| Nutingka |
|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
Nutingka (/'nʊtɪŋka/) is the sole surviving descendant of Proto-Nutingka, a hypothetical branch of Proto-Indo-European. In an alternate universe, instead of Proto-Italic, there was Proto-Nutingka, and thus the ancient settlers of near and in Italian peninsula spoke this. Years passed and all dialects of Proto-Nutingka but Nutingka died out, most likely because they were not recorded in words while people gradually forgot their vocabularies. In search for a method to document their history and preserve their last hope of a language, in ways not relying on mere speech and memory, the settlers borrowed the alphabet of their more sophisticated neighbours, the Greeks. However, they altered the alphabet to better suit their phonology. Though the Nutingkan word 'alfubit' was derived from Greek 'alphabetos', instead of naming their rendition so after the first two letters, the settlers named it after their first vowel and consonant.
As the settlers became more technologically advanced and conquered the Mediterranean, they, who would later be referred to as the 'Nutingkans', acquired so many loanwords from their expanded territory, that in response to the radical changes to their native language, they called their language a 'new tongue', which is what 'Nutingka' means (compare with PIE 'newos' + 'dngwehs').
As you can see, that name stuck, and Nutingka is still referred to as 'Nutingka' to this day.
|Plosive||p b||t d||k g|
|Fricative||f v||θ ð||s z||ʃ ʒ||x||h|
|Flap or tap|
|High||i y||ɯ u|
/j/ - palatal approximant (when the letter It is followed by another vowel, and to distinguish between /jɪ/ and /i:/, /jɪ/ is written as two Its and a macron is placed over a single It for /i:/)
/w/ - labiodental approximant (similar situation as above, but with the letter Un)
Syllables are in the structure (C)(C)(C)(V)V(V)(C)(C)(C), meaning that the simplest of syllables is a vowel, and the most complex of syllables allows three consonants for the onset, a triphthong for the nucleus and three consonants for the coda.
In order to not divide a syllable further, the first vowel in a triphthong is read like a glide.
|Sound||/a/||/ʌ/ or /ə/||/b/||/v/||/g/||/d/||/e/ or
|/æ/||/z/||/ʒ/||/h/||/θ/ or /ð/|
|Sound||/i/, /ɪ/ or /j/||/k/||/l/||/m/||/n/||/ŋ/||/ks/||/ɔ/||/p/||/r/||/s/||/ʃ/|
|Sound||/ts/||/t/||/ʊ/, /u/ or /w/||/ɯ/||/f/||/tʃ/||/x/|
Letter Origins Edit
In an alternate universe, the letters the Nutingkans needed were invented by them. But here, in this world, I, Popilo, was inspired by several writing scripts.
|Eon||IPA symbol /ʌ/|
|Vit||Combination of Bit + Fit (voiced like Bit, labiodental fricative like Fit)|
|Aen||IPA symbol /æ/, combination of Alfu + El|
|Zhel||IPA symbol /ʒ/|
|Ing||IPA symbol /ŋ/, combination of Nan + Gan|
|Ix||Combination of Kan + Sit|
|Euthenu||Combination of Un + staccato symbol (jumpier than Un) + reference to the fact that Euthenu has 'thinner', unrounded lips|
*technically from Latin Q that is repurposed to read /tʃ/, but Q itself descends from Qoppa
|/ʌ/ or /ə/||eo|
|/e/ or /ε/||e|
|/i/, /ɪ/ or /j/||i|
|/ʊ/, /u/ or /w/||u|
|polyphthongs||write as a mix of vowels, but use a hyphen when disambiguation is necessary (esp. in the case where a single vowel is Romanised as two letters)|
|long vowels||place macron over vowel|
*only Romanisation available currently, the alphabet of Nutingka does not have a keyboard
**originated as a digraph of Del and Zhel, but it's too cumbersome to write 'dzh' for /dʒ/***similar case as above, but as a diphthong of Euthenu and Un, 'y' preferred over 'eu-u'
Grammatical Case Table
The first ending in each cell is a first declension ending and the second ending in each cell is a second declension ending. A singular nominative first declension noun ends with a vowel (hence the added consonant in endings for ease of pronunciation) and a second declension one ends with a consonant.
To match the nouns, adjectives have the same endings as the nouns they describe, except for most occasions in the genitive case. This is to elucidate, for example, that a phrase is intending to say 'of the green apple', and not 'of green of apple' nor 'green of apple', as an adjective always precedes a noun. 'Apple', in this case, would either be nominative, accusative or dative in a sentence, depending on how direct it is and whether it's a subject or an object. A similar rule applies to nouns with more than one separate part; only the first part gets the genitive ending. Unlike adjectives, particles do not decline, as they occur too frequently.
'of the green apple'- 'uiridek malu/maluma/maluti'
'Isaac Newton's'- 'Isākek Niuteon/Niuteona/Niuteoniti'
Also, since the accusative and ablative are such prominent cases, here is a table judging which directional indicators or prepositions take which case.
|Had- to||Hap- from|
|Hante- before||Kon- with|
|Kerkon- around||De- down|
|Konter- against, opposite||Exa- out|
|Exter- outside||En- in, on|
|Enhad- into||Pra- for|
|Konen- within, among||Konnon- without|
|Pir- through||Subo- under|
|Pust- after, behind|
|Prater- on account of|
Here are some tables of pronouns. The locative case is omitted for obvious reasons.
( ͡° ͜ʖ ͡°)
Pronouns are made reflexive with the prefix 'sui-'/'suit-', meaning 'self',
First person ('I' and 'we'- treat 'we' as separate from 'I', but still plural):
Second person ('you'):
Third person ('they'- 'he' or 'she' only derived from context):
|Present||-/'-s'||'em/is/er -ing'||'kaf -d/-id'||'kaf isarid -ing'|
|Past||'-d'/'-id'||'vas/ver -ing'||'kad -d/-id'||'kad isarid -ing'|
|Future||'vell'||'vell isari -ing'||'vell kaf -d/id'||'vell kaf isarid -ing'|
'Isari' ('to be', where '-ari/-ri' is an infinitive suffix) is the infinitive form of 'is' ('is'). 'Isarid', being the past form of 'isari', means 'been'. Only third person singulars use 'is' and simple present verbs that end with 's'. Only first person singulars may use 'em'. 'Vas' is only shared among the first and third persons.
To make a verb an imperative, simply add '-di/-i' when addressing one person, or '-dite/-ite' to many.
When describing a verb with an adverb, add '-li' to an adjective.
Add '-ing' to make a verb a gerund, but one will rarely have to do this.
'Hapi!', thi dicid, in e konteruelhoning uiama, ueitis.- 'Begone! (lit. preposition 'from', but as an imperative)', he said, in an unwelcoming way, to us.
Sentences follow the structure S-V-O.
Basic vocabulary (see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indo-European_vocabulary for comparison):
Brother in law- defar
Daughter in law- snuar
Mother in law- suagar
Man- hanar, bir
Pronouns, particles: Edit
Me (accusative)- Iga
Me (dative)- Igiti
Mine, my- man, Igek
You (nom. sing.)- thu
We, us- uei, nus
You (nom. and acc. plu.)- ia, iamas
And, any- et, ka
Not, no- non
Milk (verb or noun)- melk
To sow, seed- soua, sem
Bodily Functions: Edit
Recognize, know- konana, kona
Be ignorant of- nonkona
Declare, say- seka, weka
Natural Features: Edit
Lie down- laekha
Experienced, last year- ueti, ultueti
Ig donad igek iubenboum Jonti.- I gave my young cow (=calf) to John.
Ig vell dona igek anitam iati.- I will give my duck to you.
Ig vell goa had Hellēnesa.- I will go to Greece.
In di trensparonot, Deuar kondehad di keilomas et di umera.- In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth.