|Name: (Na) Hëtṿa
Head Direction: High tone
Number of genders: 3
The language of Hëtṿa was created in early 2010 as a semi-official language in the micronation of Debian.
|a||b||tʃ||dʒ||d, ɖ||e, ɛ||ə, ɜ, ʌ||f||g||ɣ||h||i||ʒ||k||q, ɢ||l||ʟ||m||ɱ, ts||n||ŋ||ɲ||o, ɔ||p||ɸ, ʜ||c||kʰw||r, ɾ||ʀ, ʁ||s||ʃ, ʂ||t||ʈ, d||u||v||w||j|
The phonotactics of Hëtṿa are quite simple. The only vowel clusters allowed are a-(anything) and o-(anything). All consonants can cluster except if the second consonant in the cluster is ċ, ṃ or ṣ. While phonetically possible, these letters are not allowed to cluster except if they are the first in the cluster. The letter h is also not allowed to cluster, as the letter h after another consonant creates what is called lenition.
Lenition is the use of the letter h to change the sound of consonants. A full table of lenited consonants can be found below:
|x, c /k/|
|Q̣h||ç, kh /k/|
|Th||θ, dh /t-h/|
The order of sentences in Hëtṿa is SOV, or Subject-Object-Verb. So, the structure would be:
(Subject)-(Object)-(Transitive Verb) English: I eat meat Eng-Het: I meat eat Hëtṿa: M'ëlbët memheṿ
Since the verb is transitive, the personal indicator must be repeated twice - before and after the object, the second one attached normally to the verb
If the verb is intransitive, then the order is VS, or Verb-Subject:
(Verb)-(Subject) English: I eat Eng-Het: Eat I Hëtṿa: emheṿ më (as opposed to memheṿ)
Verbs are simple to form. Each verb has the following structure:
Personal indicator-infinitive-(tense/mood indicator) ((negation) and/or (interrogative))
They each mean:
|You (polite or plural)||Ċh|
Each indicator also has four extra forms:
- Indicating words such as us, he and they.
- Indicating words such as our, his and their.
- Indicating words such as ours, his and theirs.
- Indicating reflexion of verbs
- The first can be formed by adding an -ë to the end of each indicator
- The second can be formed by adding an -ē to the end
- The third can be formed by adding an -ās to the end.
- The fourth can be formed by adding an -ī
|Present||-Ø||Indicates what is happening now|
|Present perfect||-(i)mak||Something that has happened|
|Future perfect||-(i)ni||Something that will have happened|
|Past perfect||-(i)ti||Something that had happened|
|Future||-(i)siti||Something that will happen|
|Imperfect||(e)ċe ____ip||Something that was happening|
|Pluperfect||-(i)masi||Something that had happened|
|Preterite||-(i)ma||Something that happened|
|Conditional I||(i)mhap ____asi||Something that would happen|
|Conditional II||(i)mhet ____asi||Something that would have happened|
|Conditional III||(i)mhos ____asi||Something that would be happening|
|Negation||dai||To say that something did not happen|
|Interrogative||dë||To ask if something happened|
There are seven basic cases:
- The nominative case is the main subject of the sentence
- The genitive denotes possession
- The accusative is the object of the sentence
- The ablative denotes movement away from something
- The elative means movement out of something
- The intrative denotes something in between two objects.
- The translative denotes a change of state (i.e. into something, becoming something)
There are also three numbers:
- The singular denotes one of something
- The dual denotes two of something
- The plural denotes many (but still an unspecified amount) of something.
Adjectives always end in the consonant cluster -sh. They are derived from abstract nouns, i.e. great < greatness, tall < height, stupid < idiocy.
Here are a few common adjectives:
Comparative and Superlative
The extra forms of adjectives can be formed by using these words:
- Dē for comparatives
- Dā for superlatives
Adverbs are formed by using adjectives, and adding eclipsis to the final s, making it ṣ, e.g.
Funny > Funnily
Simash > Simaṣh
Happy > Happily
Osash > Osaṣh
Conjugation and Declension of the above
Below is an example of how to conjugate the verb esha (to be) in the first person (mesha):
|Conditional 1||mhap meshasi|
|Conditional 2||mhet meshasi|
|Conditional 3||mhos meshasi|
Below is a table on how to conjugate two nouns, sap (house) and hëtṿa (language):
|How are you?||Ċamiṭ dë?|
|Fine, thanks.||Hela, ċi mepet|
|What's your name?||Ċīs bërën tesha tṿë?|
|My name is...||Mīs bëren... teshá|
|Where are you from?||Bhrom hōt ċepeti?|
|I come from....||Bhrom... mepeti.|
|Do you speak English?||Engq̇harh toshet dë?|
|My Hëtṿa is not so good.||Hëtṿh mīs dē gorash tesha dai.|
The dog ate the cat.
I sing loudly.
Dog-(NOM) eat-PRET-3SG cat-(ACC)
Gołica tisima beth.