Language is based on phonemic orthography. It has 9 consonants and 3 vowels.


Labial Dental,


Retroflex Palatal Velar
Nasal m n
Plosive voiceless p t k
Affricate voiceless
Fricative voiceless ʂ x
Approximant central j
lateral l


Front Central Back
Close i
Mid o
Open a

-w (j), e, u, č[]







P, p


T, t


K, k


L, l /l/

J, j


O, o /o/

I, i


H, h /x/

N, n


A, a


M, m


S, s




The syllable structure: CV(C).

Stress pattern: No fixed stress

Writting system[]


Writing system consist of all caps letters. It is based on phonemic orthography.


Main word order: SVO

Adjective order: Adjectives are positioned before the noun.

Adposition: preposition

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Nouns No Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No No Yes No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No Yes Yes No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


Noun Morphology is based on number (singular, plural) and case (nominative, dative, accusative, genitive).


Word Type Singular Plural
Nominative woman - lona

man - sok

women - lonali

men - sokali

suffix: -(a)li

Dative to [the/a] woman - lonat

to [the/a] man - soket

suffix: -(i)t

women - lonati

men - sokiti

suffix: -(i)ti

Accusative woman - loni

man - soki

suffix: -i

women - loniji

men - sokiji

suffix: -iji

Genitive woman's - lonas

men's - sokis

suffix: -(i)s

women's - lonasi

men's - sokisi

suffix: - (i)si

Locative in/at/by [the/a] woman - lono

in/at/by [the/a] man - soko

suffix: -o

in/at/by [the/some] women - lonaji

in/at/by [the/some] men - sokoji

suffix: - (o)ji

Personal pronouns[]

Word Type Nominative Accusative Dative Genitive I - na me - no mine - nahi to me - ni you - la you - lo yours - lahi to you - li he/she/it - pi him/her/it - po his/hers/its - pihi to him/her/it - pi we - ma us - mo ours - mahi to us - mu you - ja you - jo yours - jahi to you -ju they - sa them - so theirs - sahi to them - su


There are no irregular verbs. If a verb ends in vowel use sufix vowel of a verb mood instead.

The three moods are:

  • indicative - indicates that something is a statement of reality or a fact
  • subjunctive - used to express emotion, desire, doubt, opinion, wishes, polite requests...
  • imperative - used for orders and requests; imperative verbs align with the absolutive
  • interrogative - used for posing questions.

Indicative mood[]

1st sing. 2nd sing. 3rd sing. 1st plural 2nd plural 3rd plural
present -am -a -is -an -ik -ih
past -amo -ato -iso -ano -iko -iho
future -ami -ati -isi -ani -iki -ihi


Subjunctive mood[]

Verb in subjuncite mood have the adverb matilo, placed before the verb, and have indicative mood conjugation.

Imperative mood[]

Verb in imperative mood have the particle ko, placed before the verb, and have indicative mood conjugation.

Interrogative mood[]

Verb in interrogativ mood have the adverb jite, placed before the verb, and have indicative mood conjugation.

Perfect aspect[]

‘have studied’

Uses the word for ‘finish’ - toni /toni/ before main verb.

Progressive aspect[]

‘am studying’

Uses the particle no /no/ before main verb.


‘study!’ (as a command)

Uses the particle ko /ko/ before main verb phrase.


Sentences are negated by the adverb naja, placed before the verb. For example, "they do not play" is Sa naja sanipam.

Derivational morphology[]

Noun → adjective: Suffix: -ima

Adjective → noun: Suffix: -i

Noun → verb: Suffix: -iki

Verb → noun: Suffix: -a

Verb → adjective: Suffix: -i

Adjective → adverb: Suffix: -(a)sa

One who Xs (e.g. paint → painter): Suffix: -(i)ha

Place where (e.g. wine → winery): Suffix: -oti

Diminutive: Suffix: -ilo

Augmentative: Suffix: -ono


Numerals (kato) are written in Hindu-Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3)

Number Reading
0 noko
1 miti
2 hona
3 tik
4 vala
5 pato
6 hi
7 seti
8 ma
9 sito
10 kono
13 titekonomi
18 makonomi
20 howakono
50 petokono
100 paso
1000 sen
10,000 konosen
106 haci
109 towa


Lona - woman

Sok - man

toka - big

nami - love

sanipam - play