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Novoslavski


Novoslavski is a constructed language intended for
communication between speakers of different Slavic languages. It is similar to other constructed languages
including Slovianski and Neoslavonic, as well as native Slavic languages like Russian and Serbian. The
grammar has been simplified considerably by reduction in the number and complexity of inflections in
nouns , verbs and adjectives. It is hoped that this has not reduced the resulting language to an Esperanto-like
state where a great number of words have become unrecognisable and sound ridiculous to the ear of a native
Slavic speaker, but that the sound of the language remains reasonably recognisable to them.
This short course attempts to present the grammar in logical stages, building on the previous
sections. It is expected that someone wishing to learn Novoslavski already has some knowledge of one or
more Slavic languages, but this is not essential. Throughout the text, all Novoslavski words are given in both
Latin and Cyrillic characters, to assist persons who are unfamiliar with Cyrillic texts. Some brief exercises
are included as illustrations of the grammar outlined in each section
It is possible to utilise either Latin or Cyrillic to write Novoslavski, although Cyrillic is the preferred
option as it does not require accented characters. Minor variations in orthography are possible if certain
characters are not available on particular word processors, such as the substitution of y, j, ja, je and ju for
Cyrillic ы, й, я, ѣ and ю. The alphabets and writing conventions are detailed in the next section.

SECTION CONTENTS PAGE
ALPHABET & ORTHOGRAPHY 2
LEKCIJA 1 GENDER & DECLENSION OF NOUNS :- Masculine, Feminine &
Neuter Declensions, Irregular Nouns, Uses of the Cases
4
LEKCIJA 2 ADJECTIVES :- Hard & Soft Stems, Comparative & Superlative Adjectives,
Irregular Comparatives
8
LEKCIJA 3 PRONOUNS :- Personal Pronouns, Possessive Pronouns, Demonstrative
Pronouns, Relative Pronouns, Emphatic Pronouns, Questions
11
LEKCIJA 4 PRONOUNS :- Interrogative Pronouns & Adverbs, Prepositions, Expressions
of Time, Present Tense of Verbs
16
LEKCIJA 5 VERBS :- 2nd Conjugation, Past Tense, The Verb “to be “, Future &
Conditional Tenses
20
LEKCIJA 6 VERBS :- Passive Voice, Participles 24
LEKCIJA 7 VERBS :- Perfective & Imperfective Aspects, Perfective & Reflexive Verbs,
Verbal Nouns
27
LEKCIJA 8 NUMBERS :- Expressions of Time, Dates, 30
GRAMMAR TABLES :- Declension of Nouns, Adjectives, & Pronouns
Conjugations of Verbs
34
VOCABULARY FROM THE LESSONS 46

1
Novoslavski – Новославски
by Robert F. Hancock © 2016
Novoslavski – Новославски
ALPHABET & ORTHOGRAPHY
Novoslavski is written in two alternative alphabets, Latin and Cyrillic. These are shown in the table below :

LATIN CYRILLIC ITALIC NAME PRONUNCIATION
A a А а А а ay “a” as in father
B b Б б Б б be “b” as in book
C c Ц ц Ц ц tse “ts” as in hats
Č č Ч ч Ч ч che “ch” as in church
D d Д д Д д de “d” as in door
E e Е е Е е eh “e” as in egg
F f Ф ф Ф ф ef “f” as in fat
G g Г г Г г ge “g” as in good
H h Х х Х х kha “ch” as in loch
I i И и И и ii “i” as in it, but longer
J j Й й [ J j ] Й й ii kratko “y” as in boy Note 1
K k К к К к ke “k” as in king
L l Л л Л л ell “l” as in like Note 4
M m М м М м em “m” as in man Note 4
N n Н н Н н en “n” as in next
O o O o О о ou “o” as in hot
P p П п П п pe “p” as in pot
R r Р р Р р err “r” as in trill
S s С с С с ess “s” as in sit
Š š Ш ш Ш ш sha “sh” as in shop Note 3
T t Т т Т т te “t” as in tap Note 3
U u У у У у oo “oo” as in boot
V v В в В в ve “v” as in vat
Y y Ы ы Ы ы yeri “i” as in [bit <> beet]
Z z З з З з ze “z” as in zoo
Ž ž Ж ж Ж ж zhe “z” as in azure
JU ju Ю ю Ю ю yu “y + u” as in union
JA ja Я я Я я ya “y + a” as in yard
' ' Ь ь Ь ь Mekky znak Soft marker Note 2
JE je Ѣ ѣ Ѣ ѣ yet “y + e” as in yellow

2
CURSIVE WRITING – CYRILLIC
Text in the lessons is given in both normal and italic Cyrillic to familiarise the reader with these
alphabets.
NOTES :
1. Cyrillic й is used for Latin j, except between two consonants, or following a consonant with
no vowel, when ь is used, or before a, e or u, when я , ѣ or ю are used. The combination jo
is written as йo in Cyrillic ( the Russian ё is not used ) and ji is written as йи. If the font
does not have й , then Latin j may be used.
2. Words which end in consonant + ' are written in Cyrillic with ь ( soft consonant ).
3. In handwriting, a bar is written above т and below ш to distinguish them from п and и.
4. Handwritten л and м begin with a small hook, this is important to distinguish them from и
( which doesn't have a hook and begins above the bottom line )
5. The palatalised vowels я , ѣ, ю, йи, and йo, or the soft sign ь never follow the letters ц, ч,
х, ш or ж.
6. A word can never begin with the letters ы or ь.
3 Novoslavski – Новославски
LEKCIJA 1・ лекция 1
GENDER AND DECLENSION OF NOUNS
In Novoslavski, as in most Slavic languages, nouns have grammatical genders ( masculine, feminine,
neuter ) and number (singular & plural, and in some cases dual plural). Nouns are also declined in six cases.
These are Nominative, Genitive, Dative, Accusative, Instrumental and Locative ( or Prepositional ). The
ending of the noun is modified to produce each of the cases, in the singular and plural. Thus every noun can
potentially exist in 12 forms, although usually several of these forms are identical. The meaning and use of
the cases is described below.
Masculine declension
Nouns ending in a consonant are usually masculine.
For animate beings ( humans and animals ), the Accusative is the same as the Genitive. All other masculine
nouns have the Accusative the same as the Nominative.
Examples: brat / брат = brother , muž / муж = husband.

singular plural singular plural
Nom brat брат brat y браты muž муж muž i мужи
Gen brat a брата bratov братов muža мужa muž ev мужев
Dat brat u брату bratam братам mužu мужу mužam мужам
Acc brat a братa bratov братов muž a мужa muž ev мужев
Ins bratom братом bratami братами mužem мужем muž ami мужами
Loc bratje братѣ bratah братах muže мужe muž ah мужах

Feminine declension
Most nouns ending in -a or a soft sign ( -t' / -ть,, etc ) are feminine. The declensions of feminine nouns
ending in -a / -а and nouns ending in -ja / -я are very similar.
Examples: žena / жена = wife, duša / душа = soul.

singular plural singular plural
Nom žena жена žen y жены duš a душa duš i души
Gen žen y жена žen жен duš i души dušej душe й
Dat ženje женѣ ženam женам duš e душ e dušam душам
Acc ženu жену žen y жены duš u душу duši души
Ins ženoju женою ženami женами duš eju душею dušami душами
Loc ženje женѣ ženah женах duš i души dušah душах

Example: kost' / кость = bone ( Declension pattern for feminine nouns ending in -t' / -ть, etc. )

singular plural
Nom kosť кость kosti кости
Gen kosti кости kostij кост ий
Dat kostje костѣ kostim костим
Acc kosť кость kosti кости
Ins kostju костю kostimi костими
Loc kosti кости kostih костих

4
Neuter declension
Nouns ending in -o or -e are neuter. After a soft consonant, the Locative singular ends in -u instead of -e.
Examples: selo / село = village ”, polje / полѣ = field .

singular plural singular plural
Nom sel o село sel a селa polje полѣ polja поля
Gen sel a селa sel сел polja поля poljej полѣй
Dat sel u селу selam селам polju полю poljam полям
Acc sel o селo sel a селa polje полѣ polja поля
Ins selom селом selami селами poljem полѣм poljami полями
Loc selje селѣ selah селах polju полю poljah полях

This group also includes words like ime / име = name and vrjeme / врѣме = time. They are declined
regularly as though their Nominatives were imeno / имено* and vrjemeno / врѣмено*.

singular plural
Nom ime (*imen o *) име imen a именa
Gen imena именa imen имен
Dat imenu имену imenam именам
Acc ime ime imen a именa
Ins imenom именом imenami именами
Loc imenje именѣ imenah именах

Irregular nouns
Some nouns, eg oko / око (n.) =eye, and uho / ухо (n.) = ear, which refer to natural pairs of objects, have a
dual plural ie, oči / очи (f.) = eyes, uši / уши (f.) = ears. Note that the dual is considered as a feminine
noun. The normal plural of neuter nouns can also be used, but the dual is commonly used in colloquial
speech.
Declension of nouns : Irregular oko / око ; eye

Case Singular Dual Plural Regular Plural
Nom ok o око oči очи ok a окa
Gen ok a окa oči очи ok ок
Dat oki окu očim очим okam окам
Acc ok o окo oči очи ok a окa
Ins okom оком očimi очими okam оками
Loc oki окu očih очих okah оках

The following nouns are declined as a feminine noun of the kosť / кость type:
Declension of nouns : Irregular mati /мати = mother; tele / теле = calf; dete /дете = child

Case Singular
Nom mati мати tele теле dete дете
Gen matere матере teleta телета detete детете
Dat materi матери teleti телети deteti детети
Acc mati мати tele теле dete детe
Ins materju матерю teletom телетом detetom дететом
Loc materi матери teleti телети deteti детети

5
Uses of the Cases
Nominative
The Nominative case is used for the subject of the sentence : eg : Pes spijet / Пес спиѣт = The dog is
sleeping.
Note that Novoslavski does not require an article ( a, an, the ) before the subject noun.
Genitive
The Genitive is used to denote possession : eg Pes brata spijet / Пес брата спиѣт = The brother's dog is
sleeping.
It is also used with certain prepositions : eg Pes spijet blizko brata / Пес спиѣт близко брата = The dog is
sleeping close to the brother. Here brata / брата is governed by the preposition blizko / близко ( = close to,
nearby ), which takes the Genitive case.
It is used to indicate a lack of something : eg Brat ne imejet psa / Брат не имеѣт пса = The brother does
not have a dog. Here psa / пса is in the Genitive case, meaning literally the brother does not have of a dog.
( ne imejet / не имеѣт = does not have )
Dative
The Dative is used to express an indirect object : eg My davali psa bratu / Мы давали пса брату = We gave
a dog to the brother. Here bratu / брату is in the Dative case = to the brother.
The Dative is also used in expressions such as materi jest hladno / матери ѣст хладно = mother is cold.
Here hladno / хладно is an impersonal adjective, and the sentence literally translates as it is cold to mother.
The Dative is also used with prepositions : eg My šli k bratu / Мы шли к брату = We went to(wards) the
brother. Here bratu / брату is governed by the preposition k / к ( = to, towards), which takes the Dative
case.
Accusative
The Accusative is used to denote the direct object of a transitive verb : eg My davali psa bratu / Мы давали
пса брату = We gave a dog to the brother. Here psa / пса is in the Accusative case , meaning that the dog
is the object of the verb davali / давали = they gave .
It is also used with certain prepositions ; eg Pes spal črez noču / Пес спал чрез ночу = The dog slept through
the night. Here noču /ночу ( = night ) is governed by the preposition črez / чрез ( = through ), which
takes the Accusative case.
It is used with prepositions such as v / в ( = in ) and na / на ( = on ) to indicate motion towards a location.
Instrumental
This is used to indicate the means or instrument by which an action is performed : eg Žena pišet perom /
Жена пишет пером = The wife writes with a pen.
It is also used with the preposition s / с to indicate association or mutual participation. Eg Žena šla s
bratom / Жена шла с братом = The wife went with the brother. Here bratom / братом is governed by
the preposition s / с, which takes the Instrumental case.
Locative
This is used with prepositions such as v / в ( = in ) and na / на ( = on ) to indicate where something is
situated : eg Pes spijet na podlogje / Пес спиѣт на подлогѣ = The dog is sleeping on the floor.
The vocative
Some Slavic languages also have a Vocative, used for addressing a person or object directly, while many
other Slavic languages have no Vocative. Novoslavski uses the Nominative for this purpose.
Vocabulary

dom
brat
pristan
vrba
država
roza
дом
брат
пристан
врба
држава
роза
house, home (m)
brother (m)
port, harbour (m)
willow (f)
country (f)
rose (f)
pes
most
dvor
trava
žena
duša
пес
мост
двор
трава
жена
душа
dog (m)
bridge (m)
courtyard (m)
grass (f)
wife (f)
soul (f)

6

polje полѣ
перо
спити
давати
идти
писати
чловек
муж
field (n)
pen (n)
to sleep
to give
to go, walk
to write
man, human (m)
husband (m)
morje
pal'to
морѣ
пальто
sea (n)
overcoat (n)
pero
spiti
( on spit / он спит he sleeps on spal / он спал he slept *)
davati ( my / oni davali / ми / они давали we / they gave )
idti ( on šel, ona šla / он шел / она шла he went /she went )
( on /ona pišet / он / она пишет he /she writes )
pisati
človek
prijateľ
ono jest
приятель
оно ѣст
friend (m)
it is
muž
( * oni spali / они спали = they slept )
Exercises LEKCIJA 1・ лекция 1
1 Translate the following into Novoslavski

(1) The husband went to the country.
(2) We gave the wife an overcoat.
(3) The brother walked through the fields.
(4) The dog is sleeping in the courtyard.
(5) She went to the harbour with a friend.
(6) The brother writes to a friend with a pen.
(7) We gave roses to mother.
(8) The soul of the wife slept. ( ona spala / она спала = she slept )
(9) The harbour is close to the sea.
(10) The man does not have brothers.
2 Translate the following into English
(1) Vrba jest blizko mosta. Врба ѣст близко моста.
(2) Človek pišet bratam perom. Чловек пишет братам пером.
(3) Prijateli davali pera deteti Приятели давали пера детети.
(4) Mati šla čerez travu. Мати шла через траву.
(5) Roza jest v polju, blizko vrb. Роза ѣст вполю, близко врб.
(6) Žena šla k pristanu. Жена шла к пристану.
(7) Deti davali tvaru teleti. Дети давали твару телети.
(8) Pes spal v domje. Пес спал в домѣ.
(9) Dete pišet človekam. Дете пишет чловекам.
(10) Dom ne imejet dvora. Дом не имеѣт двора.
7 Novoslavski – Новославски
LEKCIJA 2・ лекция 2
ADJECTIVES
Adjectives in Novoslavski agree with the noun they qualify in number, case and gender. The declensions are
very similar and can be illustrated by the following examples :
Hard stem adjectives : krasivy / красиви = pretty, beautiful

singular plural
masculine feminine neuter (all genders )
Nom krasiv y красивы krasiva красивa krasive красиве krasivye красивые
Gen krasivogo красивого krasivoj красивой krasivogo красивого krasivyh красивих
Dat krasivomu красивому krasivoj красивой krasivomu красивому krasivym красивым
Acc krasivogo * красивого * krasiv u красиву krasive красивe krasivyh красивих
Ins krasivym красивым krasivoju красивою krasivym красивым krasivymi красивыми
Loc krasivom красивом krasivoj красивой krasivom красивом krasivyh красивих
  • Adjectives qualifying animate masculine nouns have the Accusative identical with the Genitive,
    other masculine nouns have the Accusative the same as the Nominative.
    † These endings are normally pronounced as -ovo / -ово instead of -ogo / -ого.
    Example of adjective with soft stem : starši / старши = older, senior
singular plural
masculine feminine neuter (all genders )
Nom starš i старши starš a старшa starš e старшe star šie старшие
Gen starš ego старшего starš ej старшей star šego старшего star ših старших
Dat starš emu старшему starš ej старшей star šemu старшему starš im старшим
Acc starš ego * старшего * starš ej старшей starš e старшe starš ih старших
Ins starš im старшим starš eju старшею star šim старшим star šimi старшими
Loc starš em старшем starš ej старшей starš em старшем starš ih старших
  • Adjectives qualifying animate masculine nouns have the Accusative identical with the Genitive,
    other masculine nouns have the Accusative the same as the Nominative.
    † These endings are normally pronounced as -evo / -ево instead of -ego / -его.
    COMPARATIVE ADJECTIVES
    Degrees of comparison can be formed by replacing the endings with -ejši / -ейши. Examples are :
    krasivy/ красиви =pretty > krasivejši / красивейши , krasivejša / красивейша , krasivejše/
    красивейше = prettier
    sveži / свежи = fresh > svežejši / свежейши , svežejša / свежейша, svežejše / свежейше = fresher
    ( Note starši / старши = older is an irregular comparative of stary / стары = old )
    It is also possible to use compound comparative forms with the following prefixes :
    više- / више- = more, naj- / най- = most, mene- / мене- = less, najmene- / наймене- = least
    When a direct comparison is being made between two things, the object of comparison is in the Genitive
    case, following the conjunction čem / чем = than
    Eg Starša devčinka jest krasnejša čem matere. / Старша девчинка ѣст краснейша чем матере = The
    older girl is prettier than the mother. ( literally, “than of the mother”).
    8

SUPERLATIVES
Superlatives are formed from the comparative by addition of the prefix naj- / най - , examples
are :najkrasivejši / найкрасивейши, najkrasivejša / най-красивейша, najkrasivejše/
найкрасивейше = prettiest ( literally, most prettier )
najsvežejši / найсвежейши, najsvežejša / найсвежейша , najsvežejše / найсвежейше = freshest.
Colloquially, expressions like ona jest najkrasivejša vsih / она ѣст найкрасивейша всих = she is the
prettiest of all” are commonly used.
ADVERBS
Any of the above adjectival forms can be made into an adverb by replacing the declination ending with -o.
Adverbs are not declined. Examples are : krasivy/ красиви > krasivo / красиво = prettily, beautifully
svežejšo / свежейшо = more freshly
IRREGULAR COMPARATIVES
Some very common words have irregular comparatives, which are as follows :

veliki / велики
maly / мали
dobry / добри
loši / лоши
stary / стары
mladi / млади
nizki / низки
vysoki / высоки
big velikši / великши bigger
smaller
better
worse
older, senior
največi / найвечи biggest
small menši / менши najmenši / найменши smallest
najlučši / найлучши best
najgorši / наигорши worst
najstarši / найстарши oldest
good
bad
old
lučši / лучши
gorši / горши
starši / старши
young mladši / младши younger, junior najmladši / наймладши youngest
low
high
nižši / нижши
vyši /выши
lower
higher
najnižši / найнижши lowest
najvyši / найвыши highest

Use of adjectives in sentences
Adjectives may be used as qualifying words by placing them before the relevant noun, and agreeing with it
in number, case and gender, as in the following examples :
Mladi hlapec vidjet črnogo psa v malom domje / Млады хлапец видѣт чрного пса в малом домѣ. = The
young boy sees a black dog in the small house. Here mladi hlapec / млади хлапец = young boy
( Nominative singular, masculine ), črnogo psa / чрного пса = black dog ( Accusative singular, masculine
animate ), and v malom dome / в малом доме = in the small house ( Locative singular, masculine ).
Starye ženy šli s krasivymi devčinkami v zelene polje / Старые жены шли с красивыми девчинками в
зелене полѣ. = The old wives went with pretty girls to the green field. Here starye ženy / старые жены =
old wives ( Nominative plural, feminine ), s krasivymi devčinkami / с красивыми девчинками = with
pretty girls ( Instrumental plural, feminine ), v zelene polje / в зелене полѣ = to the green field
( Accusative singular, neuter ).
An adjective may also be used in place of a noun as either the subject or object in a sentence. Examples :
Starye živut v malom domje / Старые живут в малом домѣ = The old ones live in a small house.
Brat jest vyši / Брат ѣст выши = The brother is taller.
Jesut velikye i malye domy. Oni živut v malom. / Ѣcут великыe и малыe домы.Они живут в малом =
There are big and small houses. They live in a small one.
Vocabulary

ADJECTIVES
mnogi / многи
nemnogi / немноги
dobry / добры
maly / малы
novy / новы
prjamy / прямы
povratny / повратны
levy / левы
pravy / правы
krivy / кривы
popravy / поправы
ADVERBS
mnogo / много
nemnogo / немного
dobro / добро
malo / мало
novo / ново
prjam / прямо
many, numerous
few
good
small
new
straight, direct
backward, reverse
left
right
false, wrong
correct, right
much, many
few
well, good
few, little
newly
directly
povratno / повратно conversely, backwardly
levo / лево
pravo / право
krivo / криво
poprav / поправо
to the left
to the right
falsely, wrongly
correctly

9
NOUNS

zemja / земя
otec / отец
(f)
(m)
earth
father
street
boy
chair
door
roof
room
reka / река (f) river
bird
(f)
ptica / птица (f)
ulica / улица (f)
hlapec / хлапец (m)
devčinka / девчинка (f)girl ( young girl )
stol / стол
okno / окно
(m)
(n)
table
window
stul / стул (m)
vrata / врата (f)
pokryv / покрыв (m)
komnata / комната
podloga / подлога (f) floor
stena / стена (f) wall
tree
drevo / древо (n)
ADJECTIVES
črveny / чрвены red
yellow
black
bely / белы
modry / модры
zeleny / зелены
white
blue
green
žolty / жолты
črny / чрны
VERBS
žiti / жити
to live ( on, ona živjet / он,она,живѣт = he, she lives oni živut / они живут= they live )
videti / видети to see ( on, ona vidjet / он,она живѣт = he, she sees oni vidut / они видут = they see )
idti / идти to go ( on, ona idjet / он,она,идѣт = he, she goes oni idut / они идут = they go )
( oni šli / они шли = they went )
CONJUNCTIONS
i / и
EXERCISES
and a / а but takože / такоже also

1. Translate into Novoslavski :
(1) A tall ( high ) young girl is near the window.
(2) They see black birds on the left street.
(3) The new house does not have a red roof.
(4) A red table and black chairs are in the larger room.
(5) A willow and a taller tree are in the smallest field.
(6) The older boy went towards the blue door.
(7) The black and white dogs went through the streets.
(8) The green chairs are older than the blue table.
(9) The oldest man in the house is sleeping in the newest room.
(10) The good boys gave the best roses to the pretty young girls.
2. Translate into English
(1) Jesut mnogie beli domy v ulice Ѣсут многие бели домы в уличе.
(2) Ona spijet blizko žoltogo stola i modroj Она спиѣт близко жолтого стола и модрой
steny. стены.
(3) Črny pes jest velikši čem belogo. Чрны пес ѣст великши чем белого.
(4) Mnogi devčinki jesut krasivejšie čem Многи девчинки ѣсут красивейшие чем
ih* materi. их* матери/
(5) Otec jest starši matere, no ona jest Отец ѣст старши матере но она ѣст
mnogo krasivejša. много красивейша
(6) Najvyšie dreva živut blizko reki. Найвышие древа живут близко реки.
(7) Najkrasivejšie rozi jesut črveni. Найкрасивейшие рози ѣсут чрвени.
(8) Žena šla prjamo k velikomu črvenomu Жена шла прямо к великому чрвеному
domy. домы.
(9) Najmladša devčinka spala v menšoj Наймладша девчинка спала в меншой
komnatje. комнатѣ.
(10) Hlapeci vidut oči mnogih malih ptic'. Хлапеци видут очи многих малих птиць.
*ih / их = of their ( Genitive plural possessive pronoun )
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Novoslavski – Новославски
LEKCIJA 3・ лекция 3
PRONOUNS
Personal pronouns
The personal pronouns are declined in six cases in the same way as nouns. The following table shows how
they are declined

Singular
1st person ( I,
Me )
2nd person ( You ) 3rd person ( He, Him / She, Her / It )
masculine feminine neuter
Nom ja я t ты on он on a она on o оно
Gen menja меня t ebja тебя j ego ѣго j ejo ѣйо j ego ѣго
Dat mnje мнѣ t ebje тебѣ j emu ѣму j ej ѣй j emu ѣму
Acc menja меня t ebja тебя j ego ѣго j ejo ѣйо j ego ѣго
Ins mnoju мною t oboju тобою jem ѣм j eju ѣю jem ѣм
Loc mnje мнѣ t ebje тебѣ j em ѣм j ej ѣй j em ѣм
Plural
1st person ( We,Us ) 2nd person (You) 3rd person ( They, Them ) all genders
Nom m мы вы oni они
Gen as нас as вас ih их
Dat am нам am вам im им
Acc as нас as вас ih их
Ins ami нами ami вами imi ими
Loc as нас as вас ih их

y

y vy
v

v
v v
v

n
n

n
n n

† These endings are normally pronounced as -ovo, -evo / -ово, -ево instead of -ogo, -ego / -ого, -его.
When a 3rd person pronoun ( on, ona, ono, oni / он, она, оно, они) is preceded by a preposition, n / н is
added between the preposition and pronoun, eg s nim / с ним = with him / it, sred nih / сред них = among
them, u njego / у нѣго = by him , na njem / на нѣм = on it, etc.)
There is also a reflexive pronoun, sebje / себѣ = (one)self, which refers to the subject of the sentence. It has
no Nominative, but is otherwise declined like ty / ты ( sebja – sebje – sebja – soboju – sebje / себя - себѣ
себя – собою - себѣ ) Example : On vidjet sebja v zerkalje / Он видѣт себя в зеркалѣ = He sees himself
in the mirror.
In most Slavic countries, ty / ты and its derivatives are only used in addressing persons in a familiar manner,
while vy / вы are used in polite and respectful conversation with people who are not close acquaintances.
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Possessive Pronouns
The possessive pronouns are moj / мой = my, tvoj / твой = your (s), svoj / свой = own ( reflexive ),
and naš / нашn= our, vaš / ваш = your (pl) They are adjectives, declined as follows :

Masculine singular Feminine singular Neuter singular Plural
Nom moj мой moj a моя moj e моѣ mo i мои
Gen mojego† моѣго mojej моѣй mojego моѣго† moih мих
Dat mojemu моѣму mojej моѣй mojemu моѣму moim моим
Acc mojego* моѣго * moju мою moj e моѣ moih* моих *
Ins mojem моѣм mojeju моѣю mojem моѣм moimi моими
Loc mojem моѣм mojej моѣй mojem моѣм moih моих
Masculine plural Feminine plural Neuter plural Plural
Nom naš наш naš a наша naš e наше naš i наши
Gen naš ego† нашего naš ej нашeй naš ego† нашего naš ih наших
Dat naš emu нашему naš ej нашeй naš emu нашему naš im нашим
Acc na šego * нашего * naš u нашу naš e наше naš ih * наших *
Ins naš im нашим naš eju нашей naš im нашим naš imi нашими
Loc naš em нашем naš ej нашей naš em нашем naših наших

† These endings are normally pronounced as -ovo, -evo / -ово, -ево instead of -ogo, -ego / -ого, -его.
• The Accusative of inanimate masculine subjects is the same as the Nominative.
The 3rd person possessive pronouns are jego / ѣго = his or its, jejo / ѣйо = her, and ih / их = their. These are
the Genitive cases of the 3rd person pronouns and are not declined. When these are used as possessive
pronouns, they do not have n / н inserted after prepositions.
Demonstrative Pronouns
These are sej, sa, se / сей, са, се = this, toj, ta, to / той, та, то = that, vsej, vsa, vse / всей, вса, все = all.
They are adjectives and are declined as follows :
sej / сей & vsej / всей

masculine feminine neuter plural
Nom s ej сей s a са s e се si си
Gen s ego† сего† sej сей sego с его sih сих
Dat s emu сему sej сей semu сему sim сим
Acc sego * сего* su су s e се sih* сих*
Ins s im сем seju сею sim сим simi сими
Loc s em сем sej сей sem сем sih сих
toj / той masculine feminine neuter plural
Nom t oj той t a та t o то t i ти
Gen t ogo того t oj той t ogo того t eh тех
Dat t omu тому t oj той t omu тому t em тем
Acc t ogo * того * t u ту t o то t eh * тех*
Ins t om том t oju тою t om том t emi теми
Loc t em тем t oj той t em тем t eh тех

† These endings are normally pronounced as -ovo, -evo / -ово, -ево instead of -ogo, -ego / -ого, -его.
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Since Novoslavski uses no articles, sej / сей & toj / той are often employed where English would use
“the”, but unless there is some need to so distinguish the subject of discussion, they are usually not
necessary.
Relative pronoun
There is only one relative pronoun kotory / которы = which. It is an adjective and follows the normal
declension for a hard stem adjective ( like krasivy / красивы). It is used in a subordinate clause to refer to
something from another clause, eg Oni vidut dom, na kotorom jest črveny pokryv. / Они видут дом, на
котором ѣст чрвены покрыв = They see the house, on which is a red roof. Here na kotorom / на
котором = on which ( Locative masculine singular, agreeing with dom / дом in number and gender).
Note that in English, the relative pronoun is often omitted, as in “ They see the house with a red roof “.
This is not possible in Novoslavski, the pronoun must be used in a subordinate relative clause.
Emphatic pronoun
The emphatic pronoun is iže / иже = the one, the very same. It has the same form in the Nominative for all
genders and numbers. In the other cases, it is declined as the 3rd person pronouns with -že / -же suffixed.

masculine feminine neuter plural
Nom i ž e иже i že иже i že иже i že иже
Gen j egož e ѣгоже j ej ž e ѣйже j ego ž e ѣгоже ihž e ихже
Dat j emu že ѣмуже j ej ž e ѣйже j emu ž e ѣмуже imž e имже
Acc j e gož e* ѣгоже * j u že юже j e ѣже j e ѣже ᴥ
Ins im že имже j eju ž e ѣюже im že имже imi ž e имиже
Loc j em ž e ѣмже j ej ž e ѣйже j em ž e ѣмже ih ž e ихже

(ᴥ Accusative for inanimate subjects. Animate subjects use the Genitive ending.)
iže / иже is used to refer more emphatically to something from the main clause, eg Toj dom, v
njemže živut moi braty, imejet črveny pokryv. / Той дом, в нѣмже живут мои браты, имеѣт чрвены
покрыв = That house, the very one in which my brothers live, has a red roof. Note that n- / н- is inserted
between the preposition and jemže / ѣмже, as is done with the 3rd person pronoun.
Questions
In oral conversation, questions may be indicated simply by an higher intonation of the appropriate word.
Since this is not possible in written communication, the interrogative particle li / ли = does it ? Is it ? Is used
immediately following the verb in the question. Eg Vaš dom jest li veliki ? / Ваш дом ѣст ли великы ? = Is
your house large ?
Vocabulary
ADJECTIVES

bystry / быстры
prijatny / приятны
teply / теплы
čisty / чисты
široki / широки
fast
pleasant, nice
warm
clean, pure
wide
medly / медлы
zly /злы
hladny / хладны
brudny / брудны
vuzki / вузки
slow
evil
cold
dirty
narrow
ancient
light, easy
sovremenny / современы modern, contemporary davny / давны
težki / тежки
NOUNS
mladec / младец
kniga / книга
sneg / снег
mraz / мраз
budka / будка
koza / коза
svinja / свиня
led / лед
heavy, difficult legki / легки
(m)
(f)
(m)
(m)
(f)
(f)
(f)
(m)
youth, youngster
book
snow
frost
hut, cabin
goat
pig
ice
starec / старец
dožd' / дождь §
solnce / солнце
voda / вода
les / лес
kon' / конь §
ovca / овца
selo / село
(m)
(m)
(n)
(f)
(m)
(m)
(f)
(n)
old timer
rain
sun
water
forest
horse
sheep
village

§ Masculine nouns ending in -' / -ь are declined as follows :
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singular plural
Nom do ž d' дождь do ž di дожди
Gen do ž dja дождя do ž djev дождѣв
Dat do ž dju дождю do ž djam дождям
Acc do ž d' дожд ь do ž di дожди
Ins do ž djem дождѣм do ž djami дождями
Loc do ž dje дождѣ do ž djah дождях

ᴥ ᴥ ᴥ ᴥ
(ᴥ Accusative for inanimate subjects. Animate subjects use the Genitive ending.)
VERBS

čitati / читати to read ( on čitajet / он читаѣт = he reads, oni čitajut / они читают = they read )
begati / бегати to run ( on begajet / он бегаѣт = he runs, oni begajut / они бегают = they run )
pasti / пасти to fall ( on padjet / он падѣт = he/it falls, oni padut / они падут = they fall )
( on padjel, ona padjela, ono padjelo, oni padjeli / он падѣл, она
падѣла, оно падѣло, они падѣли = he, she, it, they fell )
to shine ( on, ona, ono leskajet / он, она, оно лескаѣт = he, she, it shines )
to tell. ( on, ona, ono kažet / он, она, оно кажет = he, she, it tells )
to have, to possess ( on, ona, ono imejet / он, она, оно имеѣт = he, she, it has )
leskati / лескати
kazati / казати
imeti / имети
EXERCISES

1. Translate into Novoslavski :
(1) My old horse lives in the wide green field, which is near the river.
(2) Their houses are much nicer than ours.
(3) Heavy snow fell in your (tvoja) country.
(4) You (pl) gave us many big white sheep.
(5) The old timer lives in his own small hut in the cold forest.
(6) The pigs which live in this field are dirtier than his.
(7) Is there frost on the wide river ?
(8) That goat, the one that has black ears, went with the pretty girls to the courtyard.
(9) Our father reads many big heavy books.
(10) The sun shines warmly and the young girls run through your (pl) fields.
2. Translate into English :
(1) Starec medlo čitajet mnogi davny knigi v svojem budkje.
Ϲтарец медло читаѣт давны книги в своѣм
(2) Sovremennye mladeci živut legkejšo čem ih otci.
Ϲовременые младеци живут легкейшо чем их отци.
(3) Mnogie črveni rozi živut blizko steny našego starogo doma.
Многие чрвени рози живут близко стени нашего старого дома.
(4) Žena šla so† svoim mužem k hladnomu pristanu.
Жена шла со† своим мужем к хладному пристану.
(5) Naš stary črny kon' begajet bistrejšo čem jejo belih psov.
Наш стары чрны конь бегаѣт бистрейшо чем ѣйо белих псов.
(6) Jejo brat spal v tem domje, kotory jest v vuzkoj ulice.
Ѣйо брат спал в тем домѣ, которы ѣст в вузкой улице.
(7) Devčinki pišut svojemu otcu žoltym perom, kotore ty daval im.
Девчинки пишут своѣму отцу жолтым пером, которе ты давал им.
(8) Tvoj prijatel' daval tebje to črne pal'to, kotore jest na modrom stolje.
Твой приятель давал тебѣ то чрне пальто, которе ѣст на модром столѣ.
14
(9) Vidut li oni more črez se buzkje okno ?
Видут ли они море чрез се бузкѣ окно ?
(10) Sneg, kotory padjel na naš pokryv, jest hladny i bely.
Снег, которы падѣл на наш покрыв, ѣст хладны и белы.
† When a preposition before a word produces a cluster of similar consonants, o is inserted to aid pronunciation.
15
Novoslavski – Новославски
LEKCIJA 4・ лекция 4
PRONOUNS
Interrogative, definite & indefinite pronouns
These are an important group of words which occur frequently in the language. Two of the commonest are
kto / кто = who? and što / {to = what? They are declined as follows :

Nom kto кто što што
Gen kogo† кого† čego† чего†
Dat komu кому čemu чему
Acc kogo кого što што
Ins kimi кими čimi чими
Loc kom ком čom чом

† These are pronounced as kovo, čevo / ково, чево .
The other indefinite and relative pronouns are summarised in the following table :

INTERROGATIVES This That Some-§ Any-§ ‡ No- Every- Else-,
Other
Who ? кто некто кто-нибуд никто всекто инокто
What ? што нечто што-нибуд ничто всечто иночто
ADJECTIVES
What
kind ?
каки таки некаки каки-нибуд никаки всекаки инокаки
Whose ? чей нечей чей-нибуд ничей всечей иночей
Which ? которы сей той некоторы которы-нибуд жадны всяки ины
ADVERBS
How ? как так некако как-нибуд никак всекак инокак
How
much ?
колико только неколико колико-нибуд никаки
Where ? гдѣ тут там негдѣ гдѣ-нибуд нигдѣ всегдѣ иногдѣ
When ? когда сейчас втогда некогда когда-нибуд никогда всегда иногда
Whither ? куда сюда туда некуда куда-нибуд никуда всекуда инокуда
Whence ? откуда отсюда оттуда отнекуда откуда-нибуд отникуда отвсекуда отинокуда
Why ? зашто затом занечто зашто-нибуд заничто
Why ? чему тому нечему чему-нибуд ничему

§ nekto / некто = someone, is less vague than kto-nibud / кто-нибуд = anyone. The person named as
“someone” may be a particular person known to the speaker, or they may have a partial knowledge of who
they are referring to. “Anyone” implies that the speaker hasn't the vaguest idea who it could be. The same
applies to the other some- and any- categories.
‡ These forms have the first part inflected as required, followed by -nibud / - нибуд , eg komu-nibud / комунибуд = to anyone.
16
PREPOSITIONS
Some more common prepositions and their meanings are given below :

do / до
iz / из
iz-za / из-за
+ Genitive to, until

from, out of
from behind
krome / кроме “ except
od / од away from, since,
posle / после “
posred / посред “
vnutri / внутри
after
amidst, among
+ Genitive inside, within
during
za / за


nad / над
“ pod / под
“ pred / пред
“ v / в
“ na / на

+ Accusative because of, behind ( movement ), per, in favour of, due to
+ Instrumental after, behind ( location )
+ Accusative on, onto, over ( motion )
+ Instrumental on, onto, over ( location )
+ Accusative under, below ( motion )
+ Instrumental under, below ( location )
+ Accusative before, ahead of ( motion )
+ Instrumental before, ahead of ( location, time )
+ Accusative in, into ( motion )
+ Locative in ( location, time )
+ Accusative on, onto ( motion )
+ Locative on ( location )
EXPRESSIONS OF TIME
dnjec / днѣц
zautra / заутра
včera / вчера
today
tomorrow
yesterday
the day after tomorrow
the day before yesterday
poslezaytra / послезаутра
preduvčera / предувчера
sejčas / сейчас now
then
soon
later
vtogda / втогда
skoro / скоро
pozdnej / поздней
inogda / иногда
some other time
long ago
davno / давно
nedavno / недавно
vrjeme / врѣме
recently
time
ješče / ѣшчо
VERBS
still, already
Present Tense

Some of the present tense forms of verbs have already been given, eg on, ona, ono čitajet, oni čitajut / он,
она, оно читаѣт, они читают = he, she, it reads, they read. The verbal expression in the present tense is
made from a combination of the personal pronoun plus the verb stem with a personal ending. The verb is
čitati / читати, which is the infinitive form of the verb as listed in a dictionary, meaning to read. From this
is taken the verb stem, which in this instance is simply the part čita- / чита-. The personal endings are
added to this as follows :

singular
1st person ( I )
2nd person (You)
plural
1st person ( We)
2nd person (You)
3rd person (They)
-jeme / -ѣме
-jete / -ѣте
-jut / -ют
-ju / -ю
-ješ / -ѣш
3rd person ( He,She, It ) -jet / -ѣт

17
Thus the full paradigm of čitati / читати in the present tense is :

ja čitaju / я читаю = I read
ty čitaješ / ты читаѣш = You read
on, ona, ono čitajet / он, она, оно читаѣт = He reads, etc
my čitajeme / мы читаѣме = We read
vy čitajete / вы читаѣте = You read
oni čitajut / они читают = They read

This is the pattern for verbs of the first conjugation. Some other verbs which follow this pattern are delati /
делати = to do, znati / знати = to know, and davati / давати = to give.
Imperative
Verbs also have an imperative form, as in čitaj, читай = read !( 2nd person singular ) and čitajte, читайте =
read !( 2nd person plural ). These forms are used to give an order or an instruction to someone to carry out
the action, and as with the use of ty – vy / ты - вы, the plural form is used in respectful conversation.
The imperatives are formed by dropping -ješ / -ѣш from the 2nd person singular of the present tense ( if this
ends in a consonant, -i / -и is inserted ) giving the singular imperative. To this is added -te / -те to form the
plural.
Subjunctive
The subjunctive expresses a desire for an action to occur, as in “ Let us go to the forest “. In Novoslavski this
would use the subjunctive particle nehaj / нехай = let it be, may it be.
Thus “ Let us go to the forest “ is Nehaj my idjeme k lesu / Нехай мы идѣме к лесу. ( idjeme / идѣме is
the present 1st person plural of idti / идти = to go ).
Negation
The negative of a verb is formed with the particle ne / не. eg, on ne znajet / он не знаѣт = he does not
know. However, when the subject or object is also a negative, Novoslavski uses a double negative
construction. For example, Nikto ne znajet togo človeka / Никто не знаѣт того чловека = Nobody
knows that man.( Literally, “ Nobody doesn't know that man “, which would actually means the opposite in
English ). Likewise On ne znajet ničto / Он не знаѣт ничто means “ He knows nothing “ , not “ He doesn't
know nothing “, which is the literal English translation.
EXERCISES
1. Write out the conjugation of the verb delati / делати in the present tense and imperatives.
2. Translate the following into Novoslavski :
(1) Where did rain fall yesterday ?
(2) Does anyone know a man who has these ancient books ?
(3) To whom did they give their young white horse ?
(4) Tell me, where did her husband go yesterday ?
(5) He went away from the big house with his old black goat.
(6) The sheep run out from behind the tallest tree in the field.
(7) The smaller birds slept under the roof of the house close to the harbour.
(8) I know the girl to whom somebody gave a new blue overcoat.
(9) Let us go to the sea tomorrow with the girl's older brother.

(10 Whose dogs are those, the ones which are running into the street ?
3. Translate into English :

(1) Kaku knigu vy čitajete dnjec ?
Каку книгу вы читаѣте днѣц ?
(2) Si jesut nekakie knigi, kotorie vaš brat daval mne včera.
Си ѣсут некакие книги, которие ваш брат давал мне вчера.
(3) Nehaj inokto kažet nam kuda ona šla preduvčera.
Нехай инокто кажет нам куда она шла предувчера.
(4) Što jest pod tom brudnom starom stulje, kotory jest vo vašej budkje ?
Што ѣст под том брудном старом стуле, которы ѣст во вашей будкѣ ?
(5) Pozdnej, my šli nad most, pod negože begajet bystra široka reka.
Поздней мы шли над мост, под негоже бегаѣт быстра широка река.
(6) On pišet svojemu mladšemu bratu, jegože vy ne znajete.
18
Он пишет своѣму младшему брату, ѣгоже вы не знаѣте.
(7) Kogda-nibud solnce leskajet, my idjeme k morju so svojimi prijateljami.
Когда-нибуд солнце лескаѣт, мы идѣме к морю со свойими приятелями.
(8) Vsekto znajet kakih človekih živut tam.
Всекто знаѣт каких чловеких живут там.
(9) Nekak, devčinka padla črez led v hladnu vodu.
Некак, девчинка падла чрез лед в хладну воду.
(10) V sem selje živut mnogi psi, kotorye begajut kuda-nibud i vsekuda.
В сем селе живут многи пси, которые бегают куда-нибуд и всекуда.
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Novoslavski – Новославски
LEKCIJA 5・ лекция 5
VERBS
Many verbs in Novoslavski have a verb stem which is slightly different to the infinitive, and verbs to which
this applies are shown in dictionaries with the present tense after the infinitive. The changes which occur are
summarised below :

Infinitive stem ending ( less -ti / -ти )
-k / -к
-g / -г
-s / -с
changes to
-č / -ч
-ž / -ж
-d / -д
example 2nd person sing
vlekti / влекти > vlečeš / влечеш
mogti / могти > možeš / можеш
klasti / класти > kladješ / кладѣш

[ NOTE after c, č, h, š & ž / ц, ч, х, ш & ж, the 2nd person 1st conj. ending is -eš / -еш, otherwise it is
-ješ /-ѣш]
Present Tense - 2nd conjugation
There is a second pattern of conjugation of verbs which has endings as follows in the present tense ;
eg govoriti / говорити = to speak

ja govorju / я говорю I speak my govorime / мы говориме We speak
ty govoriš / ты говоришYou(s) speak vy govorite / вы говорите You(pl) speak

on, ona, ono govorit / on, ona, ono говорит He, etc speaks oni govorjat / они говорятThey speak
Dictionaries indicate when a verb is of the second conjugation by showing the present tense after the
infinitive. There is no rule which can be applied to identify all 2nd conjugation verbs, this needs to be
learned. Most verbs which have the infinitive in -ati / -ати are 1st conjugation, and most with -iti / -ити are
2nd conjugation, but there are exceptions.
Some common verbs with their 2nd person singular present tenses are as follows :

kazati / казати
pisati / писати
mogti / могти
klasti / класти
pasti / пасти
jedati / ѣдати
idti / идти
vlekti / влекти
brati / брати
žiti / жити
hoteti / хотети
spati / спати
prositi / просити
poteti / потети
stojati / стояти
Imperative
> kažeš / кажеш
> pišeš / пишеш
> možeš / можеш
to tell.
to write
to be able
> kladješ / кладѣш to put, to lay down
> padeš / падѣш
> jedješ / ѣдѣш
> ideš / идѣш
> vlečeš / влечеш
> berješ / берѣш
> živješ / живѣш
> hočeš / хочеш
> spiješ / спиѣш
> prošiš / прошиш
> potiš / потиш
> stoiš / стоиш
to fall
to eat
to go
to drag, haul
to take
to live
to want, to wish for
to sleep
to ask
to perspire
to stand

The imperative of 2nd conjugation verbs is formed by dropping the š / ш ending of the present 2nd person
singular and adding -j / -й in the singular and -jte / -йте in the plural, e.g živješ / живѣш > živjej ! /
живѣй ! / živjejte ! / живѣйте ! ; stoiš / стоиш > stoij ! / стоий !/ stoijte ! / стоийте !
Past Tense
The past tense of a verb is formed from the stem of the infinitive by adding -(je)l, la, lo, li / -(ѣ)л, ла, ло, ли
which correspond with a masculine , feminine, neuter or plural subject. An e /je may be inserted in the
masculine ending if the stem ends in a hard consonant or group of consonants. For the above verbs, this gives
the past participle forms as below ( with several irregularities ). These are used with the appropriate personal
pronoun to form the past tense. The endings are the same for both 1st and 2nd conjugations.
20

kazati / казати > kazal, kazala, -lo, -li / казал, ла, ло, ли
pisati / писати > pisal, pisala, -lo, -li / писал, ла, ло, ли
mogti / могти > mogjel, mogla, -lo, -li / могел, могла, ло, ли
( he, she, it, they ) told.
( he, she, it, they ) wrote
( he, she, it, they ) could
klasti / класти > kladjel, kladla, -lo, -li / кладѣл, кладла, ло, ли⌖( he, she, it, they ) put, laid down
pasti / пасти > padjel, padla, -lo, -li / падѣл, падла, ло, ли ⌖
jedati / ѣдати > jedal, jedala, -lo, -li / ѣдал, ѣдала, ло, ли
( he, she, it, they ) fell
( he, she, it, they ) ate
( he, she, it, they ) went
idti / идти > šel, šla, šlo, šli / шел, шла, шло, шли §
vlekti / влекти > vlekjel, vlekla, -lo, -li / влекѣл, влекла, ло, ли ⌖( he, she, it, they ) dragged, hauled
brati / брати
žiti / жити
> bral, brala, -lo, -li / брал, ла, ло, ли
> žil, žila, žilo, žili / жил, ла, ло, ли
( he, she, it, they ) took
( he, she, it, they ) lived
( he, she, it, they ) wanted
( he, she, it, they ) slept
( he, she, it, they ) asked
( he, she, it, they ) perspired
( he, she, it, they ) stood
hoteti / хотети > hotjel, hotjela, -lo, -li / хотѣл, ла, ло, ли
spati / спати > spal, -la, -lo, -li / спал, ла, ло, ли
prositi / просити > prošil, -la, -lo, -li / просил, ла, ло, ли
poteti / потети > potjel, potjela, -lo, li / потѣл, ла, ло, ли
stojati / стояти > stojal, -la, -lo, -li / стоял, ла, ло, ли

⌖These verbs retain the present stem in the past tense, instead of the infinitive stem.
§These are irregular forms. All compounds of idti / идти ( verbs of motion ) are of the same pattern.
The Verb To Be : byti / быти
This is an irregular verb which is part of some tenses of every other verb. Its full conjugation is as follows :
Present tense

singular
ja jesu / я ѣсу
ty jesiš / ты ѣсиш
on, ona, ono jest
/ он, она, оно ѣст
plural
my jesme / мы ѣсме
vy jeste / вы ѣсте
oni jesut / они ѣсут
We are
You(pl) are
They are
I am
You(s) are
He, She, It is
Imperative by / бы , byte/ быте Be !
Past Tense
singular
on byl / он был
ona byla / она была
ono bylo / оно было
plural
oni byli / они были
[They ] were
[ He ] was
[ She ] was
[ It ] was
Pluperfect
singular
ja behu / я беху
plural
my behom / мы бехом
vy bešte / вы беште
oni behut / они бехут
We had been
You(pl) had been
They had been
I had been
ty bešeš / ты бешеш You(s) had been
on, ona, ono bešet /
/ он, она, оно бешет
He, She, It had been
Future Tense
singular
ja budu / я буду
plural
my budjeme / мы будѣме
vy budjete / вы будѣте
oni budut / они будут
We will be
You(pl) will be
They will be
I will be
ty budješ / ты будѣш You(s) will be
on, ona, ono budjet
/ он, она, оно будѣт
He, She, It will be
Future Perfect [ I shall have been, You will have been, etc ]
singular plural
ja budu byvši / я буду бывши [ 1st P. m.] my budjeme byvšie / мы будѣме бывшие

ty budješ byvša / ты будѣш бывша [ 2nd P. f.] vy budjete byvšie / вы будѣте бывшие
ono budjet byvše / оно будѣт бывше [ 3rd P.n.] oni budut byvšie / они будут бывшие
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Conditional

singular
ja byhu / я быху
plural
my byhom / мы быхом
vy byšte / вы быште
oni byhut / они быхут
We would
You(pl) would
They would
I would
ty byšeš / ты бышеш You(s) would
on, ona, ono byst
/ он, она, оно, быст
He, She, It would
Past Conditional [ I would have been, You would have been, etc ]
singular plural
ja byhu byl / я быху был [ 1st P. m.] my byhom byli / мы быхом были
vy byšte byli / вы быште были
oni byhut byli / они быхут были
ty byšeš byla / ты бышеш была [ 2nd P. f.]
ono byst bylo / оно быст было [ 3rd P.n.]

The simple future and conditional tenses are unique to byti / быти, all other verbs form their compound
future and conditional tenses using the byti / быти tenses as an auxiliary verb.
The verb nebyti / небыти = not to be is conjugated similarly.
Future Tense
The future tense of byti / быти is followed by the second verb in the infinitive . Examples are :
Ja budu pisati / я буду писати = I will write
My budjeme čitati / мы будѣме читати = we will read, etc
Future Perfect
This usually refers to an action which will be completed some time in the future. The verb is normally
perfective in aspect. These verbs will be covered in a later section. When an imperfective verb like čitati /
читати is used in the Future Perfect tense, it has the meaning that the action will continue from the present
into the future and will still be happening at the future time. eg, ty budješ [ ješče ] čitavša knigu / ты
будѣш [ ѣшчe ] читавша книгу = You (s.f.) will [still] have been reading the book. In this construction the
Future tense of byti / быти is used with the Past Active participle of the verb čitati / читати, ie, ty budješ
čitavša / ты будѣш читавша. The Past Active participle čitavša / читавша = having read, is an adjective
which agrees with the subject of the verb, and so will be in the Nominative case.
Conditional Tenses
The conditional can be formed in two ways, giving different meanings. When the infinitive of a verb like
delati / делати is combined with the conditional of byti / быти , it refers to a state that would exist under
some set of conditions. Vy delati byšte / вы делати быште = You (pl) would do ( if some condition now
or in the future was true ) Example : Ja byhu pisati jemu, jestli ja znal gdje on živjet. / я быхy писати ѣму,
ѣстли я знал гдѣ он живѣт. = I would write to him, if I knew where he is living. ( jestli / ѣстли = If ;
ja znal / я знал = I knew ). This is the Future Conditional tense.
Past Conditional
This is formed from the Conditional of byti / быти plus the Past tense of the verb.
Examples :
My byhom šli k domu, jestli oni kazali nam što vy byli tam. / Мы быхoм шли к дому, ѣстли они казали
нам што вы были там. = We would have gone home, if they told us that you were there.( oni kazali /
они казали = They told )
The Past Conditional is more commonly formed with a perfective verb, however, rather than an imperfective
one. Refer to Lekcija 7 for more details.
The main verb in the conditional clause is in the past tense, even if it refers to the present or future.
English also uses conditional expressions like “ I may have ..” etc, indicating a possibility that a conditional
action took place, rather than a definite action. In Novoslavski, this can be expressed with the adverb može /
може = maybe, perhaps and a conditional. Eg, Može oni byhut vidjeli jejo, jestli ona byla tam. / Може они
быхуm видѣли ѣйo, ѣстли онa была там. = Maybe they would have seen her / They may have seen her,
if she was there.
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EXERCISES
1 . Write out the conjugation of the following verbs in the tenses indicated:
(1) mogti / могти - present tense
(2) pasti / пасти - future tense
(3) jedati / ѣдати - past tense
(4) hoteti / хотети - conditional
(5) vlekti / влекти – past conditional
(6) spati / спати – future perfect
2. Translate the following into Novoslavski :
(1) Yesterday, when the sun was shining, the boys were able to go to the harbour with their
father.
(2) Tomorrow we will eat inside your brother's house, and soon he will be able to eat with us..
(3) Whenever I told him something, he would want to know more.
(4) When there is snow in the village we are cold and we eat all the time (always).
(5) We may have gone somewhere else, if someone gave us a nicer house.
(6) Will you (ty) write to your old father soon ?
(7) You (Vy) can sleep some other time, somewhere else.
(8) The day before yesterday someone took the old horse away from the field.
(9) The old timer dragged the table and the heavy books towards the window of his cabin.
(10) After that, he fell on the floor and perspired heavily.
23
Novoslavski – Новославски
LEKCIJA 6・ лекция 6
VERBS
Passive Voice
So far verbs have been discussed in the active voice only, that is, when a subject carries out an
action, sometimes on an object, and sometimes on no object. When an object is involved, the verb is
described as transitive, for example on vidjel psa / он видѣл пса = he saw a dog. Here the subject is he and
the object is a dog. Some verbs do not have an object on which the action is performed, for example pes spal
/ пес спал = the dog slept, here the verb has only a subject but no object. This is an example of an
intransitive verb.
Taking the first sentence, it is possible to reverse the sense of action, as in pes byl vidim im / пес был
видим им = The dog was ( being ) seen by him, but the second sentence can not be reversed in this way,
because the verb spati / спати = to sleep is intransitive. This reversal of the action is described as the
passive voice. The verb videti / видети appears as its present passive participle. This is a short adjective,
vidim / видим = being seen ); masculine singular, agreeing with pes / пес. There are of course
corresponding feminine, neuter and plural forms, vidima / видима, vidime / видиме, vidimye / видимые.
They agree with the subject in gender and number.
The passive voice can be applied in any of the tenses, as in these examples :
ja byl vlekajem v reku / я был влекaѣм в реку= I was ( being ) dragged into the river [Past ]
ja behu vlekjen v reku / я бexy влекѣн в реку= I had been dragged into the river [ Pluperfect ]
ja jesu vlekajem v reku / я ѣсу влекaѣм в реку = I am (being) dragged into the river. [Present ]
ja budu vlekajem v reku / я буду влекaѣм в реку = I will be ( being) dragged into the river. [ Future ]
ja budu vlekjen v reku / я буду влекѣн в реку = I will have been dragged into the river. [Future Perfect ]
ja byhu vlekajem v reku / я быхy влекaѣм в реку = I would be (being) dragged into the river [Conditional]
ja byhu vlekjen v reku / я быхy влекѣн в реку = I would have been dragged into the river. [ Past Conditional]
Here vlekjen / влекѣн ( vlekjena / влекѣна, vlekjene / влекѣне = having been dragged) is the past
passive participle of vlekti / влекти = to drag. vlekajem / влекаѣм ( vlekajema / влекаѣма,
vlekajeme / влекаѣме = being dragged ) is the present passive participle
Generally, the past passive participle is formed by replacing the 2nd person present tense ending -ješ / -ѣш
or -iš / -иш with -jen / -ѣн ( or -eš / -еш with -en / -ен ). If the present stem ends in a vowel, -n / -н is
added to the Infinitive stem. This participle is a short adjective, having masculine, feminine, neuter and
plural forms. The present passive participle is a short adjective formed by replacement of the 2nd person
present tense ending -ješ / - ѣш with -jem / -ѣм ( or -eš / -еш with -em / -ем ), or -iš / -иш with -im /
-им.
( Some verbs have a past passive participle ending in -t / -т)
( Note that intransitive verbs can not have a passive participle )
Some examples follow :
First conjugation : Past Passive Participle

kazati / казати, кажеш
pisati / писати, писеш
klasti / класти, кладѣш
jedati / ѣдати, ѣдѣш
vlekti / влекти, влекѣш
brati / брати, берѣш
videti / видети, видѣш
delati / делати, делаѣш
znati / знати, знаѣш
čitati / читати, читаѣш
> kažen / кажен
> pišen / пишен
having been told
having been written
> kladjen / кладѣн having been placed, laid down
> jedjen / ѣдѣн having been eaten
> vlekjen / влекѣн having been dragged
> berjen / берѣн
> vidjen / видѣн
> delajen/ делаѣн
> znajen / знаѣн
> čitajen / читаѣн
having been taken
having been seen
having been done
having been known
having been read

24
Second Conjugation : Past Passive Participle
govoriti / говорити, говориш > govorjen / говорѣн having been spoken
stojati / стояти, стоиш > stojan / стоян* having been stood * -jati / -яти > -jan / -ян
The past passive particle can also be used without the auxiliary verb byti / быти, as in the following
example : Knigi davajeni byli v domje. / Книги даваѣни были в домѣ. = The given books were in the
house. Here davajeni / даваѣни is a shortened adjective agreeing with knigi / книги, meaning that the
books have been given ( at some previous unspecified time ). Normally the participle follows its subject.
Because the past passive particle is not declined, this construction can only be applied to the subject of a
clause. ( In other situations which require a declination ending, a relative clause with the pronoun kotory /
которы would be more usual.)
Present Active Participle
Another participle can be derived from the present stem of a verb, indicating that the subject is doing the
action at the present time. Eg spijuči pes ject pod stolje. / спиючи пec ѣст под столѣ. = The sleeping dog
is under the table. Here spijuči / спиючи is the present active participle of spati / спати , formed from the
present tense stem spi- / спи- by the addition of -juči / -ючи , to form an adjective ( in this case masculine
singular Nominative ). Both transitive and intransitive verbs can have an active participle. The present active
participle is a fully declined adjective and is not used in a short form. For this reason, the noun to which it
applies does not need to be the subject of the clause. For example, we can have Hlapec vidjel spijučego psa
pod stolje / хлапец видѣл спиючего пса под столѣ. = The boy saw the sleeping dog under the table.
Past Active Participle
This is a fully declined adjective, also derived from the present stem, with the ending -vši / -вши , which
indicates that the subject has done some action in a previous time, e.g Hlapec čitavši knigu, sidjel b kreslje /
Хлапец читавши книгу, сидѣл в креслѣ = The boy, having read the book, sat in the armchair.
Vocabulary
Conjunctions

a / а and, but
while, meanwhile
či / чи
za to že / за то же
ali / али
često / често
potom / потом
whether, if
because
however
often, frequently
then, next
poka / пока
kak by / как бы
hotja / хотя
nečesto / нечесто
Prepositions
as if
although
not often, infrequently
u / у
Nouns
( + Gen.) at ( motion ) u / у ( + Loc.) at ( location )
pismo / писмо
kreslo / кресло
meso / месо
ovoč / овоч †
(n)
(n)
(n)
(m)
letter
armchair
meat
fruit(s)
sestra / сестра
jeda / ѣда
(f)
(f)
sister
food
potato(es) †
vegetable(s) †
kartofel' / картофель (m)
zelnje / зелнѣ (n)

† The singular is used to refer to the plural also . Thus kartofel' / картофель can mean a potato or potatoes,
the plural is not used.
EXERCISES
1. Translate into Novoslavski :
(1) The new books were placed on the green table and were read often.
(2) The birds living in the roof would be seen by the youths if they went out of the house.
(3) She was pleased to see her old friend, because she sees him infrequently.
(4) That old chair stood by the window yesterday, but tomorrow it will be placed in this smaller
room.
(5) While everything is being done, they will read some books.
(6) The younger girl saw some horses running towards the river.
(7) The books are being written by an old timer known by everyone in the village.
25
(8) Her father saw the old goat sleeping under the big willow.
(9) When the rain was falling yesterday, we could not go out of the house.
(10) We might have seen you, if you were here later.
2. Translate into English
(1) Človek potijuči stojal v ulice poka my kazali jemu gdje žive naš brat.
Чловек потиючи стоял в улице пока мы казали ѣму гдѣ живе наш брат.
(2) Jestli my znali što mladeci ne jedali, my ne byli by delali to.
Ѣстли мы знали што младеци не ѣдали, мы не были бы делали то.
(3) To starše kreslo bydet vlekjene v su komnatu zautra.
То старше кресло будеt влекѣне в су комнату заутра.
(4) Si sovremenni knigi byli čitani mladšeju sestroju včera.
Си современни книги были читани младшею сестрою вчера.
(5) Starša bela koza byla vidjena jedejuča nekaki zeleni ovoč v dvorje.
Старшa белa коза била видѣна ѣдeюча некаки зелени овоч в дворѣ.
(6) On može byst kazal nam što oni delali, jestli my pisali jemu.
Он може быст казал нам што они делали, ѣстли мы писали ѣму.
(7) Jego sestra vsegda byst jedati kartofel' s jejo mesom i zelnjem, jestli on byl sveži.
Ѣго сестра всегда быст ѣдати картофель с ѣйо месом и зелнѣм, ѣстли он был
свежи.
(8) Jest prijatno nam imeti pisma iz svojih prijateljev.
Ѣст приятно нам имети писма из свойих приятелѣв.
(9) Byst bylo lučše jestli ovoč davajen imi byl svežejši.
Быст было лучше ѣстли овоч даваѣн ими был свежейши.
(10) Pes hočet jedati meso, no my ne imejeme nikaki.
Пес хочеt ѣдaти месо, но мы не имеѣме никаки.
26
Novoslavski – Новославски
LEKCIJA 7・ лекция 7
Perfective and Imperfective Aspects
Slavic languages have the feature of verbs with two different aspects. The basic difference in aspects is that
the perfective refers to an action which has been completed, while the imperfective does not imply whether
the action is ongoing or not. Taking as an example the verb čitati ・ читати = to read, this is an
imperfective verb. The statement ja čital knigu/ я читал книгу can mean either “ I read a book“ or “ I was
reading a book “, moreover it does not convey any suggestion whether or not I finished reading the book.
I could have finished it, or I could still be reading it. But when one says ja pročital knigu/ я прочитал
книгу, it means “ I read the book ( and have finished reading it )”. The verb pročitati ・ прочитати = to
read is the perfective equivalent of the verb čitati ・ читати. In dictionaries, verbs are usually given in
pairs like this, as in the following list :

Imperfective
čitati ・ читати
videti ・ видети
spati ・ спати
pisati ・ писати
davati ・ давати
idti - идти
žiti - жити
begati ・ бегати
kazati ・ казати
klasti ・ класти
pasti ・ пасти
jedati ・ ѣдати
mogti ・ могти
brati ・ брати
delati ・ делати
prijati ・ прияти
poteti ・ потети
stojati ・ стояти
Perfective
pročitati ・ прочитати .
uvideti ・ увидети
prespati ・преспати
napisati ・ написати .
dati ・ дати
pojdti ・ пойдти
dožiti ・ дожити
begti ・ бегти
skazati ・ сказати
položiti ・ положити
upasti ・ упасти
sjedati ・cѣдати
smogti ・ смогти
vzeti ・ взети
sdelati ・ сделати
zadovoliti ・ задоволити
vspoteti ・ vspотети
stanuti ・ станути
To read
To see
To sleep
To write
to give
To go
to live / live out
To run
To tell
To place
to fall
to eat
to be able
to take
To do
To please
to perspire, sweat
To stand

For many verbs, the perfective aspect is formed by use of a prefix , eg spati > prespati ・ спати >
преспати. Some perfective verbs are derived from different roots, and some verbs are not commonly used
in both aspects. The meaning of the perfective may differ slightly from the imperfective, as in žiti / жити &
dožiti / дожити ; here the perfective aspect usually implies that the subject has finished living, whereas the
imperfective includes the possibility that it is still alive. Non-Slavic speakers will probably find these two
aspects confusing, but it is not a major error to use the “wrong” aspect, and by adding some further
explanation the desired meaning can still be made clear. Native speakers may prefer one aspect over the
other, but both will be understood.
Tenses of Perfective Verbs
Because perfective verbs convey the idea of an action being completed, their tenses have different meanings
to imperfective verbs. There is no present tense, only the past perfect and future perfect, with the
corresponding conditional aspects.
Examples are as follows :
Past perfect : oni svidjeli mnogie pticev spijučih v drevah / они свидѣли многиe птицeв спючиx в древах.
= they had seen many birds sleeping in the trees.
Past perfect conditional : Vy pročitali byšte knigu, jestli Vy ne byli spijučie / Вы прочитали быштe книгу,
ѣстли Вы не были спиючиe = You would have ( read / finished reading ), the book if you were not
sleeping.
This refers to an event which would have occurred and concluded in the past.
27
Future perfect : mladeci budut pojdivšie k domu otca / младеци будут пойдившие к дому отца = The
boys will have gone to their father's house.
Future perfect conditional : mladeci byhut pojdti k domu otca, jestli oni zadovolili / младеци быхут
пойдти к дому отца, ѣстли они задоволили = The boys would go to their father's house, if they pleased.
This refers to an event which would occur and be concluded in the future ( including the immediate future ).
Participles
Perfective verbs have no present participles, only the past active and passive ( if they are transitive ).
Sej stari most, sdelajen davno, može byst upadjel v reku skoro / Сей стари мост, сделаѣн давно, може
быст упадѣл в реку скоре. = this old bridge, made ( done ) long ago, may ( maybe would ) have fallen
into the river soon.
Reflexive verbs
These are verbs which have as their object the person or thing which performs the action, that is, the subject
and object are the same noun. This is indicated by the word sebja / сеbя ( Accusative of sebe / себе = self )
following the verb. No other object noun is used. Examples are :
bojati sebja / бояти сеbя = to fear, be afraid ja boju sebja / я бою сеbя = I am afraid.
začrvenjati sebja / зачрвеняти сеbя = to blush ona začrvenjajet sebja / она зачрвеняѣт сеbя = she is
blushing
smejati sebja / смеяти сеbя = to laugh my smejali sebja / мы смeяли сеbя = we laughed.
Many of these verbs are used in the reflexive form only.
Verbal Nouns
To complete the conjugation of verbs, there is the verbal noun, which is simply the noun which describes the
action. From čitati ・ читати comes čitanije ・ читаниѣ , meaning reading. In most cases, the -ti / -ti
ending of the infinitive is replaced with -nije / - nиѣ, or -enije / - enиѣ if the stem ends in a consonant.
Some examples are :

begati ・ бегати
skazati ・ sказати
upasti ・упасти
jedati ・ ѣдати
beganije ・ бегanиѣ(n)
skazanije ・ сказаnиѣ (n)
upasenije ・ упасenиѣ (n)
jedanije ・ѣдаnиѣ (n)
running
telling
falling
eating

These are neuter nouns and are conjugated as such when necessary. They are used in sentences such as
beganije jest moj omiljene sport / беганиѣ ѣст мой омилѣнe спорт = running is my favourite sport.
Note that although both end with -ing in English, the verbal noun and the active participle have different
meanings, one is a noun which stands for an action, and the other is an adjective describing the action of
another noun.
Vocabulary

Verbs : imperfective (v.i) perfective (v.p)
sideti (sidješ) ・ сидети (сидѣш) vi. To sit sesti (sediš) ・ сести (седиш) vp. To sit down
piti ・ пити vi.,
letati ・ летати vi.,
uletati ・ улетати vi., §
prihoditi ・ приходити vi.
to drink
to fly .
to fly away
To come, arrive
vypiti ・ выпити vp. To drink up
poleteti (poletiš)/ полетети (полетиш) vp.to fly
uleteti ・улетети vp. § to fly away
prijdti (prijdeš, prišel)/ прийдти (прийдеш,
пришел vp.
nesti ・ нести vp
To come, arrive
to carry
voziti ・ возити vi., to carry

§ Note the use of the prefix u- / -у here indicates “away from”, rather than forming a perfective verb from the
imperfective.
28
EXERCISES
1. Translate into Novoslavski, using perfective verbs where appropriate :
(1) After they had seen the big dogs running towards them, the birds flew away quickly.
(2) We had arrived at your house yesterday, but nobody was there.
(3) The girls had eaten all the fresh fruit.
(4) After we had told you that, you laughed.
(5) The boys would have sat down at the table, but they did not have chairs.
(6) She is afraid that she will fall into the river.
(7) The old man was pleased that he was able to sleep.
(8) Because she had read the letter, his sister blushed.
(9) The books had been placed on the old table the day before yesterday.
(10) They would give us food, if we wanted it.
2. Translate into English :
(1) Mladši kon' begal k reky, potom on upadjel blizko vysokogo dreva.
Младши конь бегал к реку, потом он упадѣл близко высокого древа.
(2) My byhom zadovolen, jestli ty prišel s tvojeju ženoju zautra.
Мы быхом задоволен ѣстли ты пришел ствоѣю женою заутра.
(3) Posle jejo otec sjedal nekol'ko jedu, on sedil v staršom kresle, kotory byl v dvorje.
После ѣю отец сѣдал неколько ѣду он седил в старшом кресле которы был в дворѣ.
(4) Deti bojali sebja idti k tomu domu, za to že velikie psi žili tam.
Дети бояли себя идти к тому дому, за то же великие пси жили там.
(5) Posle ti pticy uleteli, my uvideli inyh prohodijučih.
После ти птицы улетели мы увидели иных проходиючих.
(6) Najstarša kniga v sem domom, kotora byla napišena očen' davno, ject matere.
Найстарша книга в сем домом, котора была напишена очень давно, ѣст матере.
(7) Jestli Vy ne byl begajuči, Vy ne upastili byst lošo.
Ѣстли Вы не был бегаючи, Вы не упастили быст лошо.
(8) Za to že oni ne mogli čitati Neoslavski, oni davali vsi ih knigi mnje.
За то же они не могли читати Новославски, они давали вси их книги мнѣ.
(9) Hotja on často pišet k njej sestre, oh nečesto vidjet jejo.
Хотя он часто пишет к нѣй сестре, он нечесто видѣт ѣйо.
(10) Preduvčera starec byl vidjen s nego malym črnym psom sedejči v nego budkje.
Предувчера старец был видѣн с него малым чрным псом седейчи в него будкѣ.
29
Novoslavski – Новославски
LEKCIJA 8・ лекция 8
NUMBERS
Cardinal Numbers : These are given below :

jedin / ѣдин § one
two
1 jedinadset' / ѣдинадсеть
dvanadset' / дванадсеть
trinadset' / тринадсеть
eleven
twelve
thirteen
11
dva / два
tri / три
2 12
three 3 13
četyri / четыри four
five
six
4 četyrnadset' / четырнадсеть fourteen 14
pet' / петь
šest' / шесть
sedem / седем
osem / осем
devet' / деветь
deset' / десеть
5
6
petnadset' / петнадсеть
šestnadset' / шестнадсеть
fifteen
sixteen
15
16
seven 7
eight 8
sedemnadset' / седемнадсеть seventeen 17
osemnadset' / осемнадсеть eighteen 18
nine
ten
9 devetnadset' / деветнадсеть nineteen 19
10 dvadeset' / двадесеть twenty 20

§ jedin / ѣдин is an adjective, its feminine form is jedna / ѣдна & neuter forms is jedne / ѣднe
jedin / ѣдин is followed by a noun in the singular, eg jedin stul / ѣдин стул = one chair, jedna
komnata / ѣдна комната = one room, jedne selo / ѣднe село = one village. The appropriate declination
endings are used as with a normal adjective.
♠ dva / два is an adjective, its feminine & neuter form is dve / две. It is followed by a noun in the plural.
eg dva stuly / два стулы = two chairs, dve komnaty/ две комнаты = two rooms, dve sela / две села =
two villages.
dva / два has a special declination as shown below :

masc. fem & neut.
Nom dv a дв а dv e дв е
Gen dvuh двух dvuh двух
Dat dvum двум dvum двум
Acc dvuh двух dv e дв е
Ins dvumja двумя dvumja двумя
Loc dvuh дву х dvuh двух

eg vy davali rozy dvum devčinkam / вы давали розы двум девчинкам = you (pl.) gave roses to two girls.
The remainder of the numerals are indeclinable , the noun following them is declined in the plural, eg
My vidjeli sedem konjev / Мы видѣли седм конѣв = we saw seven horses.
Pismo bylo čitane četyrnadset' devčinkami / писмо было читанe четырнадсеть девчинками= The letter
was read by fourteen girls.
Cardinal Numbers (Cont)
The numbers above 20 are formed as follows :
dvadeset' jedna / двадесеть ѣдна twenty one 21 sedemdeset' / седемдeсеть seventy 70
dvadeset' dva / двадесеть два twenty two 22 osemdeset' / осемдeсеть eighty 80
dvadeset' tri / двадесеть три twenty three 23 devetdeset' / деветдeсеть ninety 90
: sto / сто 100
dvadeset' devet' / двадесеть деветь twenty nine 29 dvesta / двестa 200
trideset' / тридесеть thirty 30 trista / триста 300
trideset' jedna / тридесеть ѣдна thirty one 31 četyrista / четыриста 400
trideset' dva / тридесеть два thirty two 32 pet'sot / петьсот 500
: šest'sot / шестьсот 600
četyrideset' / четыридeсеть forty 40 sedemsot / седемсот 700
30

pet'deset' / петьдесеть
šest'deset' / шестьдeсеть
tysječ / тысѣч
dva tysječa / два тысѣчa
tri tysječa / три тысѣчa
nula / нула
fifty
sixty
50
60
osemsot / осемсот
devet'cot / деветьсот
milion / милион
800
900
million
one thousand 1000
2000 dva miliony / два милионы 2 million
3000
zero 0
miliard / милиард billion*
(1 billion = 1,000,000,000 = 1,000 million )

Numbers such as 3,456 are written tri tysječa četyrista i pet'deset' šest' / три тысѣчa четыриста и
петьдесеть шесть = three thousand four hundred and fifty six.
Ordinal Numerals
These are all adjectives referring to the order of items in a list. They are shown below :

prvy / првы
vtory / вторы
trety / треты
četvrty / четврты
pety / петы
šesty / шесты
sedemy / седемы
osemy / осемы
devety / деветы
desety / десеты
first
second
third
fourth
fifth
sixth
seventh
eighth
ninth
tenth
jedinadsety / ѣдинадсеты
dvanadsety / дванадсеты
trinadsety / тринадсеты
eleventh
twelfth
thirteenth
četyrnadsety / четырнадсетыfourteenth
petnadsety / петнадсеты
šestnadsety / шестнадсеты
fifteenth
sixteenth
sedemnadsety / седемнадсеты seventeenth
osemnadsety / осемнадсеты eighteenth
devetnadsety / деветнадсеты nineteenth
dvadesety / двадесеты twentieth
30th, 40th, 50th, 60th, 70th, 80th and 90th are formed similarly to 20th.
sotny / сотны
dvesotny / двесотны
trisotny / трисотны
100th
200th
300th
tysječny / тысѣчны 1000th
dva tysječny/ два тысѣчны 2000th
milionny / милионны
miliardny / милиардны
nulny / нулны
1,000,000th
billionth
zeroth, 0th
četyrisotny / четырисотны 400th
pet'sotny / петьсотны 500th etc.

In compound ordinal numerals, only the final digit is in the ordinal form, eg 372nd = trista sedemdeset'
vtory / триста седемдесеть вторы.
Expressing Times
Times are expressed as an ordinal number + časina / часина = hour, as in the following examples :
( Prepositions relating to time use the accusative, as do prepositions of motion. )
na četvrtu časinu / на четврту часину = on the fourth hour ( 4 o'clock ).
deset' pred šestu časinu / десеть пред шесту часину = ten to six ( literally, ten before the sixth hour )
dvadeset' četyri za osemu časinu/ двадесеть четыри за осему часину = twenty four past eight
( literally, twenty four after the eighth hour ).
polčasina osemoj ( časiny ) / полчасина осемой ( часины )= half past seven ( literally, a half hour of the
eighth )
( The word minuty / минуты = minutes is usually omitted, likewise časina / часина can be omitted also.)
Time can also be expressed in the military fashion eg na četyrnadset' sta i pet'deset' časinu / на
четырнадсеть стa и петьдесеть часину = at fourteen hundred and fifty hours (1450 hours );
na nulnu časinu / на нулну часину = at zero hour.
A duration of time is expressed with the preposition za / за ( + Genitive ), eg. Ona žila za
sedemdeset' tri let / Она жила за седемдесеть три лет = She lived for ( during ) seventy three summers.
Note the use of the noun leto / лето = summer instead of god / год ( = year ). This is normal when referring
to the age of a living creature.
Dates within a year are expressed in the following manner : ( using the Locative* case with the preposition v
/ в ) eg. v tysječ devet'sot i osemdeset' petom godu/ в тысѣч деветьсот и осемдeсеть петом году = in
the one thousand nine hundred and eighty fifth year ( 1985 ) [* Note god / год = year has Locative godu /
году, as do the days of the week, and vek / век = century ]
v dva tysječa i devetom godu / два тысѣчa и деветом году = in the two thousand and ninth year (2009).
31
Days of the week, Months ( these are not capitalised )

tydnjovi denja /тыднйoви деня week days
Monday
(m)
(m)
(m)
(m)
(m)
(m)
ponedelnik / понеделник (m)
(m)
(f)
(m)
(m)
(f)
(f)
(f)
(m)
(m)
(m)
January
( Locative in -u / -у )


“ “
“ “

vtornik / вторник
sreda / среда
četvrtek / четвртек
petok / петок
subota / субота
nedelja / неделя
sedmica / седмица
mesec / месец
god / год
vek / век
januar' / януарь
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Saturday
Sunday
week
month
year
century
( Locative in -u / -у )

jul' / юль
avgust / август
septjabr / септябр
oktjabr / октябр
novjabr / новябр
dekjabr / декябр

(m) July
fevruar' / февруарь (m) February August
marjec / марѣц
april' / априль
maj / май ♦
jun' / юнь
(m)
(m)
(m)
(m)
March
April
May
June
September
October
November
December

eg na subotu, četvrty (den') junja /на суботу, четврты (день) юня = on Saturday, the fourth (day) of
June. ( na / на + Locative )
na dvadeset' prvom ( denje ) fevruarja / на двадесеть првом (денѣ ) февруaря = on the twenty first
( day) of February. ( na / на + Locative ).
♦ Masculine nouns like maj / май are declined as follows :

singular plural
Nom maj май mai маи
Gen maja ма majev маѣ
Dat maju маю majam маям
Acc maj май mai маи
Ins majem маѣм majami маями
Loc maje маѣ majah маях

я в
roditi ( rodiš )/ родити ( родиш ) = to be born
myti ( mysiš )/ мити ( мисиш ) = to wash
32
EXERCISES
1 Translate into Novoslavski :
(1) Tomorrow will be Wednesday, 19th September, 2007.
(2) We will be going at 7:15 tomorrow morning.
(3) This horse lived here for twenty six years.
(4) In January 2007 we saw the brightest comet§ which had been seen for fifty years.
(5) This will be the old man's ninety-seventh year.
(6) I know that they have 450,000 dinars in the bank∆.
(7) The girls had given eight big potatoes to their mother on Friday.
(8) Recently there were twenty two goats eating grass in this field.
(9) The time in Ljubljana is now thirty four minutes past five o'clock.
(10) We have two green chairs and four blue chairs in our house.
§ bright = jasny / ясни ; comet = kometa / комета ∆ ( ...that = čto / что ); bank = bank / банк
2 Translate into English
(1) My byhom prijdti k domu vam na petoku na polchasinu sedmoi, jestli tak vy hočete.
Мы быхом прийдти к дому вам на петоку на полчасину седмой, ѣстли так вы хочете.
(2) Vaša mladša sestra často vidjena bešet stojuča vne§ okna doma tridecet' treta v sem
ulice.
Ваша младша сестра часто видѣна бешет стоюча вне окна дома тридесетъ трета в сем
улице.
(3) V letje, trava v polju jedjena budjet jevo dvadecet' sedem kozami.
В летѣ, трава в полю ѣдѣна будѣт ѣго двадесеть седем козами.
(4) Tot starec rodil sebja v Krasnodarje na dvadeset' tretom dene fevruarja, v tysječ
devet'sot dvanadesetom godu.
Тот старец родил себя в Краснодар на двадесетьтретом дене февруаря, в тысеч
деветьсот дванадесетом году
(5) Tri mladec, jedavšie vsej mesa i kartofely, prosili piti nekoliko hladnu vodu.
Три младеци, ѣдавшие всей меса и картофелы, просилипити неколико хладну воду.
(6) Vsekto znal čto vaša mati rodila v inokakoj države.
Всекто знал что ваша мати родила в инокакой државе.
(7) Jestli ona znala gdje vy živete, može ona davno byst prihodila.
Ѣстли она знала гдѣ вы живете, може она давно быст приходила.
(8) Včera my ne pyhom uvideli sih ovci.
Вчера мы не быхом увидели сих овци.
(9) Idenije v poljah hvilja* solnce leskajet jest najprijatnejši.
Идениѣ в полях хвиля* солнце лескаѣт ѣст найприятнейши.
(10) Zautra ty budješ mogti idti inogdje.
Заутра ты будѣш могти идти иногдѣ.
§ vne / вне (+ Gen ) = outside (of )
* hvilja / хвиля = while
33
NOVOSLAVSKI JEZYK – НОВОСЛАВСКИ ЯЗЫК
DECLENSION OF NOUNS - MASCULINE

singular plural singular plural
Nom brat брат brat y браты muž муж muž i мужи
Gen brat a брата bratov братов muža мужa muž ev мужев
Dat brat u брату bratam братам mužu мужу mužam мужам
Acc brat a братa bratov братов muž a мужa muž ev мужев
Ins bratom братом bratami братами mužem мужем muž ami мужами
Loc bratje братѣ bratah братах muže мужe muž ah мужах

DECLENSION OF NOUNS – FEMININE

singular plural singular plural
Nom žena жена žen y жены duš a душa duš i души
Gen žen y жена žen жен duš i души dušej душe й
Dat ženje женѣ ženam женам duš e душ e dušam душам
Acc ženu жену žen y жены duš u душу duši души
Ins ženoju женою ženami женами duš eju душею dušami душами
Loc ženje женѣ ženah женах duš i души dušah душах


singular plural
Nom kosť кость kosti кости
Gen kosti кости kostij кост ий
Dat kostje костѣ kostim костим
Acc kosť кость kosti кости
Ins kostju костю kostimi костими
Loc kosti кости kostih костих

DECLENSION OF NOUNS – NEUTER

singular plural singular plural
Nom selo село sel a селa polje полѣ polja поля
Gen sela селa sel сел polja поля poljej полѣй
Dat selu селу selam селам polju полю poljam полям
Acc selo селo sel a селa polje полѣ polja поля
Ins selom селом selami селами poljem полѣм poljami полями
Loc selje селѣ selah селах polju полю poljah полях

34

singular plural
Nom ime (*imen o *) име imen a именa
Gen imena именa imen имен
Dat imenu имену imenam именам
Acc ime ime imen a именa
Ins imenom именом imenami именами
Loc imenje именѣ imenah именах

DECLENSION OF NOUNS – IRREGULAR

Case Singular Dual Plural Regular Plural
Nom ok o око oči очи ok a окa
Gen ok a окa oči очи ok ок
Dat oki окu očim очим okam окам
Acc ok o окo oči очи ok a окa
Ins okom оком očimi очими okam оками
Loc oki окu očih очих okah оках


Case Singular
Nom mati мати tele теле dete дете
Gen matere матере teleta телета detete детете
Dat materi матери teleti телети deteti детети
Acc mati мати tele теле dete детe
Ins materju матерю teletom телетом detetom дететом
Loc materi матери teleti телети deteti детети


singular plural
Nom do ž d ' дождь do ž di дожди
Gen do ž dja дождя do ž djev дождѣв
Dat do ž dju дождю do ž djam дождям
Acc do ž d ' дожд ь do ž di дожди
Ins do ž djem дождѣм do ž djami дождями
Loc do ž dje дождѣ do ž djah дождях

ᴥ ᴥ ᴥ ᴥ
35
DECLENSION OF ADJECTIVES
HARD STEM

singular plural
masculine feminine neuter (all genders )
Nom krasiv y красивы krasiva красивa krasive красиве krasivye красивые
Gen krasivogo красивого krasivoj красивой krasivogo красивого krasivyh красивих
Dat krasivomu красивому krasivoj красивой krasivomu красивому krasivym красивым
Acc krasivogo * красивого * krasiv u красиву krasive красивe krasivyh красивих
Ins krasivym красивым krasivoju красивою krasivym красивым krasivymi красивыми
Loc krasivom красивом krasivoj красивой krasivom красивом krasivyh красивих
  • Adjectives qualifying animate masculine nouns have the Accusative identical with the genitive,
    other masculine nouns have the Accusative the same as the Nominative.
    † These endings are normally pronounced as -ovo / -ово instead of -ogo / -ого.
    SOFT STEM
singular plural
masculine feminine neuter (all genders )
Nom starš i старши starš a старшa starš e старшe star šie старшие
Gen starš ego старшего starš ej старшей star šego† старшего star ših старших
Dat starš emu старшему starš ej старшей star šemu старшему starš im старшим
Acc starš ego * старшего * starš ej старшей starš e старшe starš ih старших
Ins starš im старшим starš eju старшею star šim старшим star šimi старшими
Loc starš em старшем starš ej старшей starš em старшем starš ih старших
  • Adjectives qualifying animate masculine nouns have the Accusative identical with the genitive,
    other masculine nouns have the Accusative the same as the Nominative.
    † These endings are normally pronounced as -ovo / -ово instead of -ogo / -ого.
    DECLENSION OF PRONOUNS
    PERSONAL PRONOUNS
Singular
1st person ( I,
Me )
2nd person ( You ) 3rd person ( He, Him / She, Her / It )
masculine feminine neuter
Nom ja я t ты on он on a она on o оно
Gen menja меня t ebja тебя j ego ѣго j ejo ѣйо j ego ѣго
Dat mnje мнѣ t ebje тебѣ j emu ѣму j ej ѣй j emu ѣму
Acc menja меня t ebja тебя j ego ѣго j ejo ѣйо j ego ѣго
Ins mnoju мною t oboju тобою jem ѣм j eju ѣю jem ѣм
Loc mnje мнѣ t ebje тебѣ j em ѣм j ej ѣй j em ѣм

y 36

Plural
1st person ( We,Us ) 2nd person (You) 3rd person ( They, Them ) all genders
Nom m мы вы oni они
Gen as нас as вас ih их
Dat am нам am вам im им
Acc as нас as вас ih их
Ins ami нами ami вами imi ими
Loc as нас as вас ih их


y vy
v

v
v v
v

n
n

n
n n

† These endings are normally pronounced as -ovo, -evo / -ovo, -evo instead of -ogo, -ego / -ogo, -ego.
When a 3rd person pronoun ( on, ona, ono, oni / on, ona, ono, oni is preceded by a preposition, n / n is added
between the preposition and pronoun, eg s nim / s nim = with him / it, sred nih / sred nih = among them, u njego
/ u nѣgo = by him , na njom / na nйom = on it, etc.)
POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS

Masculine singular Feminine singular Neuter singular Plural
Nom moj мой moj a моя moj e моѣ mo i мои
Gen mojego† моѣго mojej моѣй mojego моѣго moih мих
Dat mojemu моѣму mojej моѣй mojemu моѣму moim моим
Acc mojego * моѣго * moju мою moj e моѣ moih* моих *
Ins mojem моѣм mojeju моѣю mojem моѣм moimi моими
Loc mojem моѣм mojej моѣй mojem моѣм moih моих
Masculine plural Feminine plural Neuter plural Plural
Nom naš наш naš a наша naš e наше naš i наши
Gen naš ego† нашего naš ej нашeй naš ego† нашего naš ih наших
Dat naš emu нашему naš ej нашeй naš emu нашему naš im нашим
Acc na šego * нашего * naš u нашу naš e наше naš ih * наших *
Ins naš im нашим naš eju нашей naš im нашим naš imi нашими
Loc naš em нашем naš ej нашей naš em нашем naših наших

† These endings are normally pronounced as -ovo, -evo / -ово, -его instead of -ogo, -ego / -ого, -его.
The 3rd person possessive pronouns are jego / ѣго = his or its, jejo / ѣйо = her, and ih / их = their. These are
the Genitive cases of the 3rd person pronouns and are not declined. When these are used as possessive
pronouns, they do not have n / н inserted after prepositions.
DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS

masculine feminine neuter plural
Nom sej сей s a са s e се s i си
Gen s ego† сего s ej сей s ego с его s ih сих
Dat s emu сему s ej сей s emu сему s im сим
Acc sego * сего * s u су s e се s ih * сих*
Ins s im сем s eju сею s im сим s imi сими
Loc s em сем s ej сей s em сем s ih сих

37

toj / той masculine feminine neuter plural
Nom t oj той t a та t o то t i ти
Gen t ogo того t oj той t ogo того t eh тех
Dat t omu тому t oj той t omu тому t em тем
Acc t ogo * того * t u ту t o то t eh * тех*
Ins t om том t oju тою t om том t emi теми
Loc t em тем t oj той t em тем t eh тех

† These endings are normally pronounced as -ovo, -evo / --ово, -его instead of -ogo, -ego / -ого, -его.
EMPHATIC PRONOUN
The emphatic pronoun is iže / иже = the one, the very same. It has the same form in the Nominative for all
genders and numbers. In the other cases, it is declined as the 3rd person pronouns with -že / -же suffixed.

masculine feminine neuter plural
Nom i ž e иже i že иже i že иже i že иже
Gen j ego že ѣгоже j ej ž e ѣйже j ego ž e ѣгоже ihž e ихже
Dat j emu že ѣмуже j ej ž e ѣйже j emu ž e ѣмуже imž e имже
Acc j egož e* ѣгоже * j u že юже j e ѣже j e ѣже ᴥ
Ins im ž e имже j eju ž e ѣюже im že имже imi ž e имиже
Loc j em ž e ѣмже j ej ž e ѣйже j em ž e ѣмже ih ž e ихже

INTERROGATIVE, DEFINITE & INDEFINITE PRONOUNS

INTERROGATIVES This That Some-§ Any-§ ‡ No- Every- Else-,
Other
Who ? кто некто кто-нибуд никто всекто инокто
What ? што нечто што-нибуд ничто всечто иночто
ADJECTIVES
What
kind ?
каки таки некаки каки-нибуд никаки всекаки инокаки
Whose ? чей нечей чей-нибуд ничей всечей иночей
Which ? которы сей той некоторы которы-нибуд жадны всяки ины
ADVERBS
How ? как так некако как-нибуд никак всекак инокак
How
much ?
колико только неколико колико-нибуд никаки
Where ? гдѣ тут там негдѣ гдѣ-нибуд нигдѣ всегдѣ иногдѣ
When ? когда сейчас втогда некогда когда-нибуд никогда всегда иногда
Whither ? куда сюда туда некуда куда-нибуд никуда всекуда инокуда
Whence ? откуда отсюда оттуда отнекуда откуда-нибуд отникуда отвсекуда отинокуда
Why ? зашто затом занечто зашто-нибуд заничто
Why ? чему тому нечему чему-нибуд ничему

38

Nom kto кто što што
Gen kogo† кого† čego† чего†
Dat komu кому čemu чему
Acc kogo кого što што
Ins kimi кими čimi чими
Loc kom ком čom чом

39
CONJUGATION OF VERBS

1st Conjugation “to read”
plural
čita-jeme / чита-ѣме
Infinitive
Present Tense
1st person
čita-ti / чита-ти
singular
čita-ju / чита-ю

2nd person čita-ješ / чита-ѣш čita-jete/ чита-ѣте
3rd person čita-jet / чита-ѣт čita-jut / чита-ют
Imperative čita-j !/ чита-й ! čita-jte !/ чита -йте !
Verbal Noun čita-nije / чита-ниѣ reading (n)
Pres. Act. Part. čita-juči/ чита-ючи reading (adj.)
Pres. Pass. Part. čita-jem/ чита-ѣм being read (adj.)
Past Tense singular plural
masculine / 1st p Ja čita-l / Я чита-л My čita-li / Mы чита-ли
feminine / 2nd p Ty čita-la/ Ты чита-ла Vy čita-li / Bы чита-ли
neuter / 3rd p Ono čita-lo / Оно чита-ло Oni čita-li / Они чита-ли
Past Active Part. čita-vši / чита-вши having read (adj)
Past Passive Part. čita-jen / чита-ѣн having been read (adj.)
Pluperfect singular plural
masculine / 1st p behu čita-l / беху чита-л behom čita-li / бехом чита-ли
feminine / 2nd p bešeš čita-la / бешеш чита-ла bešte čita-li/ беште чита-ли
neuter / 3rd p bešet čita-lo / бешет чита-ло behut čita-li / бехут чита-ли
Future Indefinite singular plural
1st person budu čita-ti / буду чита-ти budjeme čita-ti / будѣме чита-ти
2nd person budješ čita-ti / будѣш чита-ти budjete čita-ti / будѣте чита-ти
3rd person budjet čita-ti / будѣт чита-ти budut čita-ti / будут чита-ти
Future Perfect singular plural
masculine / 1st p budu čita-vši / буду чита-вши budjeme čita-všie / будѣме читавшие
feminine / 2nd p budješ čita- vša / будѣш чита-вша budjete čita-všie / будѣте чита-вшие
neuter / 3rd p budjet čita-vše / будѣт чита-вше budut čita- všie / будут чита-вшие
Conditional * singular plural
1st person byhu čita-ti / быху чита-ти byhom čita-ti / быхом чита-ти
2nd person byšeš čita-ti / бышеш чита-ти byšte čita-ti / быште чита-ти
3rd person byst čita-ti / быст чита-ти byhut čita-ti / быхут чита-ти
• Present tense; I would read, etc. The Past Conditional byhu čita-l / быху чита-л ; I would
have read, etc uses the Past tense verb endings -л, ла, ло, ли with the Conditional of быти.
40
CONJUGATION OF VERBS

Irregular “to be”
plural
jes-me / ѣс-ме
singular
Infinitive
Present Tense
1st person
by-ti / быти
jes-u / ѣс-у

2nd person jes-iš / ѣс-иш jes-te / ѣс-те
3rd person jes-t / ѣс-т jes-ut / ѣс-ут
Imperative by !/ бы ! by-te !/ бы-те !
Verbal Noun byve-nije / быве-ниѣ being, existence (n)
Pres. Act. Part. byv-uči / быв-учи being (adj.)
Pres. Pass. Part. NO PASSIVE FORMS
Past Tense singular plural
masculine / 1st p Ja by-l / Я был My by-li / Mы были
feminine / 2nd p Ty by-la / Ты былa Vy by-li / Bы были
neuter / 3rd p Ono by-lo / Ono былo Oni by-li / Они были
Past Active Part. by-vši / бывши having `been (adj)
Past Passive Part. NO PASSIVE FORMS
Pluperfect

singular plural
be-hom / бехом
be-hu / беху

masculine / 1st p feminine / 2nd p be-šeš / бешеш be-šte / беште
neuter / 3rd p be-šet / бешет be-hut / бехут
Future Indefinite singular plural
1st person bud-u / буду bud-jeme / будѣме
2nd person bud-ješ / будѣш bud-jete / будѣте
3rd person bud-jet / будѣт bud-ut / будут
Future Perfect singular plural
masculine / 1st p bud-u by-vši / буду бывши bud-jeme by-všie / будѣме бывшиe
feminine / 2nd p bud-ješ by-vša / будѣш бывша bud-jete by-všie / будѣте бывшиe
neuter / 3rd p bud-jet by-vše / будѣт бывше bud-ut by-všie / будут бывшиe
Conditional * singular plural
1st person by-hu / быху by-hom / быхом
2nd person by-šeš / бышеш by-šte / быште
3rd person by-st / быст by-hut / быхут
41
CONJUGATION OF VERBS

Irregular “not to be”
plural
njes-me / нѣсме
Infinitive
Present Tense
1st person
ne by-ti / не быти
singular
njes-u / нѣсу

2nd person njes-iš/ нѣсиш njes-te / нѣсте
3rd person njes-t / нѣст njes-ut / нѣсут
Imperative njeby !/ нѣбы ! njeby-te !/ нѣбыте !
Verbal Noun njebyve-nije / нѣбывениѣ non-being, non-existence (n)
Pres. Act. Part. njebyv-uči/ небывучи not being (adj.)
Pres. Pass. Part. NO PASSIVE FORMS
Past Tense singular plural
masculine / 1st p njeby-l / нѣбыл by-li / нѣбыли
feminine / 2nd p njeby-la / нѣбылa by-li / нѣбыли
neuter / 3rd p njeby-lo / нѣбылo by-li / нѣбыли
Past Active Part. njeby-vši / нѣбывши not having been (adj)
Past Passive Part. NO PASSIVE FORMS
Pluperfect

singular
njebe-hu / нѣбеху
plural
njebe-hom / нѣбехом

masculine / 1st p feminine / 2nd p njebe-šeš / нѣбешеш njebe-šte / нѣбеште
neuter / 3rd p njebe-šet / нѣбешет njebe-hut / нѣбехут
Future Indefinite singular plural
1st person njebud-u / нѣбуду njebud-jeme / нѣбудѣме
2nd person njebud-ješ / нѣбудѣш njebud-jete / нѣбудѣте
3rd person njebud-jet / нѣбудѣт njebud-ut / нѣбудут
Future Perfect singular plural
masculine / 1st p njebud-u by-vši / нѣбуду бывши njebud-jeme by-všie / нѣбудѣме
бывшиe
feminine / 2nd p njebud-ješ by-vša / нѣбудеш бывша njebud-jete by-všie / нѣбудѣте
бывшиe
neuter / 3rd p njebud-jet by-vše / нѣбудет бывше njebud-ut by-všie / нѣбудут бывшиe
Conditional * singular plural
1st person njeby-hu / нѣбыху njeby-hom / нѣбыхом
2nd person njeby-šeš / нѣбышеш njeby-šte / нѣбыште
3rd person njeby-st / нѣбыст njeby-hut / нѣбыхут
42
CONJUGATION OF VERBS

Irregular “to go”
plural
id-jeme / идѣме
singular
Infinitive
Present Tense
1st person
id-ti / идти
id-u / идu

2nd person id-ješ / идѣш id-jete / идѣте
3rd person id-jet / идѣт id-ut / идут
Imperative idi !/ иди ! idi-te !/ идите !
Verbal Noun ide-nije / идениѣ going (n)
Pres. Act. Part. id-uči/ идучи going (adj.)
Pres. Pass. Part. NO PASSIVE FORMS
Past Tense singular plural
masculine / 1st p Ja še-l / Я шел My š-li / Mы шли
feminine / 2nd p Ty š-la / Ты шла Vy š-li / Bы шли
neuter / 3rd p Ono š-lo / Ono шло Oni š-li / Они шли
Past Active Part. idi-vši / идивши having gone (adj)
Past Passive Part. NO PASSIVE FORMS
Pluperfect

singular
be-hu še-l / беху шел
plural
be-hom š-li / бехом шли

masculine / 1st p feminine / 2nd p be-šeš š-la / бешеш шла be-šte š-li / беште шли
neuter / 3rd p be-šet š-lo / бешет шло be-hut š-li / бехут шли
Future Indefinite singular plural
1st person bud-u idti / буду идти bud-jeme idti / будѣме идти
2nd person bud-ješ idti / будѣш идти bud-jete idti / будѣте идти
3rd person bud-jet idti / будѣт идти bud-ut idti / будут идти
Future Perfect singular plural
masculine / 1st p bud-u idi-vši / буду идивши bud-jeme idi-všie / будѣме идившие
feminine / 2nd p bud-ješ idi-vša / будѣш идивша bud-jete idi-všie / будѣте идившие
neuter / 3rd p bud-jet idi-vše / будѣт идивше bud-ut idi-všie / будут идившие
Conditional * singular plural
1st person by-hu idti / быху идти by-hom idti / быхом идти
2nd person by-šeš idti / бышеш идти by-šte idti / быште идти
3rd person by-st idti / быст идти by-hut idti/ быхут идти
• Present tense; I would go, etc. The Past Conditional byhu iše-l / быху шел ; I would have
gone, etc uses the Past tense verb endings -л, ла, ло, ли with the Conditional of быти
43
CONJUGATION OF VERBS

2nd Conjugation “to ask”
plural
pros-ime / просиме
Infinitive
Present Tense
1st person
prosi-ti / просити
singular
proš-u / прошу

2nd person pros-iš / просиш pros-ite / просите
3rd person pros-it / просит proš-ut / прошут
Imperative prosi !/ проси ! prosi-te !/ просите !
Verbal Noun pros-enije / просeниѣ asking (n)
Pres. Act. Part. pros-uči/ просучи asking (adj.)
Pres. Pass. Part. pros-im / просим being asked (adj.)
Past Tense singular plural
masculine / 1st p Ja prosi-l / Я просил My prosi-li / Mы просили
feminine / 2nd p Ty prosi-la / Ты просилa Vy prosi-li / Bы просили
neuter / 3rd p Ono prosi-lo / Оно просилo Oni prosi-li / Они просили
Past Active Part. prosi-vši / просивши having asked (adj)
Past Passive Part. pros-jen / просѣн having been asked (adj.)
Pluperfect singular plural
masculine / 1st p be-hu prosi-l / беху просил be-hom prosi-li / бехом просили
feminine / 2nd p be-šeš prosi-la / бешеш просилa be-šte prosi-li / беште просили
neuter / 3rd p be-šet prosi-lo / бешет просилo be-hut prosi-li / бехут просили
Future Indefinite singular plural
1st person bud-u prositi / буду просити bud-jeme prositi / будѣме просити
2nd person bud-ješ prositi / будѣш просити bud-jete prositi / будѣте просити
3rd person bud-jet prositi / будѣт просити bud-ut prositi / будут просити
Future Perfect singular plural
masculine / 1st p bud-u prosi-vši / буду просивши bud-jeme prosi-všie / будѣме
просившие
feminine / 2nd p bud-ješ prosi-vša / будѣш просивша bud-jete prosi-všie / будѣте
просившие
neuter / 3rd p bud-jet prosi-vše / будѣт просивше bud-ut prosi-všie / будут
просившие
Conditional * singular plural
1st person by-hu prositi / быху просити by-hom prositi / быхом просити
2nd person by-šeš prositi / бышеш просити by-šte prositi / быште просити
3rd person by-st prositi / быст просити by-hut prositi / быхут просити
* Present tense; I would ask, etc. The Past Conditional is byhu prosi-l / быху просил ;
44
CONJUGATION OF VERBS

Irregular “to eat”
plural
jed-eme / ѣдѣме
singular
Infinitive
Present Tense
1st person
jeda-ti / ѣдати
jed-u / ѣду

2nd person jed-ješ / ѣдѣш jed-ete / ѣдѣте
3rd person jed-et / ѣдѣт jed-ut / ѣдут
Imperative jedi !/ ѣди ! jedi-te !/ ѣдите !
Verbal Noun jed-enije / ѣдeниѣ eating (n)
Pres. Act. Part. jed-uči/ ѣдучи eating (adj.)
Pres. Pass. Part. jed-ajem / ѣдаѣм being eaten (adj.)
Past Tense singular plural
masculine / 1st p Ja jeda-l / Я ѣдал My jeda-li / Mы ѣдали
feminine / 2nd p Ty jeda-la / Ты ѣдалa Vy jeda-li / Bы ѣдали
neuter / 3rd p Ono jeda-lo / Оно ѣдалo Oni jeda-li / Они ѣдали
Past Active Part. jed-avši / ѣдавши having eaten (adj)
Past Passive Part. jed-jen / ѣдѣн having been eaten (adj.)
Pluperfect singular plural
masculine / 1st p be-hu jeda-l / беху ѣдал be-hom jeda-li / бехом ѣдали
feminine / 2nd p be-šeš jeda-la / бешеш ѣдалa be-ste jeda-li / беште ѣдали
neuter / 3rd p be-šet jeda-lo / бешет ѣдалo be-hut jeda-li / бехут ѣдали
Future Indefinite singular plural
1st person bud-u jedati / буду ѣдати bud-jeme jedati / будѣме ѣдати
2nd person bud-ješ jedati / будѣш ѣдати bud-jete jedati / будѣте ѣдати
3rd person bud-jet jedati / будѣт ѣдати bud-ut jedati / будут ѣдати
Future Perfect singular plural
masculine / 1st p bud-u jed-avši / буду ѣдавши bud-jeme jeda-avšie / будѣме
ѣдавшие
feminine / 2nd p bud-ješ jed-avša / будѣш ѣдавша bud-jete jed-avšie / будѣте ѣдавшие
neuter / 3rd p bud-jet jed-avše / будѣт ѣдавше bud-ut jed-avšie / будут ѣдавшие
Conditional * singular plural
1st person by-hu jedati / быху ѣдати by-hom jedati / быхом ѣдати
2nd person by-šeš jedati / бышеш ѣдати by-šte jedati / быште ѣдати
3rd person by-st jedati / быст ѣдати by-hut jedati / быхут ѣдати
* Present tense; I would eat, etc. The Past Conditional byhu jeda-l / быху ѣдал ; I would have
eaten, etc uses the Past tense verb endings -л, ла, ло, ли with the Conditional of быти.
45
CONJUGATION OF VERBS
English Verbal Constructions
Infinitive “to [do...]” [ substitute meaning of verb ]

Present Tense
1st person
2nd person
3rd person
Imperative
singular
I do..., I am doing...
You(s.) do..., are doing...
He, She, It does..., is doing
Do...!
Verbal Noun
Pres. Act. Part.
Pres. Pass. Part.
Past Tense
masculine / 1st p
feminine / 2nd p
neuter / 3rd p
Past Active Part.
Past Passive Part.
Pluperfect
masculine / 1st p
feminine / 2nd p
neuter / 3rd p
Future Indefinite
1st person
2nd person
3rd person
Doing
Doing... (adj.) & (adv.)
Being done....(adj.)
singular
I was doing..., used to do..., did...
You (s.) were doing..., used to do..., did...
He, etc was doing..., used to do.., did....
Having done... (adj.) & [adv.]
Having been done...(adj.)
singular
I had done...
You (s.) had done...
He, She, It had done...
singular
I shall do....
You (s.) will do...
He, She, It will do...

plural
We do..., are doing...
You (pl.) do..., are doing...
They do..., are doing
Do...!
plural
We were doing..., used to do..., did...
You (pl) were doing.., used to do.,did...
They were doing..., used to do..., did...
plural
We had done...
You (pl.) had done...
They had done..
plural
We shall do....
You (pl.) will do...
They will do...
masculine / 1st p I shall have done... We shall have done...
feminine / 2nd p You (s.) will have done... You (pl.) will have done...
neuter / 3rd p He, She, It will have done... They will have done..
Present Conditional singular plural
1st person I would do... We would do...
2nd person You (s.) would do... You (pl.) would do...
3rd person He, She, It would do... They would do..
Past Conditional singular plural
1st person I would have done... We would have done...
2nd person You (s.) have done... You (pl.) would have done...
3rd person He, She, It have done... They would have done...
NOTE : Verbs of Perfective Aspect in the Past tense have the meanings I have done, You (s.) have
done, etc. In all tenses perfective verbs imply that the action is , was or will be completed.
46
VOCABULARY FROM THE LESSONS
LATIN CYRILLIC ITALIC CYRILLIC ENGLISH EQUIVALENT

a
ali
april'
avgust
begati
begti
bely
brat
brati
brudny
budka
bystry
čej
čej-nibud
čemu
čemu-nibud
često
četvrtek
četvrty
četyri
četyrideset'
četyrisotny
četyrista
četyrnadset'
conj a
conj али
noun априль
noun август
verb бегати
verb бегти
a
али
априль
август
бегати
бегти
белы
брат
брати
брудны
будка
быстры
чeй
чeй-нибуд
чему
чeму-нибуд
често
четвртек
четврты
четури
четыридeсеть
четырисотны
четыриста
четырнадсеть
четырнадсеты
чи
чисты
читати
чловек
через
чрны
чрвены
что-нибуд
дати
давати
давно
давны
декябр
делати
десеть
десеты
and, but
however
April
August
(m)
(m)
imp 1 to run
pf 2 To run
white
brother
adj белы
noun брат
verb брати
(m)
imp 1 to take
adj брудны dirty
hut, cabin
fast
whose ?
anyone's
why ?
for any reason
often, frequently
Thursday
fourth
4 four
40 forty
noun будка (f)
adj быстры
pron чeй
adj чeй-нибуд
pron чему
adv чeму-нибуд
conj често
noun четвртек
(m)
adj четврты
num четури
num четыридeсеть
adj четырисотны 400th
400 four hundred
num четыриста
num четырнадсеть
14 fourteen
fourteenth
whether, if
clean, pure
četyrnadsety adj четырнадсеты
či
čisty
čitati
človek
črez
črny
črveny
čto-nibud
dati
davati
davno
davny
dekjabr
delati
deset'
desety
conj чи
adj чисты
verb читати
noun чловек
prep через
imp 1 to read
(m) man, human
+ Acc through
adj
adj
чрны
чрвены
black
red
anything
to give
pron что-нибуд
verb дати
verb давати
adv давно
pf 1
imp 1 to give
long ago
ancient
December
adj давны
noun декябр
verb делати
num десеть
(m)
imp 1 to do
10 ten
tenth
adj десеты

47

dete
devčinka
devet'
devet'cot
devetdeset'
noun дете
noun девчинка
num деветь
num деветьсот
num деветдeсеть
devetnadset' num деветнадсеть
devetnadsety adj деветнадсеты
деветы
devety
dnjec
do
dobro
dobry
dom
dožd'
dožiti
drevo
država
duša
dva
dva miliony
dva tysječa
adj
adv днѣц
prep до
adv добро
adj добры
noun дом
noun дождь
verb дожити
noun древо
noun држава
noun душа
num два
num два милионы
num два тысѣчa
dva tysječny adj два тысѣчны
dvadeset'
dvadesety
dvanadset'
dvanadsety
dvesotny
dvesta
dvor
fevruar'
gdje
gdje-nibud
god
gorši
govoriti
hladny
hlapec
hoteti
hotja
i

ibo
idti
ih

num двадесеть
adj двадесеты
num дванадсеть
adj
adj
дванадсеты
двесотны
num двестa
noun двор
noun февруарь
pron гдѣ
adv гдѣ-нибуд
noun год
adj горши
verb говорити
adj хладны
noun хлапец
verb хотети
conj хотя
conj и
conj ибо
verb идти
pron их

дете

(n)
(f)
child
girl ( young girl )
9 nine
900

девчинка деветь деветьсот деветдeсеть 90 ninety
деветнадсеть 19 nineteen
деветнадсеты nineteenth
деветы ninth
днѣц today
до + Gen to, until
добро well, good
добры good
дом

(m)
(m)
pf
(n)
(f)
(f)
house, home
rain
to live / live out
tree
country
soul
2 two

дождь дожити древо држава душа два два милионы 2 million
два тысѣчa 2000
два тысѣчны 2000th
двадесеть 20 twenty
двадесеты twentieth
дванадсеть 12 twelve
дванадсеты twelfth
двесотны 200th
двестa 200 two hundred
двор

(m)
(m)
courtyard
February
where ?
anywhere
year
worse
(m)

февруарь гдѣ гдѣ-нибуд год горши говорити imp 2 to speak
хладны cold
хлапец (m) boy
хотети imp 1* to want, to wish for
хотя although
и and
ибо because
идти imp 1* to go, walk
их their
48

ili
ime
imeti
inočej
inogda
inogdje
inokaki
inokak
inokto
inočto
inokuda
iny
iz
iz-za
iže
ja
januar'
jeda
jedati
jedin
jedinadset'
jedinadsety
jego
jejo
jestli
ješče
jul'
jun'
k

kak
kak by
kak-nibud
kaki
kaki-nibud
kartofel'
kazati
klasti
kniga
kogda

conj или
noun име
verb имети
adj иночей
adv иногда
adv иногдѣ
adj инокаки
adv инокак
pron инокто
pron иночто
adv инокуда
adj ины
prep из
prep из-за
pron иже
pron Я
noun януарь
noun ѣда
verb ѣдати
num ѣдин
num ѣдинадсеть
adj ѣдинадсеты
pron ѣго
pron ѣйo
conj ѣстли
adv ѣшче
noun юль
noun юнь
prep к
pron как
conj как бы
adv как-нибуд
pron каки
adj каки-нибуд
noun картофель
verb казати
verb класти
noun книга
pron когда
kogda-nibud adv когда-нибуд
koliko pron колико

или or
име (n) name
имети imp 1 to have, to possess
иночей someone else's
иногда sometime or other
иногдѣ somewhere or other
инокаки another kind
инокак some other way
инокто someone else
иночто something else
инокуда to somewhere or other
ины another
из + Gen from, out of
из-за + Gen from behind
иже the one, the very same
Я I, me
януарь (m) January
ѣда (f) food
ѣдати imp 1* to eat
ѣдин 1 one
ѣдинадсеть 11 eleven
ѣдинадсеты eleventh
ѣго his or its
ѣйo her
ѣстли if
ѣшче still, already
юль (m) July
юнь (m) June
к + Dat to, towards
как how ?
как бы as if
как-нибуд anyway
каки what kind ?
каки-нибуд any kind
картофель

(m) potato(es) † no pl.
imp 1 to tell
imp 1 to put, to lay down
(f) book

казати класти книга когда when ?
когда-нибуд anytime
колико how much ?
koliko-nibud adv колико-нибуд колико-нибуд any amount
49

komnata
kon'
kost'
kotory
kotory
noun комната
noun конь
noun кость
adj которы
pron которы
kotory-nibud adj которы-нибуд
koza
krasivejši
krasivo
krasivy
kreslo
krivo
krivy
krome
kto
kto-nibud
kuda
kuda-nibud
led
legki
les
leskati
letati
levo
levy
loši
lučši
maj
malo
maly
marjec
mati
medly
menši
mesec
meso
miliard
miliardny
milion
milionny
mladec
mladi
noun коза
adj красивейши
adv красиво
adj красивы
noun кресло
adv криво
adj кривы
prep кроме
pron кто
pron кто-нибуд
pron куда
adv куда-нибуд
noun лед
adj легки
noun лес
verb лескати
verb летати
adv лево
adj
adj
adj
левы
лоши
лучши
noun май
adv мало
adj малы
noun марѣц
noun мати
adj
adj
медлы
менши
noun месец
noun месо
num милиард
adj милиардны
num милион
adj милионны
noun младец
adj млади

комната

(f)
(m)
(f)
room
horse
bone
which
which ?
any
goat
prettier
(f)

конь кость которы которы которы-нибуд коза красивейши красиво prettily, beautifully
красивы pretty, beautiful
кресло (n) armchair
криво falsely, wrongly
кривы false, wrong
кроме + Gen except
кто who?
кто-нибуд anyone
куда whither ?
куда-нибуд to anywhere
лед (m) ice
легки light, easy
лес (m) forest
лескати imp 1 to shine
летати imp 1 to fly .
лево to the left
левы left
лоши bad
лучши better
май

(m) May
few, little
small
March
mother
slow
smaller
month
meat
Billion* ( 1000 million )
(m)
(f)
(m)
(n)

мало малы марѣц мати медлы менши месец месо милиард милиардны billionth
милион million
милионны 1,000,000th
младец

(m) youth, youngster
young

млади 50
mladši

adj
adj
младши
многи
младши
многи
много
модры
могти
мой
морѣ
мост
мраз
може
муж
на
мити
на
над
над
найгорши
adv много
adj модры
verb могти
adj мой
noun морѣ
noun мост
noun мраз
adv може
noun муж
prep на
verb мити
prep на
prep над
prep над
adj
adj
adj
adj
adj
adj
adj
adj
adj
adj
найгорши
найкрасивейши найкрасивейши
найлучши
найменши
наймладши
найнижши
найстарши
найсвежейши
найвечи
найвыши
найлучши
найменши
наймладши
найнижши
найстарши
найсвежейши
найвечи
найвыши
написати
наш
нечей
нечему
нечесто
нечто
недавно
неделя
негдѣ
некако
некакио
некогда
неколико
некто
некоторы
некуда
verb написати
adj
adj
наш
нечей
adv нечему
conj нечесто
pron нечто
adv недавно
noun неделя
adv негдѣ
adv некако
adj некакио
adv некогда
adv неколико
pron некто
adj некоторы
adv некуда

younger
mnogi many, numerous
mnogo much, many
modry blue
mogti imp 1* to be able
moj my
morje

(n)
(m)
(m)
sea
bridge
frost
maybe, perhaps
husband
(m)

most mraz može muž na + Acc on, onto ( motion )
myti imp 2 to wash
na + Loc on ( location )
nad + Acc on, onto, over ( motion )
nad + Inst on, onto, over ( location )
najgorši worst
najkrasivejši prettiest
najlučši best
najmenši smallest
najmladši youngest
najnižši lowest
najstarši oldest
najsvežejši freshest
največi biggest
najvyši highest
napisati

pf 1 To write
our

naš nečej someone's
nečemu for some reason
nečesto not often, infrequently
nečto something
nedavno recently
nedelja (f) Sunday
negdje somewhere
nekako somehow
nekaki some kind
nekogda sometime
nekoliko some amount, a few
nekto someone
nekotory some
nekuda to somewhere
51

nemnogi
nemnogo
nesti
ničej
ničemu
ničto
nigdje
nikaki
nikak
nikaki
nikogda
nikto
nikuda
nizki
nižši
no
noč'
novjabr
novo
novy
nula
nulny
od
okno
oko
oktjabr
adj немноги
adv немного
verb нести
adj ничей
adv ничему
pron ничто
adv нигдѣ
adj никаки
adv никак
adv никаки
adv никогда
pron никто
adv nikuda
adj
adj
низки
нижши
conj но
noun ночь
noun новябр
adv ново
adj новы
num нула
adj нулны
prep од
noun окно
noun око
noun октябр
on, ona, ono pron он, она, оно
oni
osem
osemdeset'
pron они
num осем
num осемдeсеть
osemnadset' num осемнадсеть
osemnadsety adj осемнадсеты
osemsot
osemy
otec
otinokuda
otkuda
num осемсот
adj осемы
noun отец
adv отинокуда
pron откуда
otkuda-nibud adv откуда-нибуд
otnekuda
otnikuda
otsjuda
ottuda
otvsekuda
adv отнекуда
adv отникуда
pron отсюда
adv оттуда
adv отвсекуда

немноги few
немного few
нести

pf 2 to carry
no-one's

ничей ничему for nothing, for no reason
ничто nothing
нигдѣ nowhere
никаки no kind
никак no way
никаки not any, no amount
никогда never
никто no-one
nikuda to nowhere
низки low
нижши lower
но but
ночь

(f)
(m)
night
November
newly
new

новябр ново новы нула 0 zero 0
нулны

0 th zeroth
+ Gen away from, since,
(n)
(n.)
(m)
window
eye
October
He, She, It
They

од окно око октябр он, она, оно они осем 8 eight
осемдeсеть 80 eighty
осемнадсеть 18 eighteen
осемнадсеты eighteenth
осемсот 800
осемы eighth
отец (m) father
отинокуда from somewhere or other
откуда whence ?
откуда-нибуд from anywhere
отнекуда from somewhere
отникуда from nowhere
отсюда hence
оттуда thence
отвсекуда from everywhere
52
ovca noun овца овца

(f)
(m)
(n)
sheep
fruit(s)
overcoat
imp 2 to fall
(n)
(m)
pen
dog
5 five

ovoč noun овоч овоч pal'to noun пальто пальто pasti verb пасти пасти pero noun перо перо pes noun пес пес pet' num петь петь pet'deset' num петьдесеть петьдесеть 50 fifty
pet'sot num петьсот петьсот 500 five hundred
pet'sotny adj петьсотны петьсотны 500th
petnadset' num петнадсеть петнадсеть 15 fifteen
petnadsety adj петнадсеты петнадсеты fifteenth
petok noun петок петок

(m) Friday
fifth
imp 1 to write
(n) letter
imp 2 to drink
+ Acc under, below ( motion )
+ Inst under, below ( location )
(f) floor
pf 1* To go
while, meanwhile
roof
to fly .
field
To place
Monday
correctly
(m)
pf
(n)
pf
(m)

pety adj петы петы pisati verb писати писати pismo noun писмо писмо piti verb пити пити pod prep под под pod prep под под podloga noun подлога подлога pojdti verb пойдти пойдти poka conj пока пока pokryv noun покрыв покрыв poleteti verb полетети полетети polje noun полѣ полѣ položiti verb положити положити ponedelnik noun понеделник понеделник poprav adv поправо поправо popravy adj поправы поправы correct, right
posle prep после после + Gen after
poslezaytra adv послезаутра послезаутра the day after tomorrow
posred prep посред посред + Gen amidst, among
poteti verb потети потети imp 1 to perspire
potom conj потом потом then, next
povratno adv повратно повратно conversely, backwardly
povratny adj повратны повратны backward, reverse
pozdnej adv поздней поздней later
pravo adv право право to the right
pravy adj правы правы right
pred prep пред пред +Acc before, ahead of ( motion )
pred prep предпред предпред + Inst before, ahead of ( location, time )
preduvčera adv предувчера предувчера the day before yesterday
prespati verb преспати преспати pf 2 To sleep
53

prihoditi
prijateľ
prijatny
prijdti
pristan
prjamo
prjamy
pročitati
prositi
prvy
ptica
reka
roza
roditi
sdelati
sebe
sedem
sedemdeset'
verb приходити
noun приятель
adj приятны
verb прийдти
noun пристан
adv прямо
adj прямы
verb прочитати
verb просити
adj првы
noun птица
noun река
noun роза
verb родити
verb сделати
pron себѣ
num седем
num седемдeсеть
sedemnadset' num седемнадсеть
sedemnadsety adj седемнадсеты
sedemsot
sedemy
sedeti
sedmica
sej, sa, se
sejčas
selo
septjabr
šest'
šest'deset'
šest'sot
sesti
šestnadset'
šestnadsety
sestra
šesty
široki
sjedati
sjuda
skazati
skoro
smogti
num седемсот
adj седемы
verb сидети
noun седмица
adj сей, са, се
adv сейчас
noun село
noun септябр
num шесть
num шестьдeсеть
num шестьсот
verb сести
num шестнадсеть
adj шестнадсеты
noun сестра
adj
adj
шесты
широки
verb сѣдати
pron сюда
verb сказати
adv скоро
verb смогти

приходити imp 1* To come, arrive
приятель

(m) friend
pleasant, nice
pf 2* To come, arrive
(m) port, harbour
directly
straight, direct
To read
pf 1
imp 2 to ask
first
bird
river
rose
(f)
(f)
(f)
imp 2 to be born
pf 1 To do

приятны прийдти пристан прямо прямы прочитати просити првы птица река роза родити сделати себѣ (one)self
седем 7 seven
седемдeсеть 70 seventy
седемнадсеть 17 seventeen
седемнадсеты seventeenth
седемсот 700 seven hundred
седемы seventh
сидети imp 2 To sit
седмица

(f) week
this
now
village
September
6 six
(n)
(m)

сей, са, се сейчас село септябр шесть шестьдeсеть 60 sixty
шестьсот 600 six hundred
сести pf 2 To sit down
шестнадсеть 16 sixteen
шестнадсеты sixteenth
сестра

(f) sister
sixth
wide
to eat
hither
To tell
soon
to be able
pf 1
pf 1
pf 1

шесты широки сѣдати сюда сказати скоро смогти 54
sneg noun снег снег

(m)
(n)
100th
snow
sun

solnce noun солнце солнце sotny adj сотны сотны sovremenny adj современны современны modern, contemporary
spati verb спати спати imp 2 to sleep
spiti verb спити спити

pf 2
(f)
pf 1
(m)
to sleep
Wednesday
To stand
old timer
older, senior
old
wall
100 one hundred
what?
(f)
imp 2 to stand
(m)
(m)
(f)
table
chair
Saturday
fresher
more freshly
fresh
pig
own ( reflexive )
(f)

sreda noun среда среда stanuti verb станути станути starec noun старец старец starši adj старши старши stary adj стары стары stena noun стена стена sto num сто сто što pron што што stojati verb стояти стояти stol noun стол стол stul noun стул стул subota noun субота субота svežejši

adj свежейши
adv свежейшо
adj свежи
noun свиня
adj свой
pron так
adj таки
pron там
conj. такоже
noun теле
adj
adj
теплы
тежки

свежейши svežejšo свежейшо sveži свежи svinja свиня svoj свой tak так thus, so
taki таки such
tam там there
takože такоже also
tele теле

(n) calf
warm

teply теплы težki тежки heavy, difficult
toj, ta, to adj той, та, то той, та, то that
tol'ko adv только только so much, that much
tomu adv тому тому therefore
trava noun трава трава

(f) grass
third

trety adj треты треты tri num три три 3 three
tri tysječa num три тысѣчa три тысѣчa 3000
trideset' num тридесеть тридесеть 30 thirty
trinadset' num тринадсеть тринадсеть 13 thirteen
trinadsety adj тринадсеты тринадсеты thirteenth
trisotny adj трисотны трисотны 300th
trista num триста триста 300 three hundred
55

tuda
tut
tvoj
ty
adv туда
pron тут
adj твой
pron ты
tydnjovi denja noun тыднйoви деня
tysječ
tysječny
u

u
uho
uletati
uleteti
ulica
upasti
uvideti
v v
vaš
včera
vek
veliki
velikši
videti
vlekti
vnutri
vne
voda
voziti
vrata
vrba
vrjeme
vsečej
vsečto
vsegda
vsegdje

num тысѣч
adj тысѣчны
prep у
prep у
noun ухо
verb улетати
verb улетети
noun улица
verb упасти
verb увидети
prep в
prep вв
adj ваш
adv вчера
noun век
adj
adj
велики
великши
verb видети
verb влекти
prep внутри
prep вне
noun вода
verb возити
noun врата
noun врба
noun врѣме
adj всечей
pron всечто
adv всегда
adv всегдѣ
vsej, vsa, vse adj всей, вса, все
всекаки
vsekaki
vsekak
vsekto
vsekuda
vsjaki
vspoteti
adj
adv всекак
pron всекто
adv всекуда
adj всяки
verb вспотети

туда thither
тут here
твой your (s)
ты Thou, You (s.)
тыднйoви деня week days
тысѣч 1000 one thousand
тысѣчны 1000th
у + Gen at ( motion )
у + Loc at ( location )
ухо

(n.) ear
imp 1 to fly away
pf 2
(f)
to fly away
street
pf 1* to fall
pf 1 To see

улетати улетети улица упасти увидети в + Acc in, into ( motion )
вв + Loc in ( location, time )
ваш your (pl)
вчера yesterday
век

(m) century
big

велики великши bigger
видети imp 1 to see
влекти imp 1* to drag, haul
внутри + Gen inside, within
вне + Gen outside (of )
вода

(f) water
imp 2 to carry
(f)
(f)
(n)
door
willow
time

возити врата врба врѣме всечей everyone's
всечто everything
всегда always
всегдѣ everywhere
всей, вса, все all
всекаки every kind
всекак in every way
всекто everyone
всекуда to everywhere
всяки every
вспотети pf 1 to perspire, sweat
56

vtogda
vtornik
vtory
vuzki
vy
vypiti
vyši
vysoki
vzeti
za
za
adv втогда
noun вторник
втогда
вторник
вторы
вузки
вы
выпити
выши
высоки
взети
за
за
then
Tuesday
second
narrow
You (pl.)
To drink up
higher
high
to take
(m)
adj
adj
вторы
вузки
pron вы
verb выпити
pf 2
adj
adj
выши
высоки
verb взети
prep за
prep за
pf 1
+ Gen during
+ Acc because of, behind ( movement ), per, in
favour of
za
za to že
začto
začto-nibud
žadny
zadovoliti
zanečto
zaničto
zatom
zautra
zeleny
zelnje
zemja
žena
žiti
zly
znati
žolty
prep заза
conj за то же
pron зачто
adv зачто-нибуд
заза
за то же
зачто
зачто-нибуд
жадны
задоволити
занечто
заничто
затом
заутра
зелены
зелнѣ
земя
жена
жити
злы
знати
жолты
+ Inst after, behind ( location )
because
why ?
for any reason
none, not any
To please
for some reason
for nothing, for no reason
therefore
tomorrow
green
vegetable(s) † no pl.
earth
wife
adj жадны
verb задоволити
adv занечто
adv заничто
adv затом
adv заутра
pf 2
adj зелены
noun зелнѣ
noun земя
noun жена
verb жити
(n)
(f)
(f)
imp 1* to live
adj злы evil
verb знати imp 1 to know
adj жолты yellow

More comprehensive dictionaries are available from various websites, eg
http://steen.free.fr/interslavic/msc-en.html МЕДЖУСЛОВЈАНСКО-АНГЛИЈСКИ СЛОВНИК
http://www.neoslavonic.org/vocabulary-NS-EN
http://steen.free.fr/interslavic/dynamic_dictionary.html DINAMIČNY MEDŽUSLOVJANSKI
SLOVNIK
These dictionaries may be used as a source of words for use in Novoslavski, with differences in
spelling, grammar and orthography being incorporated according to Novoslavski rules.
57

Novoslavski Cursive