Conlang
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Old Manjingan
'
Type
Analytic
Alignment
Marked Nominative
Head direction
left
Tonal
Yes
Declensions
No
Conjugations
No
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General information[]

Old Manjingan (Máń waŋ) was spoken a long time ago somewhere near modern Manjinga (Máń). It has many descendants, including Newwang, one of the most spoken languages on Patrona.

Old Manjingan is distantly related to the Northern language family, among other more sporadic near-isolates.

Phonology[]

Consonants[]

Labial Coronal Dorsal Glottal
Nasal *m *n
Plosive *p *t *k
fricative *s *h
affricate *c
approximant *l *r *y *w

Vowels[]

Front Back
High *i *u
Mid
Low *a

Tone[]

There were only two tones in Old Manjingan: low and high. Every vowel and coda sonorant is assigned a tone.

Phonotactics[]

C(*l, *r)(*w, *y)V(V(O), O/M)

  • Obligatory initial consonant or cluster of a non-semivowel plus *r or a coronal consonant plus *l.
  • Any C (minus *l, *w, *y) or consonant cluster (minus clusters with *l) can be followed by a medial *w or *y.
  • O stands for an obstruent *p, *t, *k, or *s and M stands for a sonorant *m, *n, , or *r.
  • A syllable rime could be V, VV, VVO, VO, or VM.

Sound changes to Newwang[]

Tone changes[]

  • high or double high > high level (tone 2)
  • low or double low > low level (tone 1)
  • high low > falling (tone 4)
  • low high > rising (tone 3)

Vowel changes[]

second→ 0 i u ɨ a
first↓
i i iʊ̯ ɯː
u u oɪ̯

ɨ

ɝ eɪ̯ əʊ̯ ɝː ɝː
a æ ɑɪ̯ æʊ̯ æː æː

The long vowels have not been maintained in the standard dialect.

Consonant changes[]

  • coronals + *r > retroflex
  • *r following other consonants > *w
  • initial *ŋ > 0
  • *w preceding high vowels > *y
    • y following a consonant > 0, except for /py/ and /ky/
  • *w following *r > 0
  • final *p > [f]
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