Ngmei / Ngmeitsi
Ngmẹev tshigz
Flag of Ngmẹev: a red six-petalled flower on a yellow field.
Type Analytic
Alignment Trigger
Head direction Head-initial
Tonal Yes
Declensions No
Conjugations No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Progress 0%
Nouns 0%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 0%
Words ? of 1500
Creator Eçeþesi

Ngmẹev tshigz ([ŋ͡mɛ͡e˩˧ t͡sʰḭ˧˩], alternatively spelled Ngmèev tshigz, and also known as Ngmei in English) is a language spoken on the planet Aysling.

Classification and Dialects[]



Ngmẹev tshigz has a rather large consonant inventory, characterized by prenasalized stops, voiceless nasals, a low proportion of fricatives, and a wide array of places of articulation, including retroflexes, uvulars, and doubly articulated labial-velars. In total, Ngmẹev tshigz has between 40 and 45 consonants, depending on the dialect.

Bilabial Linguo-Labial Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Labial-Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m m̥ (n̼ n̼̊) n n̥ (ɳ ɳ̊) ɲ ɲ̊ ŋ ŋ̊ ŋ͡m ŋ͡m̥
Plosive p pʰ ᵐb (t̼ t̼ʰ ⁿd̼) t tʰ ⁿd (ʈ ʈʰ ᶯɖ) c cʰ ᶮɟ k kʰ ᵑg k͡p k͡pʰ ᵑᵐg͡b q qʰ ᴺɢ (ʔ)
Affricate ts tsʰ ⁿdz tʃ tʃʰ ⁿdʒ ~ ʈʂ ʈʂʰ ᶯɖʐ
Fricative s ʃ ~ ʂ h
Trill r
Lateral l l̥~ɬ

The non-sibilant retroflex consonants occur only in some dialects. In others, they have merged into the alveolars. In some dialects that have merged them, the retroflex sibilants realize as post-alveolar instead. Likewise, the linguolabial series occurs only in some dialects; in those that have lost them, the results vary: most often, they have merged into the alveolar series, while in more conservative lects they may merge with the labials instead. Some lects may maintain them as a contrastive series but realize them as a dental series, resulting in an apical dental versus laminal alveolar contrast. The voiceless lateral approximant and voiceless lateral fricative are in free variation.

The glottal stop occurs predictably at the beginning of vowel-initial words, except those at the beginning of an utterance.


Ngmẹev tshigz has moderately large vowel inventory, with nine oral monophthongs and an additional three nasal monopthongs. The vowel inventory is characterized by the presence of both a rounded front vowel and unrounded back vowel. The vowel identified in the chart as /ɤ/ actually has a fairly wide range of realizations, the most common of which is [ɯ̽], but which also include [ɤ], [ɯ], and [ɨ]. Some dialects have a preference for one realization or another, while in others it appears to largely be up to the individual speaker, or vary by phonological environment.

Front Central Back
High i ʉ
Mid-High e ø ɤ o
Mid-Low ɛ ɛ̃ ɔ̃
Low æ ɒ̝ ɑ̃

Additionally, all vowels may appear long, and there are a wide array of diphthongs, which are detailed below.


Ngmẹev has a wide variety of diphthongs. Including long vowels, some dialects have up to 58 diphthongs. However, not all dialects maintain all of the diphthongs included below.

First Element Second Element
i e ø ɛ ɛ̃ a ɑ̃ ɒ̝ o ɔ̃ ɤ ʉ
i ii ie iy iẹ ien ia ian iọ io ion iw iu
e ei ee ea ean eọ
ø yi yy yu
ɛ ẹi ẹe ẹẹ een ẹu
a ai aa aan ao aon au
ɒ̝ ọi ọẹ ọọ ọo ọu
o oi oẹ oa oan oo oon
ɤ wi wo ww wu
ʉ ui ue uy uẹ uen ua uan uọ uo uon uw uu

Please note that the header cells use IPA while the interior cells indicate the orthography used for the corresponding diphthong.


Ngmẹev tshigz is a tonal language. It possesses five tones, which may occur in conjunction with three phonation qualities.

Tone Name IPA Diacritic IPA Tone Letters
High á
Mid ā
Low à
Falling â a˧˩
Rising ǎ a˧˥
Phonation Name IPA Diacritic

Any combination of tone and phonation can occur.


The Ngmẹev tshigz syllable is very simple, consisting of a vowel, which may be either a monophthong or a diphthong, and an optional onset, which may only consist of a single consonant. Ngmẹev tshigz syllables may not have codas. Additionally, most syllables bear tone, though clitics do not possess a tone of their own, but rather echo that of their host word.

Writing System[]

As an Ayslingian language, Ngmẹev tshigz is not natively written in the Latin alphabet. However, for presentation purposes on this website, the following romanization will be the primary mode of transcription used here.

Letter p ph np m hm pt pth npt mn hmn
Sound /p/ /pʰ/ /ᵐb/ /m/ /m̥/ /t̼/ /t̼ʰ/ /ⁿd̼/ /n̼/ /n̼̊/
Letter t th nt n hn rt rth nrt rn hrn
Sound /t/ /tʰ/ /ⁿd/ /n/ /n̥/ /ʈ/ /ʈʰ/ /ᶯɖ/ /ɳ/ /ɳ̊/
Letter c ch nc nj hnj k kh nk ng hng
Sound /c/ /cʰ/ /ᶮɟ/ /ɲ/ /ɲ̊/ /k/ /kʰ/ /ᵑg/ /ŋ/ /ŋ̊/
Letter kp kph nkp ngm hngm q qh nq s ts
Sound /k͡p/ /k͡pʰ/ /ᵑᵐg͡b/ /ŋ͡m/ /ŋ͡m̥/ /q/ /qʰ/ /ᴺɢ/ /s/ /ts/
Letter tsh nts x tx txh ntx l hl r h
Sound /tsʰ/ /ⁿdz/ /ʃ~ʂ/ /tʃ~ʈʂ/ /tʃʰ~ʈʂʰ/ /ⁿdʒ~ᶯɖʐ/ /l/ /l̥~ɬ/ /r~ɽ/ /h/
Letter a e i o u y w an
Sound /æ/ /e/ /ɛ/ /i/ /o/ /ɒ̝/ /ʉ/ /ø/ /ɤ/ /ɑ̃/
Letter en on (a)b (a)d (a)g (a)v (a)j (a)z
Sound /ɛ̃/ /ɔ̃/ /a˥/ /a˩/ /a˧˩/ /a˧˥/ /a̤/ /a̰/

Long vowels are written by doubling the vowel, e.g. /qʰoː˥/ <qhoob>. Diphthongs are similarly written with the corresponding component vowels, e.g. /ŋ̊a͡e˩/ <hngaed>. When a non-mid-tone syllable is also creaky or breathy, the letters <j> and <z> follow the letters <b d g> and <v>.

When unavailable, the characters <ẹ> and <ọ> may be replaced by <è> and <ò>.


Ngmẹev is a highly analytic language, meaning it employs little to no inflectional morphology. Grammatical categories such as case and aspect are conveyed through a combination of word order and periphrastic constructions, such as particles, clitics, and auxiliaries. As such, this article will not dedicate a section to morphology, but instead will discuss the handling of various grammatical constructions as relevant in their respective phrase types' syntaxes.


Ngmẹev syntax is broadly head-initial, with a default word order of VSO. However, in practice this usually only holds as verb-initial, as a combination of trigger alignment (also known as Austronesian alignment) and topicalization can shuffle the order of the noun arguments.

Verb Phrases[]

Verb phrases consist of at least one verb, optional TAM markers, an optional trigger marker, and any arguments, complements, or adjuncts of the verb.

TAM Marking[]

Ngmẹev relies primarily on aspect rather than tense in its temporal system. The aspect marker, if there is one, appears after the verb. The following table lists the most common aspect markers and their meanings: The perfective aspect (e.g. John built a house.) is marked by the word nto.

Trigger Marking[]

As a trigger language, Ngmẹev utilizes marking on the verb phrase to indicate the roles of the noun arguments in a clause. The trigger marker, if there is one, appears before the verb. The default trigger is the agent trigger, so it is unmarked, meaning there is no trigger marker. The following table lists the other trigger markers and their uses: The patient trigger is qhẹ.

Noun Phrases[]

Noun phrases consist of a noun, a focus marker, and optional adjectives or other modifiers.

The focus marker can appear as either a proclitic on the first word of the noun phrase, or a word following the noun itself. When it appears as a proclitic, it can also trigger mutation in the head noun. The focused marker, or direct marker, is typically mọ in its proclitic form, which triggers N-mutation, and mon in its postpositional form. The unfocused marker, or indirect marker, is typically xe in its proclitic form, which does not trigger mutation.


Initial Consonant Mutations[]

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Some grammatical environments trigger mutations in word-initial consonants. There are two primary kinds of mutations that can occur, the choice depending on the particular triggering environments. Below is a chart examining these mutations:

Original Consonant H-Mutation Example N-Mutation Example
tenuis stop aspirated stop prenasalized stop
aspirated stop aspirated stop tenuis stop
prenasalized stop tenuis stop nasal stop
nasal stop voiceless nasal stop nasal stop
voiceless nasal stop voiceless nasal stop nasal stop



Main article: Ngmẹev tshigz derivational morphology

Example text[]