Conlang
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Newwang
Nèuwaŋ
Type
Analytic
Alignment
Accusative
Head direction
left
Tonal
Yes
Declensions
No
Conjugations
No
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General information[]

Newwang (/nuˈ(w)aŋ/ natively Nèuwaŋ [n̪əʊ̯˥˧wæ̃˧˩]) is the most spoken language of Manjinga (Mānwar). It is also widely spoken and taught in several other nations and by the Manjingan diaspora, making it one of the most spoken languages on Patrona.

It is a descendant of Old Manjingan.

Phonology[]

Consonants[]

labial dentialveolar retroflex palatal velar glottal
nasal m n̪ <n> ɳ <ņ> Ṽ <ŋ>
plosive p t̪ <t> ʈ <ţ> k
fricative (f) s̪ <s> ʂ <ş> h
affricate t̪s̪ <c> ʈʂ <ç>
approximant l̪ <l> ɻ <r> j <y> w
  • The retroflex consonants /ɳ/, /ʈ/, and /ʂ/ are neutralized with their dentialveolar counterparts when syllable final, in free variation and tending to shift to either one or the other depending on the surrounding consonants.
  • The phoneme /ŋ/ may only be found in the coda, and surfaces as nasalization of the preceding vowel.
  • The labial fricative [f] only appears in the coda, and the labial plosive [p] only syllable initially, thus classifying them as one archiphoneme /p/ is most useful.

Vowels[]

Monophthongs[]

Front Back
unround round unround round
High i <i> y <ue> ɯ <ie> u <u>
Low æ <a> ɝ <e>

Diphthongs[]

All diphthongs are closing and most of the first parts to the diphthongs cannot be vowels on their own.

Fronting Backing
eɪ̯ <ei> iʊ̯ <iu>
oɪ̯ <oi> əʊ̯ <eu>
ɑɪ̯ <ai> æʊ̯ <au>

Tone[]

Table[]

# name contour example
1 ret "creaking" 22 nie "to be quiet"
2 pwēf "level" 44 nīe "tea"
3 "going" 35 níe "ceremonial dance"
4 "coming back" 53 nìe "to chew"

Sandhi[]

  • tone pair: resulting contour
  • 2nd-1st: 44-31
  • 4th-1st: 53-31
  • 4th-2nd: 53-33
  • 1st-2nd: 22-33

Phonotactics[]

Syllables consist of an initial and a rime, coupled with a tone. This gives 8,284 unique possible syllables.

Initials[]

labial dentialveolar retroflex dorsal
nasal m mw n nl nw ņ ņw 0
plosive p py pw t tl tw ţ ţw k ky kw
fricative s sl sw ş şw h hw
affricate c cl cw ç çw
approximant l r y w
  • Initials with /w/ do not occur with high vowel rimes (the third through sixth, ninth, and last rows in the following chart).
  • /ʂ/, /ʂw/, and /sl/ don't occur with tones 2 or 4.

Rimes[]

a af at ak as am an ar
e ef et ek es em en er
i if it ik is im in ir
u uf ut uk us um un ur
ue uef uet uek ues
ie ief iet iek ies
ai aif ait aik ais
ei eif eit eik eis
oi oif oit oik ois
au auf aut auk aus
eu euf eut euk eus
iu iuf iut iuk ius

Grammar[]

Nouns[]

Particles[]

Noun phrases are always capped by either a verb (as a verbal object) or a particle.

NOM GEN mie
TOP ņíe VOC ţī
DAT lat ABL nuef
INSTR reut PRIV
LOC hān ESS kwè
ADD e DISJ

Derivations[]

agent prefix pē-
place descriptor + war "place"
inhabitant location + yìŋ "person"
collection noun + súe "group"
tool verb + "thing"
causative aux. verb lie "make"
diminutive prefix ùe-
augmentative prefix çìe-
full of prefix mā-

Classifiers[]

All determiners must be separated from the noun they modify with a closed class of classifiers, some of which have meaning on their own. An example is kìm, the general classifier for people, which can mean "person" though with an academic tone.

Classifiers can be used on their own as a marker of plurality, though only on nouns referring to people. An example would be kìm Mānwaryìŋ "Manjingans".

Classifiers can also be used as 3rd person pronouns, though ones referring to people have a pejorative meaning. For example, kìm can be used as a pejorative animate 3rd person pronoun.

Some classifiers:

  • kìm people
  • ki sheets

Pronouns[]

pejorative ordinary laudative
1 ku hèŋ
2 kìm ta
3prox lāk múe
3obv şé

Demonstratives[]

PROX: sìe

DIST: síe

Mood[]

mood particle
indicative 0
interrogative
imperative
dubitative míe
emphatic ţī

Reduplication[]

Full reduplication is used for various grammatical purposes. With verbs, reduplication produces a continuative or iterative meaning. And with adjectives, it produces an intensive or superlative meaning.

Syntax[]

Unmarked word order is SXOV (the X referring to an indirect object). When objects are topicalized, they are moved to the beginning of the sentence and lose any particles.

ex.

Síe

DIST

ki

CL

ţu

book

ņíe

TOP

was

inspire.awe

ţī.

EMPH

Síe ki ţu ņíe was ţī.

DIST CL book TOP inspire.awe EMPH

That book was awesome!

Relative clauses are indicated with the relative pronoun slì.

Comparison[]

Neutral comparison is achieved using the comparative copula 'şak' and the essive marker 'kwè' in the following formula:

  • subject object kwè şak adjective.
ex.

Ta

2.ORD

NOM

kìm

3.PEJ

kwè

ESS

şak

COMP.COP

was.

inspire.awe

Ta nā kìm kwè şak was.

2.ORD NOM 3.PEJ ESS COMP.COP inspire.awe

You are just as awesome as them.

Conjunctions[]

Negation[]

The negative adverb māŋ is placed before a verb to indicate negation.

Questions[]

A yes-no question take the form of a normal sentence ended with the interrogative particle .

To answer affirmatively, simply repeat the verb or adjective. To answer negatively, use the negative adverb māŋ.

Pragmatic particles[]

cur marks dispreferreds

ī expresses recognition, agreement, or regret

ie stalls for time or holds the conversational floor

rìm ņíe introduces a new topic

Other particles emphasize relevance, express surprise, request politely, or warn/remind/advise/judge.

Semantics[]

Continua[]

cold to hot hi lūk kyá
tall to short nūf tleŋ
beautiful to ugly lēs mīt şam
ice to steam tus ţīŋ rái pif

Verbs of motion[]

Verbs of motion distinguish two things: whether the movement is towards or away from the direct object, and whether the movement is a reversal of a previous movement or not.

  • rìm "go/come towards"
  • "go/come away from"
  • "return towards"
  • sūt "return from"

Metaphor systems[]

Wisdom is light

  • lie láu "brighten" > "explain"
  • sìr "shining" > "intelligent"
  • lie las "darken" > "obfuscate"

Romance is conquest

  • hwat mwáŋ "conquer" > "seduce"
  • pēçén "soldier" > "casanova"

A building is a body

  • les "arm" > "wing"
  • nis "back"
  • mèi "fist" > "office"
  • swà "cap" > "roof"

Argument is architecture

  • kīs "shaky" > "weak"
  • riu "structurally sound"
  • şéi "leaky" > "full of holes"
  • puk "palace" > "proof"
  • ţūn "column" > "premise"
  • swà "roof" > "conclusion"
  • míŋ "floor" > "step"

War is a painting

  • ùerí "sketch" > "strategy"
  • pweswàr "brushwork" > "tactics"
  • raf "canvas" > "battlefield"
  • kyūs "paint" > "blood" (a euphemism, the normal word is tlie)

Registers[]

Newwang is a language with many dialects and registers of speech. The written standard is essentially that of this article, but the writing system, being logographic, doesn't show dialectal differences in phonology.

Colloquial speech (mātés "slang-full") doesn't attempt to conform to the capital's standards, and employs quite a lot of word substitution.

  • yak "baby" > "newbie"
  • ņuecī "cup" > "alcoholic drink"
  • slás "cut" > "shut up"
  • pēhùe "old ones" > "parents"
  • cīk "face" > "mouth"

Scholarly or bookish language (hùeţu) borrows old words by their meaning. It finds heavy use in religious and legal documents.

Vocabulary[]

Numerals[]

# name #+10 10*# 10^#
0 māŋ lán māŋ
1 hū e lán lán lán
2 líu líu e lán líu lán cōi
3 şe şe e lán şe lán lán cōi
4 nli nli e lán nli lán çí
5 kìr kìr e lán kìr lán lán çí
6 pèu pèu e lán pèu lán cōi çí
7 ţā ţā e lán ţā lán lán cōi çí
8 ţwāŋ ţwāŋ e lán ţwāŋ lán ?
9 weik weik e lán weik lán lán ?
10 lán líu lán cōi cōi ?

Directions[]

nái
hik lum ţēn

Intermediate directions are compounds: pàţēn "southeast"

Body parts[]

  • body: ţās
  • iris/pupil: ùemūr
  • hair: şùe
  • cap: swà
  • eye: mūr
  • head/face: cīk
  • ear:
  • nose: lār
  • mouth: nla
  • chin: çai
  • chest/neck:
  • belly: sla
  • back: nis
  • arm: les
  • elbow: hāf
  • hand: tik
  • back of the hand: pwēf
  • fist/knuckles: mèi
  • fingers: pēhén
  • thumb: clār
  • leg: pēcúe
  • knee: kyú
  • foot: rif
  • toes: ùerif

Kinship[]

  • parents: hár
  • mother: pēņūs
  • younger sibling (same mother): heu
  • older sibling (same mother): ţat
  • younger sibling (different mother): tāheu
  • older sibling (different mother): tāţat
  • parent’s younger sibling: hárheu
  • parent’s older sibling: hárţat
  • child: súm
  • nibling (younger sibling’s child): ţatsúm
  • nibling (older sibling’s child): heusúm
  • grandparent: hùehár
  • half: wáŋ
  • great: çìe
  • in-law: pie
  • cousin: çèn
  • step: māŋè
  • twin: pelî́

Time[]

In the Manjingan reckoning, days are divided into four pwár "sections": kén "pre-dawn", tleŋ "morning", slie "afternoon", and húe "post-dusk". Each section is divided into nine míŋ "steps". Finer divisions of time include the rèm "minute" and the kēs "second".

Names[]

Manjingan given names are always two characters long. A full name is simply one's own name followed by one's maternal lineage going back to one's great-grandmother.

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