa khōrosu

Third Declension[]

The third declension is based upon nasal stems, and have peculiar function, since it affects the other declensions, especially in the accusative. Third declension monosyllabic nouns always have an ungeminated vowel.

Please note that the neuter declines identically to the masculine, however, this does not apply to the so called "s-neuter". The s-neuter includes nouns which terminate with a nasal and an /s/.

Third Declension
svan dog ȷyum yoke ktans hand
Gender → Masculine Feminine s-Neuter
Case ↓ Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Absolutive svan svāna ȷyum ȷyūmo ktans ktāna
Ergative ktans ktānta
Accusative svāna svānaı ȷyūmo ȷyūmoı ktānta ktāntaı
Dative svāna svānaya ȷyūmo ȷyūmoya ktānta ktāntaya
Instrumental svāṇna svāṇnaı ȷyūṇmo ȷyūṇmoı ktāntaṇa ktāntaṇaı
Locative svānau ȷyūmou ktāntau
Genitive svānaṇ svānaṇa ȷyūmoṇo ȷyūmoṇoı ktānteṇa ktānteṇaı
Benefactive svānna svānnaı ȷyūmno ȷyūmnoı ktānna ktānnaı
Ablative svānaṭ ȷyūmoṭ ktāntaṭ

Fourth Declension[]

The fourth declension handles nouns ending in ⟨r⟩ or ⟨ar, ur⟩. These are exclusively agentive nouns and entails human agents only, thus you may only decline the neuter in the plural, because no neuter agents exist.

Examples include:

  • suāstr, सउास्तर, (sister)
  • pītr, पीतर, (father)
  • pātur, पातर, (pedestrian)
Fourth Declension
dātr giver, donor
Gender → Masculine Feminine Neuter
Case ↓ Singular Plural Singular Plural Plural
Absolutive dātr dātar dātr dātrә dātraḥ
Ergative dāta dātaı dātә dāteı dātaı
Accusative dātaram dātaramā dātrәm dātrәmā dātarma
Dative dātraı dātraya dātreı dātreya dātaraı
Instrumental dātrā dātarbhaı dātre dātәrbheı dātarabhāı
Locative dātru dātroı dātrә dātreı dātrau
Genitive dātrn dātrma dātrәna dātrәnaı dātarma
Benefactive dātrnṭa dātrnṭaı dātrnṭә dātrnṭeı dātrnṭu
Ablative dātar dātәr dātarbhaı



The Naṃkrthāvāka distinguishes five different adjectival forms, which are all perceived as functions of the corresponding noun in Nāmic:


Predicative adjectives are conjuncted to the object with copulae or another verb, that is, a predicate. The adjectival predicative is indeclinable to case and number, but not gender. It can be compared.

āyam sāma ākyam
He appears nice
[a.ˈʐãː ˈsaː.ma ˈaː.c͡çam]
āhәm hvā hārәm
I was yellow
[ˈaː.həm xfaː ˈhaː.rəm]

Please note that the adjectival predicative above in reality is derived from the nominal predicative, declined to the accusative case.


The nominal form stands independently or with a demonstrative, to represent the full object. In Nāmic, it's identical to the nominative attributive form.

grīgama nāvaı tāpranṭ
The young throw rocks
[ˈnaː.ʍaɪ̯ ˈtaː.praɳʈ ˈgrɪː.ɣam.a]
āhәm āraȷya rautām vt.pres.ı
I love (the) red (one)
[ˈaː.ʔə̤m a.ˈraː.ɟ͡ʝa rau̯.ˈt͡θām]

Attributive adjectives differ in the sense that they congruate with the nouns regarding case, number and gender. They describe a feature of the object in a state.

nāraı mādraı dyēvanṭ
Sweet people shine.
[ˈnaː.raɪ̯ maː.draɪ̯ ˈɖ͡ʐɛː.wãʐ]
nārama mṙtama sāham
I see dead people
[ˈnaː ˈmr̩ˑ.ʈ saː.ʔa̤m]

The last form describes a verb, in which manner it's conducted. Adverbs are not perceived as a lexical category in Neumatic linguistics, separate from adjectives. Please note that adverbs decline by gender and number of the verb's subject.

nāka kāryakā āya
She dances beautifully.
[ˈnaː.xa kaːr.ʂa.ˈxaː ˈa.ʐa]
magāı aȷākou
You did well, man!
[ma.ˈɣɛː a.ˈɟaː.kœu̯]

Adjectival Declension[]

First Declension[]

Second Declension[]

Third Declension[]

Fourth Declension[]

Adjectival Comparison[]

Adjectival Root
Comparative Cercative Superlative
Gender Masculine Feminine Neuter
Number Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Comparative Nominative
Cercative Nominative
Superlative Nominative



The Nāmic language only possess one voice, the active. In the Proto-Indo-European language, the passive and medio-passive voices merged, only to produce the Nāmic impersonal pronoun, instead of a voice.

However, a passive construction is possible using the instrumental case on the former subject, and the absolutive on the former patient, if you want to emphasize the subject.

  • The English equivalent, for example: "The girl was killed by him", uses the past participle and an oblique argument.
  • The Nāmic equivalent uses the instrumental case on the former subject, him, and the absolutive case on the former patient, the girl. In addition, the verb is intransivitised, similarly to the use of the past participle killed in English.

Please note that this is however only used in formal contexts.

htrīṇa marәyā
He killed the girl.
[ˈxʈrɪː.ɳa ma.rə.ˈʐaː]
htrīṇ āṇan marәyāṭ
The girl was killed by (means of) him.
[ˈxʈrɪːɳ ˈaː.ɳan ma.rə.ˈʐaːʐ]


Nāmic possesses four moods, which all verbs conjugate by. The conditional is simply the subjunctive used in main clauses, and is therefore identical in form.

Indicative Subjunctive Conditional Desiderative
ātam āha āha ātam kānharan1 ātaran āha kānharan ātasyam
I eat. I eat if I am hungry. I would eat, if I were hungry. I want/wish/would like to eat.
  1. The verbal root √kānha means "to hunger".


In Nāmic there are two simple tenses, which denote the temporal place. The difference between the past and the present, is simply a manipulated stress. All tenses are dependent on the aspects.

Present Past
vākam vakām
I talk. I talked.

There is however a more complicated tense, which intertwines with the perfect aspect, to form the aorist. This tense is similar to its Sanskrit and Ancient Greek counterparts but is on the whole quite facile. The aorist marks events akin to its name, "unlimited", "indefinite"; which means that the most simple statements go here, as long as the temporal place isn't important, equal to English colloquial speech. For example:

What did you do today? - I danced.

Which more colloquially would be:

What did you do today? - Dance.

Simple statements in the future also class into this category:

What did you want to do when you get older? - Be a pilot.


There are three or two aspects in the Nāmic language, although not all aspects may be combined with other moods.

Aorist Imperfective Retrospective
ādatam kuā gamāṭ ādatam kuā gamāṭ ādatabham
I was eating when he came. I was eating when he came. I have eaten.


The transitivity distinction in Nāmic is derived from the Proto-Indo-European causative verb form, which it shares a lot of attributes, lost in most other Indo-European languages. The characteristic is known foremostly in Uralic languages and Siberian ones.

  • Transitivity is, how many, and if, a verb accepts a direct object. If it doesn't, it is called an intransitive verb. This is Nāmic's basic verb form.
Confer the intransitive I see and the transitive I see the man.
  • The transitivity is distinguished in all verbs, with a few exceptions, and may also signalise a stative versus dynamic distinction. Something the English language retains traces of.
Confer the stative and intransitive I sit versus the dynamic I set.

I chose not to write that I set is transitive, only because the Nāmic language would translate this clause intransitively because it has no object, that is, I am a person who set (things).

Differentiating between the transitivity is made through an old causative infix from the Proto-Indo-European language, initially /aja/. This infix did however go through mutation and formed firstly /ja/, then just /j/. Eventually it grew to form falling diphthongs from the preceding vowel. These diphthongs were exposed to synaeresis and formed the following table:

Development of the causative infix /aja/.
Front Back
Diphthong Monophthong Diphthong Monophthong
[aɪ̯] [ɛ] [ɑɪ̯] [ə]
[ɛɪ̯] [ɪ] [əɪ̯] [ɯ]
[ɵɪ̯] [ɵ] [uɪ̯] [u]
[œɪ̯] [œ] [ɔɪ̯] [ə]

This table is half the table found in the Synaeresis section.

The development can be seen in transition from Old Nāmic:

Development of the causative infix /aja/.
Old Nāmic Nāmic
Normal Causative Intransitive Transitive
vētas veyātas vēta vēıta vīta
be able to to make able to to be able to; can; know to know; know of
sthās sthāyas sthā sthāı sthē-
to stand to make standing to stand; arise to put; raise

The transitive form is always considered a part of the intranistive complement, and is not recognised as a verb proper. In Nāmic linguistic notation the intransitive and transitive roots of verbs are marked as and t√ respectively. Confer the reduplicated root, r√. The lemma form of the verbs is almost exclusively the intransitive root + an "a".






The Nāmic language utilises reduplication. Perhaps it is no surprise considering the tight bonds with Proto-Indo-European and Sanskrit. Reduplication in the language serves the purpose of creating the imperfective and retrospective aspects of the verb in the subjunctive and indicative moods. The system of reduplication is quite regular but depends heavily on the initial letters, but can be mapped. First remember these:

C = Consonant
G = Voiced consonant.
S = Plosive consonant; stop
F = Fricative
R = Rhotic
V = Vowel
  • The most basic reduplication occurs on onsets similar to the one below. It represents the second to maximum onset in the language, but the FC cluster is unaffected.
(FC)C1V which creates S1V.(FC)C1V
sthā- → tāstha-
hkānt- → kāhkant-
nām- → nānam-

If the first vowel is an "e", the scheme becomes:

(FC)C1e which creates S1ı.(FC)C1e
  • If the onset possesses a rhotic consonant, like the absolute maximum onset:
(FC)CR1V creates R1V.(FC)CR1V
  • If the root starts with a vocalic syllable and the second syllable is a consonant:
V.C/N creates V.G/NVC/N
  • If the root starts with a vocalic syllable and the first consonant is a rhotic:
V.R creates RV.R

Other useful reduplication schemes are:

pV → pupV

The reduplicated form is in Nāmic linguistic notation always marked with the lemma form in conjugations and dictionaries, marked as r√. Confer the transitivity root markers and t√.

Intransitive Conjugation[]

This section is subject to change. Reduplication has received a new purpose, and paradigms shall now be derived from PIE.

Intransitive Verb
√sthā r√testhāı to stand, stay, remain, arise.
Non-Past sthānta
Past sthanta
Person Singular Plural Impersonal
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
Indicative Aorist
Perfective stham sthaı sthaṭ sthāma sthāṭa sthanṭ sthau
Imperfective tāstham tāsthaı tāsthaṭ tāsthama tāsthaṭa tāsthanṭ tāsthau
Retrospective tāsthabham tāsthabhaı tāsthabaṭ tāsthabhama tāsthabhaṭa tāsthabhanṭ tāsthabhau
Ag.Retrospective ātastham ātasthaı ātasthaṭ ātasthama ātasthaṭa ātasthanṭ ātasthau
Imperfective tasthām tasthāı tasthāṭ tasthamā tasthaṭā tasthānṭ tasthāu
Retrospective tasthabhām tasthabhāı tasthabāṭ tasthabhamā tasthabhaṭā tasthabhānṭ tasthabhāu
Subjunctive Person 1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd Impersonal
Perfective sthāur sthāṭaur sthātar sthāmasta sthāṭau sthāntar sthaur
Imperfective tāsthar tāsthatar tāsthatr tāsthamasta tāsthaṭau tāsthantar tāsthaur
Retrospective tāsthabhar tāsthabhatar tāstabhatr tāsthamabhasta tāsthabhaṭau tāsthabhantar tāsthabhaur
Imperfective tasthar tasthatar tasthatr tasthamasta tastaṭau tasthantar tasthaur
Retrospective tasthabhar tasthabhatar tastabhatr tasthamabhasta tasthabhaṭau tasthabhantar tasthabhaur
Desiderative Person 1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd Impersonal
Imperfective sthāsyam sthāsyaı sthāsyaṭ sthāsyama sthāsyaṭa sthāsyanṭ sthāsyau
Retrospective tāsthasyam tāsthasyaı tāsthasyaṭ tāsthasyama tāsthasyaṭa tāsthasyanṭ tāsthasyau
Imperfective sthasyām sthasyāı sthasyāṭ sthasyamā sthasyaṭā sthasyānṭ sthasyāu
Retrospective tasthasyām tasthasyāı tasthasyāṭ tasthasyamā tasthasyaṭā tasthasyānṭ tasthasyāu

√sthāı is a monosyllabic root and reduplicated in the past.

Transitive Conjugations[]

This one, on the other hand, is finished. Descriptive texts will come.

Transitive Verb
√sthā t√sthāı r√testhāı to put, set, keep, raise.
Non-Past sthāyata
Past sthāyatā
Person Singular Plural Impersonal
1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd
Indicative Aorist
Perfective sthә sthaı stheṭ sthem sthēṭa sthēn sthayu
Imperfective tēsthә tēsthaı tēstheṭ tēsthem tēstheṭa tēsthen tēsthayu
Retrospective testhēbhә testhēbhaı testhēbheṭ testhēbhem testhēbhәṭa testhēbhen testhēbhu
Ag.Retrospective āstebhә āsthebhaı āsthebheṭ āsthebhem āsthebhәṭa āsthebhen āstebhu
Imperfective testhṃ testhāı testhēṭ testhēm testhēṭa testhēn testhayū
Retrospective testhebhē testhebhāı testhebhēṭ testhebhēm testhebhәṭā testhebhēn testhebhū
Subjunctive Person 1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd Impersonal
Perfective sthaı sthāṭaı sthātaı sthāmasta sthāṭau sthāntaı sthāu
Imperfective tāsthava tāsthaṭa tāsthaṭ tāsthamaṭ tāsthathau tāsthanta tāsthu
Retrospective tāstabhava tāsthabhaṭa tāsthabhaṭ tāsthabhamaṭ tāsthabhatau tāsthabhanta tāsthabhu
Imperfective tasthavā tasthaṭā tasthāṭ tasthamāṭ tasthathāu tasthantā tasthū
Retrospective tastabhavā tasthabhaṭā tasthabhāṭ tasthabhamāṭ tasthabhatāu tasthabhantā tasthabhū
Desiderative Person 1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd Impersonal
Imperfective sthēsyә sthēsyaı sthēsyeṭ sthēsyem sthēsyeṭa sthēsyen sthēsyayu
Retrospective testhēsyә testhēsyaı testhēsyeṭ testhēsyem testhēsyeṭa testhēsyen testhesyayū
Imperfective sthesyē sthesyāı sthesyēṭ sthesyēm sthesyeṭā sthesyēn sthesyayū
Retrospective testhesyē testhesyāı testhesyēṭ testhesyēm testhesyeṭā testhesyēn testhesyayū

√sthāı is a monosyllabic root and reduplicated in the past. Please note that āı > ē.

Conjugation Classes[]

Nāmic possesses a few classes of conjugations, which conjugate slightly differently, because of their phonological attributes, or irregularity. They are named after the most prominent word conjugated in the class.