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Old Keuti
Head direction
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect

General information[]

Old Keuti is the predecessor of Middle Keuti and is derived from Proto Keutan-Dztan. Old Keuti did not change much due to its relative isolation in a group of runaway slaves from the homeland of Proto Keutan-Dztan. The masculine and feminine genders became more defined as a legacy of the subordinate culture. The native name of the language /kɯde̞nɒm/ is a nebulous term derived from the verb "to subjugate" meaning roughly "subjugance". Some theorize the culture linked subjugation with speech because of superiors ordering them what to do.



Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m ɱ n ŋ
Plosive p b t d k g ʔ
Fricative ɸ f v s z h
Approximant j w
Flap or tap ɾ
Lateral fric.
Lateral app. l
Lateral flap


Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close i ɯ
Close-mid ø ɤ
Open-mid ʌ
Open ɒ

No dipthongs occur in Old Keuti, and there are no long vowels. If a vowel cluster has identical vowels, a glottal stop is inserted to differentiate.


The /m/ sound changes to the /ɱ/ sound only in consonant clusters with either /f/ or /v/ directly after it. The /f/ sound changes into the /ɸ/ sound when it is the initial, non clustered consonant. /k/, /t/, and /p/ are aspirated when in a consonant cluster.


IPA Transcription
ɱ m
ŋ ng
ng n'g
ʔ q
ɸ f
ɾ r
ɯ eu
ø oe
ɤ eo
ʌ o
ɒ a

Apostrophes are placed in between vowel clusters.


The syllable structure of Old Keuti is (C)V[C], where C is any consonant or consonant cluster and V is any short or long vowel. Consonant clusters can have up to three consonants. If there is no initial consonant, the syllable must be at the beginning of the word. The final consonant or consonant cluster is only used at the end of a word, but not necessarily for affixes and exception words. In a consonant cluster, consonants cannot occur more than once, plosives cannot occur after plosives, and taps cannot occur after nasals. The /ʔ/ sound cannot be clustered either. The /ɾ/ sound only occurs at the end of an initial consonant cluster. The /l/, /ɾ/, /j/, and /w/ sounds always have an /e̞/ sound attached after if they are the final consonant in a word, or in the middle or beginning of a tricluster. The syllables with voiced stop finals are unstressed, while the rest are stressed.


Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes
Nouns No Yes No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

Noun Phrase[]

Noun phrases are formed in Old Keuti with determiners and case markers. The noun modifying the other noun goes first in the noun phrase.

Demonstratives and Articles[]

Pronouns can either stand alone or be linked to a noun phrase.

Determiner Meaning Type
hok negative article suffix
e definite article prefix
ke proximal demonstrative prefix
me distal demonstrative prefix
keg proximal demonstrative pronoun
meng distal demonstrative pronoun
pobeuf reference to subject of previous clause demonstrative pronoun
kloset reference to object of previous clause demonstrative pronoun


There is an extensive system of interrogative pronouns in Old Keuti.

Type Interrogative Meaning
impersonal heuz what
impersonal heust which one
personal otle who
location euk where
source eusg whence
goal ipsk whither
arbitrary time neks when
specific time nekst when exactly
manner krontn how
reason kloens why
arbitrary amount sest how much
specific amount soglek what number
product (animal or crop) higwe what product
leader eln what leader
polity lront what country
task zrens what task
season ntens what season


Quantifiers are treated as pronouns and not affixes.

Quantifier Meaning
qolz some
imt every
slolwe all
euglep few
strekles many


The numeral system is base ten, with larger numbers formed by adding a number to a factor of ten, and repeating if necessary. Numbers act mostly as determiners attached to noun phrases. To have the numbers act as sequencers, attach the prefix /o/ for consonant initials, and /ot/ for vowel initials.

Number Meaning
efp one
biwe two
ih three
ofg four
fpefb five
euwb six
gifk seven
mfek eight
hih nine
hok ten
kiwk fifty
weuf hundred
vbeufp five hundred
trost ten thousand
ig five thousand
pos hundred thousand
sen five hundred thousand
mongk million


Cases are marked by suffixes attached after the declined noun, and only form noun phrases if applicable.

Suffix Case Usage
o ergative subject of a transitive verb
og absolutive subject of an intransitive verb and direct object of a transitive verb
oz dative recipient or affected
et inessive inside something
he allative movement to
hek ablative movement away
oz instrumental means or topic
ozre comitative accompaniment or means
onet benefactive beneficiary
ogo causal cause, reason, or exchange

Genitive Cases[]

There are several types of genitive cases in Old Keuti.

Suffix Type
eut inalienable possession
ode alienable possession
es composition
esm origin or reference
eon description by noun

Personal Pronouns[]

Personal pronouns inflect based on gender, person, and relation. Collective pronouns are formed by using the inclusive suffix /egle/ or the exclusive suffix /eufm/.

Person Masculine Feminine
General Filial Subordinate Superior General Filial Subordinate Superior
First strojos sronos odos troskos strojes srones odes troskes
Second strojeus sroneus odeus troskeus streujes sreunes eudes treuskes
Third strojis sronis odis troskis strijes srines ides triskes

Adjectives and Adverbs[]

Adjectives and adverbs are placed preceding the word they modify. The comparative suffix is /bozet/, and the superlative suffix is /tozego/. The order in which adjectives and adverbs must be attached to a head is this:

  1. Head
  2. Qualifier
  3. Number
  4. Quantifier
  5. Demonstrative/Interrogative

An important qualifier is the polarity adverb /hewe/, which changes the modified verb's polarity to negative.

Verb Phrase[]

The main verb expresses modality and some voice by inflecting the final cluster at the end of the verb. The infinitive and supine consonant cluster is /z/. An auxiliary verb is attached to form a verb phrase.

Cluster Mode/Voice Usage
kwe indicative factual statements and positive beliefs
wren subjunctive hypothetical situations in dependent clauses
kmwe conditional to express something whose validity is dependent on a condition in a dependent clause
swek optative expresses hopes and wishes
skle imperative direct commands
mf jussive pleading and insistence
ple tentative the occurence is considered likely
sk potential capable to perform the action

Auxiliary Verbs[]

The auxiliary verb must always accompany a verb to express politeness, tense, and aspect. There are some alternate forms based on gender, with the feminine form on the left and the masculine on the right if applicable. The auxiliary verb is placed after the main verb in the clause. The passive voice auxiliary verb /kong/ is attached preceding the auxiliary verb or the main verb to turn a transitive verb into an intransitive verb.

Nonpast Tense
Aspect Colloquial Filial Formal
Perfective zo one; ono zonoge
Progressive etoz; zoge iz; zewe esomeu
Stative beuq feh; omf beuqten
Habitual ek kesk egons
Past Tense
Aspect Colloquial Filial Formal
Perfective zim oge; nob zogob
Progressive enm mfke; ezn iskem
Stative sboq wekfoh nbeuq
Habitual oen geus onom


The copula is a verb that links a subject with its complement, describing state. If the state is permanent the copula is /heuz/; if the state is temporary it is /tmez/.


The noun with the postposition is attached preceding a noun phrase or verb phrase to form a postpositional phrase.

Postposition Meaning
eulesro according to
koqe thanks to
egetn among
swi behind
nole in front
kston middle
egoje on top
ewe around
ikst next to


Interjections are placed preceding the clause when modifying them. Interjections are exceptions to the rules of phonotactics.

Interjection Usage
zis yes
ng passive agreement
konk no
hese interrogative
eu observation of minor mistake
ht quiet
hwi informal greeting
kon informal farewell
manohit samseswek feh/omf/beuqten wish to tremblingly be serving; formal greeting
manohit teomtoswek feh/omf/beuqten wish to tremblingly be bowing; formal farewell


Conjunctions are used to link words and clauses. Most of them are placed after the word or clause.

Conjunction Usage
swele and (clause link)
sleget and; reference to verb in previous clause (clause link)
slegef and; reference to subject in previous clause (clause link)
slegig and; reference to object in previous clause (clause link)
zeum but (clause link)
sono effect and cause (clause link)
freks when (clause link)
tmink although (clause link)
esokle similar to (clause link)
meust identical to (clause link)
sikik in order to (clause link)
tong and; listing (word link)
he end to start; duration (word link)
pleble to; purpose (word link)
weuh relative (clause link)
nowe conditional (clause link)
pobe causative (clause link)
got quotative (clause link)

Sentence Structure[]

The canon word order is V2 for the main clause, and SOV in subordinate clauses. The most common V2 order is SVO. There are four kinds of subordinate clauses, relative, conditional, causative, and quotative which are marked by conjunctions preceding them when attached to an independent clause.


egonmeuso weuh ejowegesog kong tistkokwe zim heukwe zo kegog

def.child.erg rel pas to-burn.ind pst.pfv cop.ind npst.pfv prox.abs

The child who burned the house is here.

The conjunction marks the subject of the subordinate clause.


strojoso ngokmwe zoge strojiseut teuqegog nowe strojiso ejowegesog tistkowren zim to-eat.cond m.npst.prog flesh.abs cnj to-burn.sjv pst.pfv

I will be eating his flesh if he burned down the house.

The conjunction marks what will happen if the conditions in the subordinate clause are met.


egonmeuso pobe ejowegesog kong tistkokwe zim heukwe zo kegog

def.child.erg cau pas to-burn.ind pst.pfv cop.ind npst.pfv prox.abs

The child who caused the house to burn is here.

The conjunction marks the reason of the occurrence in the subordinate clause.


strojisog got egonmeuso pobe ejowegesog kong tistkokwe zim heukwe zo kegog hemekwe zim quot def.child.erg cau pas to-burn.ind pst.pfv cop.ind npst.pfv prox.abs to-say.ind pst.pfv

He said, "The child who caused the house to burn is here."

The conjunction marks the speaker and changes the necessary verb "to say" into intransitive unless dictated otherwise.


Some theorize the unattested tribal languages that the Old Keuti culture came in contact with imparted a derivational system not present in Proto Keutan-Dztan.


Titles and geographic locations are placed undeclined preceding the modified noun. Compound words are formed with the modifier preceding the modified, unless it is a verb modifying a noun or adjective. If this is the case, the modifier is attached after the modified word.


There are many derivational suffixes that change one word class to another. The verb suffix completely removes the final cluster, unless it is verb to action noun in which case it simply takes infinitive form.

  • adjective to noun -tem
  • adjective to verb -sez
  • noun to adjective -ten
  • noun to verb -kez
  • verb to adjective -hit
  • verb to agent noun -zeuh
  • verb to abstract noun -nam

Leipzig-Jakarta List[]

Used for comparison with offspring and precursor languages.

English Old Keuti
ant tosreg
arm/hand hoskewe
ash heuwes
back keumg
big sole
bird zepzin
to bite mfoz
bitter eseun'gen
black momnes
blood mneom
to blow hosez
bone kinetren
breast ponbet
to burn (intransitive) tistkoz
to carry kneneuz
child (reciprocal of parent) konmeus
to come lobez
to crush/to grind ksoskez
to cry/to weep esiz
to do/to make himez
dog eltesk
drink homsem
ear nensg
to eat ngoz
egg kinkres
eye long
to fall troez
far poks
fire kstolon
fish epneun
flesh/meat teuqek
fly zez
to give omnez
to go leubez
good ming
hair nogeg
hard sign
he/she/it/him/her strojis/srines
to hear nenez
heavy stoms
to hide oleuz
to hit/to beat soqeuz
horn oleuks
house oweges
I/me strojos/strojes
in -et
knee kolop
to know oelez
to laugh kegez
leaf homen
leg/foot sogeule
liver streunk
long sale
louse kesig
mouth nomoh
name glolkewe
navel grelih
neck hokmen
new esowe
night bomwez
nose foef
not hewe
old mongnon
one efp
rain heuzeus
red mnikron
root mgreon
rope hifent
to run zogoz
salt himsoz
sand honsen
to say hemez
to see loneuz
shade/shadow zlebleum
skin/hide sloben
small zele
smoke heuloh
soil oms
to stand egeuz
star gimses
stone/rock kigik
to suck homeuz
sweet ideng
tail hefoks
to take biz
thick lamet
thigh koqele
this keg
to tie hiloz
tongue zeoz
tooth osk
water homgeng
what? heuz
who? otle
wide weot
wind heumfes
wing wlofok
wood neukle
yesterday angjoksle
you (singular) strojeus/streujes

See also[]

Example Text[]

Excerpt from The Virtuous Community[]

strojosegle'o sehiskle zonoge manozeon ofg ekinetrenog sikik homklenefeut pihegog kong konmekwe zonoge strojosegle'o ketoeskle beuqten etoseunog esokle solkeho ketoeskle beuqten boteugog sono strojosegle'eut soglit felteso ponbogekwe zogob telgeugten toseunog kego heukwe zonoge otefp ekinetrenog strojosegle'o sehiskle zonoge strojosegle'eut teuneopog swele klosetog peunitonamozre kong eteujiskle zonoge kego heukwe zonoge obiwe ekinetrenog strojosegle'o manohit teomtoskle zonoge strekles strojosegle'eut sepof atwesog sleget strekles atweseon dadeuh e'atwesog kego heukwe zonoge otih ekinetrenog strojosegle'o heuteojeskle zonoge manohit teojazozre omog zepzin tong homreh epneuneon ezebonog kego heukwe zonoge otofg ekinetrenog pelebizeuh e'atweso tesentemozre leukokmwe esomeu teugog slegef toenikmwe zonoge strojosegle'eut hewe ileteunameon songteghe kagonamog nowe strojosegle'eut pihegog kong konmewren zonoge to-obey.imp npst.pfv trembling.gen four structural-support.abs in-order-to.cnj life.gen purpose.abs pas to-fulfill.ind npst.pfv to-submit.imp npst.stat def.seal.abs similar-to.cnj daughter.erg to-submit.imp npst.stat mother.abs effect-cause.cnj great ancestor.erg to-craft.ind pst.pfv lapis seal.abs prox.dem.erg cop.ind npst.pfv first structural-support.abs to-obey.imp npst.pfv elder.abs and.cnj object.dem pas to-treat.imp npst.pfv prox.dem.erg cop.ind npst.pfv second structural-support.abs tremblingly to-bow.imp npst.pfv many master.gen ultimate def.master.abs prox.dem.erg cop.ind npst.pfv third structural-support.abs to-honor.imp npst.pfv tremblingly mountain bird and.cnj river fish.gen def.spirit.abs prox.dem.erg cop.ind npst.pfv fourth structural-support.abs counter def.master.erg to-look.cond npst.prog stomach.abs and-subject.cnj to-allow.cond npst.pfv neg torment.gen realm.all passance.abs cond.cnj purpose.abs pas to-fulfill.sjv npst.pfv

"To fulfill life's Purpose, we must obey the Four Pillars of Prostration. Our great ancestors crafted the lapis seal in their desert wanderings, so we must be in a state of submission to the seal as a daughter must be in a state of submission to her mother. This is the first pillar. We must obey our elders and treat them with respectance. This is the second pillar. We must bow tremblingly to our honorable masters and to the ultimate master of masters. This is the third pillar. We must honor the spirits of Mountain Bird and River Fish with trembling prostration. This is the fourth pillar. Once our Purpose is fulfilled, the Counter Master will be looking upon our hearts with favor, and will allow our passance into the Realm of Nontormentance."

Writing System[]

The culture that spoke Old Keuti used an alphabetic writing system with a fairly shallow orthographic depth. Words are separated by spaces, and sentences are separated by a larger space. The script is written from left to right.