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Old Warlok
Head direction
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect

The ancestral language of the Warlok family, Old Warlok has a much more regular sound system than its most widely spoken descendant, Viisyal.  However, grammatically the two are very similar : regular sound change, a mutated verb conjugation system, and an influx of loanwords from the Rotenmuhl languages make up the largest differences.



Bilabial  Alveolar Alveo- palatal Lateral Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m   mʲ n   nʲ ŋ
Plosive p   b t   d k   g ʔ
Fricative ɸ   β s   z ɕ   ʑ ɬ   ɮ X
Approx. w j
Liquid ɺ R
Click ʇ   nʇ !   ŋ!

It is likely that Old Warlok had begun the process of palatising the voiced clicks and softening [X] to [h], since the effects of both changes are apparent in all but one daughter language.  Old Warlok dictionaries do not record this sound distinction, but by the language's late period, records of slang were already interchanging the letter /c/ and digraph /t s/ to refer to [ʇ] where /t s/ is a supposed approximation for the modern pronunciation of the letter /c/, [tɕ].


Front Central Back
Close i   i: u   u:
Close-mid e   e: o  o:
Open a   a:
Dipthong ai   au

Phonotactics & ToneEdit[]

The syllable structure of Old Warlok is CVF, where C is a consonant, V is a vowel or dipthong, and F is a final minor syllable.  The minor syllable contains a consonant and a devoiced (or omitted) u.  Final consonants began to mutate dependent on vowel length in the middle period.  The devoiced u was completely omitted from [ŋu̥] and [ɺu̥] and [ʔu̥] by the late period, and [ŋ] had mutated to [N].

-pu̥ -tu̥ -ku̥ -ɬu̥ -nu̥ -ɺu̥ -ʔu̥
Short V p t k ɬ n ɺ ʔ
Long V b d g ɬ n ɺ ʔ

Most importantly, the final glottal stop [ʔu̥] mutated into a high tone in Viisyal and Warlok, and was lost entirely in Pataka.  Reconstruction of its use as a final syllable comes from Old Warlok dictionaries, and its retention in one dialect of Warlok.  Previous to this tone mutation, Old Warlok had only a pitch accent system.  This sytem's rules remain the same as the tone section described in Viisyal, sans the use of tone distinguished words.

In writing, Old Warlok developed separate symbols to represent the final syllables.  Of these, only three remain as separate symbols (-pu̥ -tu̥ -nu̥), whereas others merged with other symbols that had similar shapes and sound values (-ɬu̥ > X, -ɺu̥ > ɺ, -ku̥ > !), and final ʔu̥ became the question mark.

Historical Sound Change[]

The following chart presents the regular sound changes from Old Warlok phonemes to its daughter languages. *Glottal stop marked with an asterisk to represent its mutation into tones in Viisyal and Warlok, final loss in Pataka, and intervocalic loss in all three. Sounds separated by a comma are allophones in free variation. Consonants separated by a slash mutate based on the following vowel. *nʇ became tɬ intervocally and ɺʲ initially.

Old Warlok p b ʇ nʇ* t d ! ŋ! k g
Viisyal p b tɕ, ʇ ɺʲ / tɬ t / tsɯ d !, ǁ k g
Varhak p pf ʇ t ts ǁ q R
Pataka p p ti ti t t ka ka k k
Old Warlok ɸ β s z ɕ ʑ ɬ ɮ X R
Viisyal ɸ β s z ɕ ʑi ɬ ɬ h / çi R
Varhak f v s / θʌ z / θʌ ç ʝ ɬ ɮ X / çi R
Pataka f f s s si si hi hi h h
Old Warlok m n ŋ w ɺ j ʔ
Viisyal m n w ɺ j *
Varhak m n ŋ v r j
Pataka m mi n ni n w l j
Old Warlok i i: u u: e e: o o: a a:
Viisyal i i: ɯ u: ɛ e: ɤ o: a
Warlok ɪ i: ʌ u: ɛ e: ʌ o: a, æ ɔ:
Pataka i i: u u: e e: o o: a a:
Old Warlok pu̥ tu̥ ku̥ ɬu̥ ŋu̥ ɺu̥ ʔu̥


ai au
Viisyal t ~ β ts ~ s ŋ ~ g ɬ ~ ç N ɺ * a: ai ɛɯ
Varhak t ~ b ts ~ d k ~ g ɬ ~ ʝ N R a: æ:, e: œ:
Pataka pu tu ku hi ŋ lu a: ai au

The final consonants separated by tildes mutate based on the length of the proceeding vowel. The first final consonant follows short vowels. The second follows long vowels. Pataka has only one true final consonant derived from [ŋu̥].

Romanisation of Old Warlok[]

[IPA] p b ʇ t d ! ŋ! k g
Romanised p b c nc t d q nq k g
[IPA] ɸ β s z ɕ ʑ ɬ ɮ X R
Romanised f v s z sy zy j zj h r
[IPA] m n ŋ w ɺ j ʔ
Romanised m my n ny ng w l y ʔ
[IPA] i i: u u: e e: o o: a a:
Romanised i ii u uu e ei o ou a aa
[IPA] pu̥ tu̥ ku̥ ɬu̥ ŋu̥ ɺu̥ ʔu̥ ai au
Romanised pw tw kw jw nw lw ʔw ai au


Word Order[]

Old Warlok orders its sentences head finally.  Words proceed in Subject-Object-Verb SOV order with the following finer distinctions :
Noun Phrase > Adjective > Noun > Case Marker > Adverb > Verb (conjugation suffixes)


There are four registers of politeness in Old Warlok : informal, formal, supplicative, and royal.  One must always be conscious of one's politeness register when speaking to another individual, based on social standing and age. These registers largely correspond to their Viisyal counterparts, so for more information see Viisyal's Politeness section.

Case Marking[]

Old Warlok marks case on nouns and noun phrases by using case marking particles.  All particles come after the nouns or noun phrases they modify.  These particles do not attach to the nouns or noun phrases.  However, the genitive no when used with pronouns and demonstratives can be treated as one word.  More complex prepositions appear as combinations in the pattern of /N no P mi/ where N is a noun and P is a noun being used as a preposition.  Eg. /nakw/, usually "centre", becomes "inside of" in /N no nakw mi/.  The lative marker /ei/ is used for verbs with a sense of active ongoing movement, such as the preposition "towards."

topic ablative accusative dative genitive instrumental locative nominative
uu kou o mi no ba mi   ei a


For all grammatical forms not listed on this page, assume that they mirror those of Viisyal, but with historical sound change applied.


Verbs appear after nouns, adjectives, and noun phrases : head-final.  Verbs are conjugated with suffixes to the verb stem.  Verbs are listed under their -ra (simple indicative present) form, so the stem is found by simply dropping -ra.  Suffixes can stack in the order [Formality] > Modality > Mood > Voice > Aspect > Negation > Voice > Emphasis.  Formality decides how the verb suffixes will be conjugated, and any suffixes follow in the above order.

Since Old Warlok shares most of its verb construction with Viisyal, moreinformation on howto employ the cases may be found in Viisyal's Verb Section.  Below the Old Warlok versions of the cases are listed.


able to allowed to must / should forced to by accident
de fai da taanw qe henwta


imperative indicative conditional subjective opative need
he (ra) qe ba ii syi vau betw


active passive
(ra) sajw


progressive simple perfect prepared
informal qe / qe ira ra ta qe okw
formal qe / qe ilasu lasu lasu ita qe okw ilasu


negative negative progressive negative formal
nai qe nai lasu nai


question offering inclusion polite emphasis assertive emphasis seeking agreement
qa myou yo ze,  zo ne

Politeness Registers

informal formal  aspect formal  modality formal passive supplicative insulting
- [irregular] [modal]lasu sajw ita [formal] ba ojalasu kiirasajw

Request Forms

imperative request modal  request negative modal negative
informal he qe zayi deqa naiqa denaiqa
formal qe qe ojo-  lasuqa qe ojode-  lasuqa qe ojolasu naiqa qe ojodelasu naiqa
supplicative - qe kinwma- lasuqa qe kinwmade- lasuqa qe kinwma- lasu naiqa qe kinwmade- lasu naiqa


Nouns do not decline.  If a plural is absolutely needed, the suffix /-le/ may be appended, usually in cases of emphasizing a group or when using pronouns.  Context reliably informs whether a noun is being referred to in a singular or plural sense


V stands for vulgar, I for Informal, F for formal. Supplicative and regal pronouns use /-le/ for plurality only rarely, preferring not to use pronouns.  Although there is no recurring vulgar register for verbs and syntax in Old Warlok, there was certainly one in pronouns.

1st person 2nd person 3rd person "4th" person "5th" person
singular V to anw ka kie kuu
plural V tole anw kale kiele kuule
singular I tau ana nqoruʔi nqeruʔi nquuruʔi
plural I taule anale nqaruʔile nqeruʔile nquuruʔile
singular F salui naʔepw nqoluuʔi nqeluuʔi nquuluuʔi
plural F saluile naʔele nqoluuʔile nqeluuʔile nquuluuʔile
supplicative sesya mama nqonaʔe nqenaʔe nquunaʔe
regal wa kimi nqoluuʔi nqeluuʔi nquuluuʔi

When compared to the Viisyal pronouns, we see a dramatic shift in politeness over the years such that /naʔepw/, modern Viisyal /met/, was once the formal term for "you" but is now the vulgar term.  Likewise, /salui/ became two separate forms, the polite /ala'i/ and vulgar /za/.  The once vulgar mutation of /nqo/ to /ka/ later became standard.  The supplicatve and regal terms in first and second person have stayed the same largely due to being terms of office instead of true pronouns.  The Old Warlok informal first and second person pronouns are now only seen in literature to give a ye olde tymes feel.


A sample vocabulary ; compare with modern Viisyal's list.

one two three four five six seven eight nine ten
on tuu sanw syii go ritw sena potw nquu zyuu
red blue green white black red h. blue h. green h. white haired black h.
rejw au meigu vai gou xoxo texo fenw ipwsaa jilwti
body arm leg hand back face eye ear nose mouth
koulw ba asyi te cujw kaa vujw mijw dojw cama
minute hour day month year after before person animal thing
nqopw taa zyei gatw nyenw aj maʔe zyinw butw syi
earth fire wind water heart exo. thermo. strato. troposphere air
cii qei fuulw ni syinw zyelw sukuu sola saʔe huʔw
go come exit enter say hear write read know see
iʔwra kura jera rera yalwra mira rira liʔura saanwra vura

Example text[]

Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 1

tuzyinwluuʔi uu ziyuu ba duuqeiqe epw,
kihinw mo nukw mi pelwqe nyuujw ba ojalasu.
zyinwluuʔi uu yuutw epw zeitw o youtwsajwqe,
nowanw mi luuʔuwo no suwika ba o ukwdalusyiou.

all-person-being SUB free INS born-IPFV-be-IPFV and.therefore
dignity also rights DAT concerning-IPFV equal INS be.formal-PRES(formal)
person-being SUB reason and conscience OBJ transfer-PASSIVE-IPFV
mutual DAT same-family GEN essence.juice-self DAT formal-act-should(formal)

All sentient beings are born free, and thus have both equal dignity and equal rights.  Sentient beings are endowed with reason and conscience, and should act towards one another in the spirit of family.