Conlang
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Pasádho
Pasádho
Type
Alignment
Head direction
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
Yes
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General information[]

Phonology[]

Consonants[]

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal
Plosive
Fricative
Affricate
Approximant
Trill
Flap or tap
Lateral fric.
Lateral app.
Lateral flap

Vowels[]

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open

Diphthongs[]

i e o ö u ü a ä
i - ie io iu ia
e ei - - - - - ea -
o oi - - - ou - - -
ö öi - - - - - - -
u ui - uo - - - - -
ü üi - - - - - - -
a ai - - - au - - -
ä äi - - - - - - -

Alphabet[]

Phonotactics[]

Grammar[]

Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No No No No No No
Nouns No No No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

Nouns[]

In Pasádho, nouns are declined for ...

1. their number - Pasádho has the singular, plural and the collective
2. their gender - Pasádho has animate (consisting of male and female) and inanimate (consisting of corporeal and incorporeal) gender
3. their case - Pasádho has the nominative, accusative, dative, possessive, locative, temporative, adessive, ablative, instructive and comparative case
::

Number & Gender

Nouns are declined for number and gender simultaneously.

Male Female Corporeal Incorporeal
Singular -i -o -u -a
Plural -e
Collective -ee -öö -üü -ää

These suffixes are added to nominal stems according to the following rules:

1. Only vocalic nominal stems have irregularities - for consonantal nominal stems, the suffixes are simply added to the stem without any changes.
2. For vocalic nominal stems, the suffixes form a diphthong with the last stem vowel (if possible).
2.1. Take a look at the list of diphthongs existing in Pasádho - only those can be formed.
2.2. Only short vowels can form diphthongs. These vowels have to be different from each other.
2.3. If the stress of the stem falls onto the last vowel, the suffixes cannot form a diphthong with it.
3. If no diphthong can be formed (according to 2.), a -y- is added between stem and suffix.

E.g. for a consonantal nominal stem ("póos" meaning "human"):

Male Female Corporeal Incorporeal
Singular póosi póoso póosu póosa
Plural póose póosö póosü póosä
Collective póosee póosöö póosüü póosää

Translated, they mean:

Male Female Corporeal Incorporeal
Singular Man Woman Human being (Human) culture
Plural Men Women Human beings (Human) cultures
Collective All men All women All human beings OR humanity all (Human) cultures

Note that translations of incorporeal nouns are often very vage - as a rule of thumb, translate them with "idea of ..." if you don't know the exact translation.

E.g. for a vocalic nominal stem ("ména" meaning "tall")

Male Female Corporeal Incorporeal
Singular ménai ménayo ménau ménaya
Plural ménaye ménayö ménayü ménayä
Collective ménayee ménayöö ménayüü ménayää

Note that the collective always inserts the -y- because the suffix vowels are all long.

Translated, they mean:

Male Female Corporeal Incorporeal
Singular Tall man Tall woman tall thing tallness
Plural Tall men Tall women tall things tallnesses
Collective All tall men All tall women all tall things All tallnesses

Note that the male and female form are translated with man/woman. Usually, if no point of reference is given, man/woman are meant but if these words refer to a previously stated male/female noun (e.g. male dog or female dog), their translation changes.

Also note that all theoretical forms are valid in Pasádho. Their translations might sound very awkward and they are rarely used, but they are possible.

It is also possible to use several gender/number suffixes at once. You can add the Incorporeal after the Singular forms of the three other genders to create a new word.

E.g.: "Póosi" means "man" - "Póosia" means "manliness" ("the idea of a man").

Case

Case declination is seperate from number/gender declination.

Suffix
Nominative -
Accusative -r
Dative -l
Genetive -dh
Locative -sh
Temporative -s
Adessive -f
Ablative -p
Instructive -t
Comparative -v

These suffixes are added after the gender/number suffixes - there are no irregularities for both consonantal and vocalic nominal stems (as they all end in vowels after the gender/number suffixes are attached).

It is possible to use several case suffixes in a row to create compound cases - the last case used always determines the overall case of the word complex. An "-e-" is added between the individual consonants. E.g.:

Temporative + Adessive (-sef) literally means "towards the time of ..." and therefore means "before ...".

Temporative + Ablative (-sep) literally means "away from the time of ..." and therefore means "after ...".

Theoretically, you could combine (almost) all cases with each other or use even more than two cases but you will only very rarely find these forms. You cannot add a case after the nominative (as the nominative doesn't have its own ending) or after accusative and dative (as these cases form objects and not adverbials or attributes).

Note that the suffixes in () are the formally correct forms. In spoken language, though, the "-e-" is often dropped.


Adjectives[]

Generally, there are two different ways of using adjectives in Pasádho.

1. Total agreement: All adjectives have to agree with the noun they are describing. Therefore, you have to add gender/number suffixes and case suffixes to them - these have to be the same as your noun's suffixes. As the adjectives have markers for the noun they are describing, you can put them wherever you want in your sentence - usually, they are placed directly before or after the noun, though.
2. No agreement: All adjective don't have to agree with the noun they are describing. Therefore, you don't have to change anything. As the adjectives have no markers for the noun they are describing, they have to be put directly before the noun.

Usually, "no agreement" is used in spoken language because its lack of declensions makes it shorter than the "total agreement" - the "total agreement" is used in formal and written language.

The suffixes of adjective declension are identical to the suffixes of noun declension.

Adjectives don't have their own word stems, they can only be formed from nominal or verbal stem.

1. Nominal Adjective: The Genitive Incorporeal Singular form of a noun is the corresponding nominal adjective. To create a nominal adjective from the three other genders, you have to transform them into Incorporeal nouns (#nouns).
2. Verbal Adjective: ???

Adjectives can be used for comparison:

1. The "positive" - basic form of an adjective; something has a quality
2. The "positive comparative" - something has more of a quality (than something else)
3. The "positive superlative" - something has the highest amount of a quality
4. The "negative comparative" - something has less of a quality (than something else)
5. The "negative superlative" - something has the least amount of a quality
Suffix
Positive comparative -nt
Positive superlative -rk
Negative comparative -st
Negative Superlative -ft

These suffixes are added to the adjective before any other ending.

If the adjective ends in a consonant (all nominal adjectives), an "-a-" is added the stem and the comparison suffix.

E.g. for "Póosi" ("man") from "Póos" ("human"):

Suffix Translation
Positive comparative Póosiadhant manlier
Positive superlative Póosiadhark the manliest
Negative comparative Póosiadhast less manly
Negative Superlative Póosiadhaft the least manly

Verbs[]

In Pasádho, verbs are conjugated for ...

1. their person - Pasádho has a first, second and third person
2. their number - Pasádho has the singular, plural and collective
3. their tense - Pasádho has the present, past and future tense
4. their voice - Pasádho has the active', passive' and causative voice
5. their mood - Pasádho has indicative, subjunctive and imperative mood

A verb is put together in the following way:

Verbal Stem Person/Number suffix Tense suffix Voice suffix Mood suffix

Person & Number

Verbs are conjugated for person and number simultaneously.

First person Second person Third person
Singular -i -o -u
Plural -e
Collective - - -a

Note that only the third person exists for the collective.

All singular and plural forms correspond to the English system of personal pronouns.

Tense

Suffix
Past -g
Present (-h)
Future -n

Note that the present suffix is usually left out as it is the "standart" / most commonly used tense.

Voice

Suffix
Active (-ai)
Passive -au
Causative -ei

Note that the active suffix is usually left out as it is the "standart" / most commonly used voice.

Mood

Suffix
Indicative -s
Subjunctive -zh
Imperative -t

Note that the indicative suffix is usually left out as it is the "standart" / most commonly used mood.

E.g. for "lás" meaning "to do":

Present Active Indicative Active Subjunctive Passive Indicative Passive Subjunctive Causative Indicative Causative Indicative

1. Person Singular

lási(hais) lási(hai)zh lási(h)au(s) lási(h)auzh lási(h)ei(s) lási(h)eizh
2. Person singular láso(hais) láso(hai)zh láso(h)au(s) láso(h)auzh láso(h)ei(s) láso(h)eizh
3. Person Singular lásu(hais) lásu(hai)zh lásu(h)au(s) lásu(h)auzh lásu(h)ei(s) lásu(h)eizh
1. Person Plural láse(hais) láse(hai)zh láse(h)au(s) láse(h)auzh láse(h)ei(s) láse(h)eizh
2. Person Plural lásö(hais) lásö(hai)zh lásö(h)au(s) lásö(h)auzh lásö(h)ei(s) lásö(h)eizh
3. Person Plural lásü(hais) lásü(hai)zh lásü(h)au(s) lásü(h)auzh lásü(h)ei(s) lásü(h)eizh
3. Person Collective lása(hais) lása(hai)zh lása(h)au(s) lása(h)auzh lása(h)ei(s) lása(h)eizh

Translated, they mean:

Present Active Indicative Active Subjunctive Passive Indicative Passive Subjunctive Causative Indicative Causative Indicative

1. Person Singular

I do I would do I am done
2. Person singular You do You would do You are done
3. Person Singular He/she/it does He/she/it would does He/she/it is done
1. Person Plural We do We would do
2. Person Plural You do You would do
3. Person Plural They do They would do
3. Person Collective All ... do All ... would do






Syntax[]

Vocabulary[]


No. English
1I
2you (singular)
3he
4we
5you (plural)
6they
7this
8that
9here
10there
11who
12what
13where
14when
15how
16not
17all
18many
19some
20few
21other
22one
23two
24three
25four
26five
27big
28long
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32small
33short
34narrow
35thin
36woman
37man (adult male)
38man (human being)
39child
40wife
41husband
42mother
43father
44animal
45fish
46bird
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51tree
52forest
53stick
54fruit
55seed
56leaf
57root
58bark
59flower
60grass
61rope
62skin
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tail
70feather
71hair
72head
73ear
74eye
75nose
76mouth
77tooth
78tongue
79fingernail
80foot
81leg
82knee
83hand
84wing
85belly
86guts
87neck
88back
89breast
90heart
91liver
92drink
93eat
94bite
95suck
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathe
100laugh
101see
102hear
103know
104think
105smell
106fear
107sleep
108live
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunt
113hit
114cut
115split
116stab
117scratch
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walk
122come
123lie
124sit
125stand
126turn
127fall
128give
129hold
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sew
139count
140say
141sing
142play
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sun
148moon
149star
150water
151rain
152river
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stone
157sand
158dust
159earth
160cloud
161fog
162sky
163wind
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167fire
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountain
172red
173green
174yellow
175white
176black
177night
178day
179year
180warm
181cold
182full
183new
184old
185good
186bad
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dull
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correct
197near
198far
199right
200left
201at
202in
203with
204and
205if
206because
207name


Example text[]

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