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This page is basically a English-translated English-rewritten version of 帕提语.


Patigulh
Type Fusional
Alignment Nominative-Accusative
Head direction Mixed
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders 2
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 69%
Statistics
Nouns 50%
Verbs 95%
Adjectives 50%
Syntax 82%
Words 500 of 1500
Creator 简体中文使用者
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Classification and DialectsEdit


Patigulh(/'pʌtɪgʊl/, Vżɑiκṡu/'pʰatʰik⁼uɫʷ/, lit."Language of vanila")

Metaly speaking, Patigulh is an artlang created by Kaihan Zhang, a Chinese student.

Settingly speaking, Patigulh is spoken by about 120 million people in Patikio and is the official language of it. Numerous colloquial varieties also exist.

Patikio(/'pʰatʰikʰjou/, lit."Land of vanila") is a great empire in an alternate universe which is isolated from ours.

PhonologyEdit


The stress is always on the syllable before the last one.

VovelEdit

Front Central Back
High i y ɨ~ɿ~ʅ u
Mid e ø o
Low ᴀ~a
  1. When [ɨ] appears after [s/ts⁼/tsʰ], it becomes [ɿ],when after [ʂ/tʂ⁼/tʂʰ], it becomes[ʅ],otherwise [ɨ/ɿ/ʅ] is all acceptable.
  2. Both[ᴀ/a] is acceptable.

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Plosive plain p⁼ t⁼ (c⁼) k⁼
aspirated (cʰ) ʔ
Fricative f s ʃ~ʂ (ɕ) x
Africative plain ts⁼ tʃ⁼~tʂ⁼ (tɕ⁼)
aspirated tsʰ tʃʰ~tʂʰ (tɕʰ)
Approximant ʋ~w l ɬʷ j
  1. [ʂ/tʂʰ/tʂ⁼/kʰ/k⁼] are palatalised [ɕ/tɕʰ/tɕ⁼/cʰ/c⁼] before [i].
  2. [pʰ/tʰ/kʰ] are disaspiratised [p⁼/t⁼/k⁼] after[s/ʂ].
  3. [p⁼/t⁼/k⁼] are unreleased [p̚/t̚/k̚] at the end of a syllable. Unless they were generated by rule 2.

Writing SystemEdit


Patigulh is written in a letter system called Higilsamo(/'xik⁼iɬsamo/, lit."Letters of Saints"), which look like Latin letters. The reason is that a passing-by time-traveller accidently dropped his comic books into the Patigulh universe when getting lost in time-axis.

Settingly speaking, the Latin transliteration is never used by Patikio people. Because the transliteration is designed for meta people like you and me, in order to make Patigul more readable.

Letter ᐯv ʋ ㄚy ʯ ᐱʌ л 人ʎ ɦ ᐃɑ ɑ ᗅq ɋ ᐁɒ ɒ ᗄb ɓ
Phonetic pʰ ‹p› f ‹f› p⁼ ‹b› m ‹m› tʰ ‹t› s ‹s› t⁼ ‹d› ʃ~ʂ ‹c›
Letter ꓘᴚ ᖷʞ ʞ 𝖪ĸ ʀ ᖶk ƙ ⨅n n ᒣƞ ɳ ⨆u u ᒪև և
Phonetic kʰ ‹k› x ‹h› k⁼ ‹g› ʔ ‹'› l ‹l› n ‹n› ɫʷ ‹lh› ŋ ‹ng›
Letter Γſ l ȷ İi ì Żż Sṡ Ịı̣ ı̗ Ẓẓ Sṣ
Phonetic j ‹j› w ‹w› i ‹i› ᴀ~a ‹a› u ‹u› e ‹e› ɨ ‹r› o ‹o›
Letter Ṩṩ s̗̀ Ị̇ị ı̗̀ ɑq ɒq ɑb ɒb ṡi ṣı̣
Phonetic oʊ ‹ou› eɪ ‹ei› tsʰ ‹ts› ts⁼ ‹ds› tʃ~tʂʰ ‹tc› tʃ~tʂ⁼ ‹dc› y ‹ui› ø ‹oe›

PunctuationEdit

Punctuation , ; ⌊ ⌉ ◌̊ ◌̥ 。。。 。。,
Name Period Comma Exclamation Exclam-comma Quotation marks Rising tone mark Ellipsis Sentence-ending Ellipsis
Vżɑbiṩni qʌiᴚ ẓ。 ⌊żnṣʞżſṩ⨟ ȷṣ ʌiq Vżɑbiṩni,⌉, Δbiż qʌiᴚı̣u ƞz̊ƞ, Δbiż qʌiᴚı̣u ẓ ɑbiż ɒı̣q Vżɑbiṩni; ż。。。 ſṣλṣ。。,
Patchouli says: "Hello! I am Pachouli". what did she say? She said that she is Patchouli! Ah... maybe....

If the quotation can be considered a word in the sentence, periods should be add both inside and outside the quotation. Otherwise, only inside the quotation needs a period.

ȷṣ qʌiᴚ ⌊żnṣʞżſṩ,⌉, (Wo sbik "Alohajou.".) I say "Hello.".
ȷṣ。 ⌊żnṣʞżſṩ,⌉ (Wo, "Alohajou.") Me: "Hello."

If only the first half of the sentence needs exclaiming, an exclaim-comma should be used.

ȷị⨟ ȷṣ ʌiq ᴚṣᴚ, (Wei!, wo bis kok.) "Hey, I'm here!"

There is no question marks in Patigulh. In interrogative sentences, there should be a rising tone on the word being asked about, whose dots should be changed into rings (so-called "rising tone mark"):

ᴚṣu ɒı̣q ƞz̊ƞ. (kol des nan?.) "This is what?."
ɑs̥ƞɑ ɑżʌı̣u ᴚṣu. (talh? tabelh wi) "Who? ate this."

There is no colon in Patigulh. A comma is placed wherever, in English, a colon would be used.

ȷṣ qʌiᴚ。⌊żnṣʞżſṩ,⌉, (Wo sbik,"Alohajou.".) I say:"Hello.".

GrammarEdit


Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes No No Yes No
Nouns No No Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No Yes No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


NounsEdit

In Patigulh, nouns decline based on number and case, but not gender.

Usually, plural is made by adding plural suffix -ʎ(m) to the ending of the singular noun. But if the noun ends with a consonant, an "i" will be placed before the "m".

Noun
Ends by Single Plural
Consonant qżʌżu(sabalh)"cat" qżʌżn(sabalim)"cats"
Vovel ʎiᴚi(miki)"mouse" ʎiᴚiʎ(mikim)"mice"

4 cases are marked in Patigul, They are:

  • Nominative — marks the subject.
  • Instrumental — marks the instrument.(I personally call it "indirect subject.")
  • Dative — marks the indirect object.
  • Acuusative — marks the object.

Take an English and a Patigulh sentence for example:

The mouse gave the cat a flower with its hands.
żnż ʎiᴚiȷż ɑżq żʎṡʎiż κịyı̣u żnż qżʌżniṣ ị ʞṡżƞżȷṣ.

Pay attention to żʎṡʎiż(amumia)"hands(ins.)". It shows that the plural suffix comes after the case suffix.

Noun
End Elsewhere Nominative Instrumental Dative Accusative
Constant ʎiᴚi(miki) ʎiᴚiȷż(mikiwa) ʎiᴚiſż(mikija) ʎiᴚiſṣ(mikijo) ʎiᴚiȷṣ(mikiwo)
Vowel qżʌżu(sabalh) qżʌżnż(sabala) qżʌżn(sabalia) qżʌżniṣ(sabalio) qżʌżn(sabalo)

Proper nouns, gerunds and its logical object doesn't decline cases:

  • Aṡiᴚż ɑżʌ qṡiᴚżȷṣ(Suika tab suikawo)"Suika eats watermelon."
  • Jṣq ɑżʌiև qṡiᴚżʎ qżvnibı̣u Aṡiᴚż(Wos tabing suika saplicelh Suika)"My eating watermelons surprised Suika."

There are 2 genders in Patigulh, which is not divided by sеx but animate/inanimate. It is shown by declining the article of the noun.

It should be noticed that a noun's gender isn't always the same. A mouse can be inaminate if it is dead, and a rock can be animate if it is rolling down.

Noun
Starts by Animative Inanimative
Consonant żnż qżʌżu(ala sabalh)"the cat"
ż qżʌżu(a sabalh)"a cat"
ı̣nı̣ qżʌżu(ele sabalh)"the cat"
ị qżʌżu(ei sabalh)"a cat"
Vovel żn ṡƞi(al uni)"the dog"
żƞ ṡƞi(an uni)"a dog"
żn ṡƞi(el uni)"the dog"
ịƞ ṡƞi(ein uni)"a dog"

PronounsEdit

In Patigulh, pronouns are divided as personal pronouns and demonstrative pronouns.

Personal pronounsEdit

Personal pronouns pluralize based on person, number and case, but not gender.

Personal pronouns
Nominative Accusative Plural(N. or A.)
1st
person
Normal ȷṣ(wo)
I
ȷi(wi)
me
żƞɑżi(antai)you&we¹
żɑżi(atai)we
Humblific ʎṣ(mo)
Humble I
ʎi(mi)
Humble me
żɑı̣ᴚq(ateks)
Humble we
2nd
person
Normal ɒṡ(du)
thou
ɒi(di)
thee
żƞɑż(anta)
you
Honorific ƞṣƞ(non)
Mister thou
ƞiƞ(nin)
Mister thee
sᴚqżʎż(ksama)
Mister you
3rd
person
Masc.
Neut.
ɑż(ta)
he/it
ɑżƞ(tan)
him/it
ɑżʎ(tam)
they
Fem. ɑbiż(tcia)
she
abiżƞ(tcian)
her
ɑbiżʎ(tciam)
they
4th person ᴚṡ(ku)
alt-he²
ᴚṡƞ(kun)
alt-him
ᴚṡʎ(kum)
alt-they
Interrogative ɑżu(talh)
who
ɑżnı̣(tale)
whom
ɑżnı̣ʎ(talem)
whoes
  1. ṣnᴉqż(ole)"you&we" is inclusive and żɑżi(atai)"we" is exclusive. That is:żƞɑżi(antai)"you&we" includes "you" inside "we", while żɑżi(atai)"we" does not:
    Vżɑqiṩni qʌiᴚ biƞᴚi ẓ。 ⌊żnżṡ (żƞɑżi/żɑżi) ȷı̣ɒṣƞ qʎiɒż,⌉,
    Patsiouli sbik Cinki r: "Alau (antai/atai) wedon smida.".
    Patchouli tells Shinki: "Please allow (you&me/us) get married".
    →Patchouli wants to marry (Shinki/Alice).
  2. Patigulh features a "fourth person" pronoun ᴚṡ(ku)"alt-he". It is used when the "third person" pronoun had already referred to someone else, i.e.:
    vżɑqiṩni ɑqı̣ƞı̣u ẓ ʎżniqż ɒı̣qɑ ɑżɑbiƞ (ɑbiżq/ᴚṡq) ṩvżi,
    Patciouli tsenelh r Malisa dest tatcin (tcias/kus) oupai.
    Patchouli saw Marisa touching (her/alt-her) chest.
    →Marisa is touching (herselfs/Patchouli's) chest.

The possessive form of personal pronouns can be made by adding an "s", though other nouns' can only made by adding the possessive preposition ᴚżi(kai)"xx's"

The word żṡɑṣ(auto)"self" is any of the pronouns' reflexive form. Whether it stands for "yourself" of "myself" rely on the context.

Demonstrative pronounsEdit

Demonstrative pronouns is very regular in Patigulh. It can be numerously generated by using the prefixes shown below:

demonstrative pronouns
Proximal Medial¹ Distal Existential Interro
gative
Negative
Elective Assertive
Prefix ᴚṣ~(ko~)
this~
qṣ~(so~)
thy~
ṣ~(o~)
that~
ſṣ~(jo~)
any~
ʎṣ~(mo~)
some~
ɑṣ~(to~)
what~
ƞṣ~(no~)
no~
Adj. ᴚṣƞ(kon)
this
qṣƞ(son)
thy
ṣƞ(on)
that
ſṣƞ(jon)
any
ʎṣƞ(mon)
some
ɑṣƞ(ton)
which
ƞṣƞ(non)
no
Noun ᴚṣu(kolh)
this thing
qṣu(solh)
thy thing
ṣu(olh)
that thing
ſṣu(jolh)
anything
ʎṣu(molh)
something
ɑṣu(tolh)
which thing
ƞṣu(nolh)
nothing
Adv. ᴚṣqɑ(kost)
thishow
qṣqɑ(sost)
thyhow
ṣqɑ(ost)
thathow
ſṣqɑ(jost)
anyhow
ʎṣqɑ(most)
somehow
ɑṣqɑ(tost)
how
ƞṣqɑ(nost)
no way
Place ᴚṣᴚ(kok)
here
qṣᴚ(sok)
thyre
ṣᴚ(ok)
there
ſṣᴚ(jok)
anywhere
ʎṣᴚ(mok)
somewhere
ɑṣᴚ(tok)
where
ƞṣᴚ(nok)
nowhere
Time ᴚṣb(koc)
this time
qṣb(soc)
thy time
ṣb(oc)
that time
ſṣb(joc)
anytime
ʎṣb(moc)
sometime
ɑṣb(toc)
which time
ƞṣb(noc)
no time
People ᴚṣƞɑ(kont)
thisbody
qṣƞɑ(sont)
thybody
ṣƞɑ(ont)
thatbody
ſṣƞɑ(jont)
anybody
ʎṣƞɑ(mont)
somebody
ɑṣƞɑ(tont)
whichbody²
ƞṣƞɑ(nont)
nobody
Reason ᴚṣyṣ(kofo)
herefore
qṣyṣ(sofo)
thyrefore
ṣyṣ(ofo)
therefore
ſṣyṣ(jofo)
anywherefore
ʎṣyṣ(mofo)
somewherefore
ɑṣyṣ(tofo)
wherefore
ƞṣyṣ(nofo)
nowherefore
  1. The difference between qṣƞ(son)"this" and ṣƞ(on)"thy" is that qṣƞ is something close to the listener, while ṣƞ is something far from both the listener and the speaker.
  2. ɑṣƞɑ(tont)"whichbody" and ɑżu(talh)"who" means the same, expect that the former one is more formal. And the same goes with ɑṣu(tolh)"which thing" and ƞżƞ(nan)"what".

AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives in Patigul do not decline. Shoot, I forgot Comparatives and Superlatives.

VerbsEdit

In Patigulh, verbs conjugate based on tense, voice and number, but not person.

The tense system of Patigulh consists of twelve(that is, 3×4) tenses, three simple tenses and four aspects.

The simple tenses are: past tense, present tense and future tense.

The aspects are: completed aspect, simple aspect progressive aspect and so-called "starting aspect".

tense
aspect
Future Present Past
simple ɑżʌṣu(tabolh)
"will eat"
ɑżʌ(tab)
"eat"
ɑżʌı̣u(tabelh)
"ate"
completed ʞı̣ȷż ɑżʌı̣ƞ(hewa taben)
"will have eaten"
ʞı̣ɒ ɑżʌı̣ƞ(hed taben)
"have eaten"
ʞı̣qɑ ɑżʌı̣ƞ(hest taben)
"had eaten"
progressive ɒı̣ȷż ɑżʌiƞ(dewa tabin)
"will be eating"
ɒı̣q ɑżʌiƞ(des tabin)
"is eating"
ɒı̣qɑ ɑżʌiƞ(dest tabin)
"was eating"
starting κṣɑż ɑżʌṣƞ(gota tabon)
"will get to eat"
κṣɑ ɑżʌṣƞ(got tabon)
"get to eat"
κṣqɑ ɑżʌṣƞ(gost tabon)
"got to eat"


About the "-elh" suffix, if the root word:

  1. Ends with an consonant, the suffix does not change: ɑżʌ(tab)"eat"ɑżʌı̣u(tabelh)"ate"
  2. Ends with a non-e vovel, a "j" appears before the suffix: ᴚiƞṣ(kino)"throw"ᴚiƞṣſı̣u(kinojel)"threw"
  3. Ends with an "e", the suffix appears without an "e": ṣqı̣(ose)"teach"ṣqı̣u(osel)"taught"

About the "-olh" suffix, if the root word:

  1. Ends with an consonant, the suffix does not change: ɑżʌ(tab)"eat"ɑżʌṣu(tabolh)"will eat"
  2. Ends with a non-o vovel, a "w" appears before the suffix: ṣqı̣(ose)"teach"ṣqı̣ȷṣu(osewol)"will teach"
  3. Ends with an "o", the suffix appears without an "o": ᴚiƞṣ(kino)"throw"ᴚiƞṣu(kinol)"will throw"

The same goes with "-en" "-on" suffixes.

Irregular verbs like:ɒı̣q(des)"be", ʞı̣ɒ(hed)"have", κṣɑ(got)"get", qṡu(sul)"do" conjugate irregularly.

Present Past Future
be* ɒı̣q(des) ɒı̣qɑ(dest) ɒı̣ȷż(dewa)
ʎżq(mas) ʎżqɑ(mast) ʎżȷż(mawa)
ʌiq(bis) ʌiqɑ(bist) ʌiȷż(biwa)
have ʞı̣ɒ(hed) ʞı̣qɑ(hest) ʞı̣ȷż(hewa)
get κṣɑ(got) κṣqɑ(gost) κṣȷż(gowa)
do qṡu(sul) qı̣u(sel) qṣu(sol)
  • The word "be" conjugates based on person, so every form has itself's tense conjugatation.

As for the irregular verbs, their (past/present/future) participle is their (past/present/future) tense form with the suffix -iƞ(in), and their (past/present/future) gerund is their (past/present/future) tense form with the suffix -iև(ing). That is:

  • ʌiqɑ(bist)"was"ʌiqɒ(bisdin)"been"ʌiqɒ(bisding)"being(gerund)"

Verbs also have a passive voice conjugation.

Tense Future Present Past
Passive voice ʌiɑżʌṣu(bitabolh)
"will be eaten"
ʌiɑżʌ(bitab)
"is eaten"
ʌiɑżʌı̣u(bitabelh)
"was eaten"

ParticiplesEdit

Patriciple Future Present Past
simple ɑżʌṣƞ(tabon)
≈"to eat"
ɑżʌiƞ(tabin)
≈"eating"
ɑżʌı̣ƞ(taben)
"eaten"

As for the irregular verbs, their (past/present/future) participle is their (past/present/future) tense form with the suffix -iƞ(in). Drop the vovel if the form ends with one.

Present Past Future
verb ɒı̣q(des)"is" ɒı̣qɑ(dest)"was" ɒı̣ȷż(dewa)"will be"
participle ɒı̣b(decin)"being" ɒı̣qɒ(desdin)"been" ɒı̣ȷ(dewin)≈"to be"

Participles can be used to form aspects. Past participle forms completed aspect, present particle for progressive aspect, future particle for "starting aspect".

Future Present Past
κṣɑ ɑżʌṣƞ(got tabon)
"get to eat"
ɒı̣q ɑżʌiƞ(des tabin)
"is eating"
ʞı̣ɒ ɑżʌı̣ƞ(hed taben)
"have eaten"

GerundEdit

Patriciple Future Present Past
simple ɑżʌṣև(tabon)
≈"to eat"
ɑżʌiև(tabin)
"eating"
ɑżʌı̣և(taben)
≈"having eaten"

As for the irregular verbs, their (past/present/future) gerund is their (past/present/future) tense form with the suffix -iև(ing). Drop the vovel if the form ends with one.

Present Past Future
verb ɒı̣q(des)"is" ɒı̣qɑ(dest)"was" ɒı̣ȷż(dewa)"will be"
participle ɒı̣b(decin)"being" ɒı̣qɒ(desdin)"having been" ɒı̣ȷ(dewin)≈"to be"
  • ṡɒṡᴚi ᴚṡᴚṣև(uduki kukong)forget to cook
  • ṡɒṡᴚi ᴚṡᴚiև(uduki kuking)forget cooking
  • ṡɒṡᴚi ᴚṡᴚı̣և(uduki kukeng)forget having cook

ClausesEdit

  • (r)"that" — introduces any nominal clause and direct speech.
  • (tal)"who" — introduces nominal clause of person.
  • (nan)"what" — introduces nominal clause of object.
  • (toc)"when" — introduces nominal clause of time.
  • (tok)"where" — introduces nominal clause of place.
  • (dam)"when" — introduces adverbial clause of time.
  • (ubi)"where" — introduces adverbial clause of place.

SyntaxEdit


Head directionEdit

Adjectives may come before what they modify, and modifying phrases and clauses may come after.

PossessionEdit

Possession is made by using the particle ᴚżi(kai)xx's, which is similar to "xx's" in English. Anyway, pronouns' possessive form is made by adding suffix q(s)xx's. For example:

  • ȷṣq qżκṣ。 ɒṡq qżκṣ,(Wos sago, dus sago.)"My apple, your apple."
  • Vżɑbiṩni ᴚżi qżκṣ,(Patciouli kai sago.)"Patchouli's apple."

Possessive pronoun is made by using the particle ᴚż(ka)xx's. Anyway, pronouns' possessive pronoun is same as theirs possessive form.

  • ȷṣq。 ɒṡq,(Wos, dus.)"Mine, yours."
  • Vżɑbiṩni ᴚż,(Patciouli ka.)"Patchouli's."

VoicesEdit

In Patigulh, active voice uses a Subject-Verb-Object word order.

Passive voice uses a OVS word order. It is formed by adding the prefix ʌi(bi) before the verb:

qżʌżnż ɑżʌ ʎiᴚiȷṣ,(Sabala tab mikiwo)"Cat eats mouse."
ʎiᴚiȷż ʌiɑżʌ qżʌżnṣ,(Mikiwa bitab sabalo)"Mouse is eaten by cat."

MoodEdit

DeclarativeEdit

The Affirmative Sentences in Patigulh uses a SVO word order.

To make a sentence negative, the prefix żn(al-)"doesn't-" should be added to the beginning of the verb. However, this prefix has many other forms:

Negative Preffix
Preffix Verb begins with
żʎ(am)v/y/ʌ (p/f/b)
żƞ(an)ɑ/q/ɒ/b (t/s/d/c)
żև(ang)ᴚ/κ (k/g)
ż(a)ʎ/ƞ/n (m/n/l)
żn(al)All else
  • ȷṣ binż,(Wo cila.)"I know."
  • ȷṣ żƞbinż,(Wo ancila.)"I don't know."

InterrogativeEdit

Questioning sentences in Patigulh is devided into "general questions" and "special questions".

Before going further, notice that Patigulh don't have question marks.

General questons (Yes/No questions) are created by taking the verb(and its adverb) to the beginning of the sentence.

  • ɒṡ ſṩᴚni ɑżʌı̣u ị qżκṣ,(Du joukli tabelh ei sago,)"You ate an apple slowly."(Lit. You slowly ate an apple.)
  • ſṩᴚni ɑz̊ʌs̥u ɒṡ ị qżκṣ,(Joukli tabelh du ei sago,)"Did you eat an apple slowly?"(Lit. Slowly ate? you an apple?)

Special questons (Wh- questions) are created by taking the subject or object or anything with interrogative pronouns.

  • ᴚṣu ɒı̣q ƞz̊ƞ. (kol des nan?.) "This is what?."
  • ɑs̥ƞɑ ɑżʌı̣u ᴚṣu. (talh? tabelh wi) "Who? ate this."

ImperativeEdit

Imperative in Patigulh can be easily made by simply add the interjective ɒı̣(de)"imp."(or qʎiɒż(smida)"please" to show polite) before the whole sentence.

  • ɑżʌ,(Tab.)"To eat."
  • ɑżʌ ɒı̣,(Tab de.)"Eat."
  • ɑżʌ qʎiɒż,"Please eat."

ConditionalEdit

Conditional mood can be made by adding the suffix -ṡu(ulh) to the ending of the verb. But if the verb ends with a vovel, an "k(')" will be placed before the "ṡ(u)".

The Conditional suffix comes before the tense suffix: ɑżʌṣnı̣u(tabulel)"would have eaten".

Past Present Future
Normal ɑżʌı̣u ɑżʌ ɑżʌṣu
Conditional ɑżʌṡnı̣u ɑżʌṡu ɑżʌṡnṣu

The tense of conditional verbs agrees with other verbs in the context.

  • (Wo wis r wo bisulh a loli.)"I wish that I were a girl."
  • (Wo wiselh r wo bistulha loli.)"I wished that I had been a girl."

LexiconEdit


Main articlle: Patigulh/Lexicon

The table of personal pronouns and demonstrative pronouns can be found above.

SuffixesEdit

Suffixes can change the word's meaning from verb to noun, noun to adjective/adverb, and so on.

When any letter appear after u(lh), the u(lh) becomes n(l).

  • ṣqı̣u(oselh)"teach" → ṣqı̣nṡq(oselus)"teacher"

When i(i) appear after q(s), the q(s) becomes b(c)

  • vżɑq(pats)"Knowledge" → vżɑbi(patci)"Knowledgable"
Suffixes
Suffix Meaning Similar Type Examples
~iևthe action of ~ing~ing
(n.)
v.→n.ɑżʌ(tab)eat → ɑżʌiⴑ(tabing)eating(n.)
~[V]bẓƞ
~[C]ibẓƞ
thing used in ~ing~tionv.→n.ɑżʌ(tab)eat → ɑżʌı̣bẓƞ(tabecrn)food
~iƞbe ~ing~ing
(adj.)
v.→adj.qʌiᴚ(sbik)say → qʌiᴚiƞ(sbikin)speaking(adj.)
~[V]y
~[C]iy
be often ~ing~ivev.→adj.qʌiᴚ(sbik)say → qʌiᴚiy(sbikif)speakactive
~[V]ƞż
~[C]i
be of ~~yn.→adj.vżɑq(pats)Knowledge → vżɑbi(patci)Knowledgable
~ṡևthe action of being of ~~nessadj.→n.ʎı̣ɒ(med)mad → ʎı̣ɒṡⴑ(medung)madness
~bmake sth. ~~fyadj. → v.ʌı̣nṣ(belo)beautiful→ʌı̣nṣb(beloc)beautify
~yżmake sth. be of ~~izen.→v.qɒṩ(sdou)stone → qɒṩyż(sdoufa)fossilize
~niin the method of ~~lyadj.→adv.ʌṣƞɒṣ(bondo)real → ʌṣƞɒṣni(bondoli)really
~ṡq
~ı̣q
man/woman who ~~er
~ess
v.→n.ṣqı̣u(oselh)teach → ṣqı̣nṡq(oselus)teacher

PreffixesEdit

Preffixes can change word's meaning to a related one. They seldon change the word's kind.

Preffixes
Preffix Meaning Similar Type Examples
żn~
(varies)
doesn't do ~ un-v.binż(cila)"know" → żƞbinż(ancila)"doesn't know"
vżƞɑq(pants)"hit" → żʎvżƞɑq(ampants)"doesn't hit"
in~
(varies)
not ~ in-adj.
adv.
biƞı̣(cine)"dead" → iƞbiƞı̣(incine)"undead"
ʌṣƞ(bon)"good" → iʎʌṣƞ(imbon)"ungood"
ɒṣ~extremly ~ex~adj.qżɒi(sadi)"violent"→ɒṣqżɒi(dosadi)"extremely violent"
ʌṣƞ(bon)"good" → ɒṣʌṣƞ(dobon)"overgood"

Swadesh tableEdit


No. English Patigulh
1Iȷṣ(wo)
2you (singular)ɒṡ(du)
3heɑż(ta)
4weɑbiż(tcia)
5you (plural)żƞɑż(anta)
6theyɑżʎ(tam)
7thisᴚṣu(kolh)
8thatṣu(olh)
9hereᴚṣᴚ(kok)
10thereṣᴚ(ok)
11whoɑżu(talh)
12whatƞżƞ(nan)
13whereɑṣᴚ(tok)
14whenɑṣb(toc)
15howɑṣqɑ(tost)
16notżƞ(an)
17allʞṣnṣ(holo)
18manyɑżɒṣ(tado)
19someqı̣(se)
20fewyiṡ(fiu)
21otherżnɑ(alt)
22oneſżɒ(jad)
23twoɒṣq(dos)
24threeqżƞ(san)
25fourſṣƞ(jon)
26fiveyżi(fai)
27bigɒżi(dai)
28longnṣƞ(lon)
29wideȷiɒı̣(wide)
30thickʞṩ(hou)
31heavyyị(fei)
32smallᴚṣ(ko)
33shortbṣɒ(cod)
34narrowqʌṣ(sbo)
35thinſżqı̣u(jaselh)
36womanſżƞ(jan)
37man (adult male)ƞżʎ(nam)
38man (human being)ʞṣʎ(hom)
39childᴚiɒṣ(kido)
40wifeʞżnı̣(hale)
41husbandʌı̣ᴚi(beki)
42motherʎṡʎż(muma)
43fatheryṡʌż(fuba)
44animalɑqṡ(tsu)
45fishyiq(fis)
46birdɑṡiɒ(tuid)
47dogqƞṡʌi(snubi)
48lousebẓqż(crsa)
49snakeṡɑżʞṡ(utahu)
50wormniκ(lig)
51treeʎṡɒ(mud)
52forestʎṣni(moli)
53sticknṣɒ(rod)
54fruitκṣqż(gosa)
55seedƞı̣ɑż(neta)
56leafı̣qż(esa)
57rootnṡɒ(lud)
58barkȷżƞ(wan)
59flowerʞṡżƞż(huana)
60grassȷżnż(wala)
61ropeƞżȷż(nawa)
62skinviy(pif)
63meatſṣκ(jog)
64bloodᴚı̣ɑq(kets)
65boneqżƞż(sans)
66fat
67eggʌṣu(bolh)
68hornɑqṡƞṣ(tsuno)
69tailſı̣ʌż(jeba)
70featherſṣʎṣ(jomo)
71hairʎṣyż(mofa)
72headżɑʎż(atma)
73earżɒṣ(ado)
74eyeṣſṣ(ojo)
75noseʌiqż(bisa)
76mouthyı̣nż(fela)
77toothɑṡq(tus)
78tongueqı̣ɑṣ(seto)
79fingernailſṡʌibı̣u(jubicelh)
80footʌżu(balh)
81legżbi(aci)
82kneeżbibı̣u(acicelh)
83handżʎṡ(amu)
84wingɑqẓʌż(tsrba)
85bellyɒṡy(duf)
86gutsκżɑq(gats)
87neckʌṣqż(bosa)
88backʌịᴚ(beik)
89breastṩvżi(oupai)
90heartᴚnṣ(klo)
91liverκżƞ(gan)
92drinkbiniṡ(ciliu)
93eatɑżʌ(tab)
94biteſżṡ(jau)
95suckbiqżκ(cisag)
96spitvṣi(poi)
97vomitṣɑṡ(otu)
98blowyṡᴚi(fuki)
99breatheyṡbi(fuci)
100laughᴚqż(ksa)
101seeɑqı̣ƞ(tsen)
102hearżṡɒi(audi)
103knowqinż(sila)
104thinkɒiⴑᴚ(dingk)
105smellqṡʎ(sum)
106fearᴚṡżi(kuai)
107sleepƞı̣u(nelh)
108liveʎṣʞż(moha)
109diebiƞı̣(cine)
110killᴚẓṣq(kros)
111fightȷżu(walh)
112huntɒżnı̣(dale)
113hitʞiɑ(hit)
114cutᴚżɒ(kad)
115splityṡƞ(fun)
116stabɑbż(tca)
117scratchᴚiκṡż(kigua)
118digȷżɒ(wad)
119swimſṡſṣƞ(jujon)
120fly
121walkʌṡκ(bug)
122comeᴚżʎ(kam)
123lieɑżƞ(tan)
124sitqṡżu(sualh)
125standɑbi(tci)
126turnʞiƞż(hina)
127fallɒı̣u(delh)
128giveκịy(geif)
129holdʞṣnṡɒ(holud)
130squeezeɒbiż(dcia)
131rubſṩ(jou)
132washȷżbi(waci)
133wipeɑżɑq(tats)
134pullvṡu(pulh)
135pushɑṣı̣(toe)
136throwᴚiƞṣ(kino)
137tieʌżƞɑżi(bantai)
138sew
139countʎı̣qı̣(mase)
140sayqʌiᴚ(sbik)
141sing
142playnịv(leip)
143float
144flow
145freeze
146swell
147sunƞiʎż(nima)
148moonnṡƞż(luna)
149starqɒı̣nż(stela)
150waterʎiq(mis)
151rainqʎı̣(sme)
152riverᴚṡż(kua)
153lakeʎiqʎi(mismi)
154seaṡʎ(um)
155saltqżnż(sala)
156stoneqɒṩ(sdou)
157sandqƞżɒ(snad)
158dust
159earthɑṡɑi(tuti)
160cloudᴚnżʎṣ(klamo)
161fogᴚini(kili)
162skyɑı̣ƞ(ten)
163windᴚżqị(kasei)
164snowſṡᴚi(juki)
165iceɑbiu(tcilh)
166smokeɑżʌżᴚ(tabak)
167fireʎṣᴚṩ(mokou)
168ash
169burnbżṡ(cau)
170roadɒṣu(dolh)
171mountainſżʎż(jama)
172rednṡʌi(lubi)
173greennṡiƞ(luin)
174yellowı̣nṣ(elo)
175whiteʞṣȷżɑ(howat)
176blackʌnżiᴚ(blaik)
177nightſżſı̣(jaje)
178dayɑżκ(tag)
179yearżƞṣ(ano)
180warmɑżᴚżi(takai)
181coldqżʎṣi(samoi)
182fullʎiɑq(mits)
183newƞı̣ȷṣ(newo)
184oldṣnṡɒṣ(oludo)
185goodʌṣƞ(bon)
186badʌnżq(blas)
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190roundʎżu(malh)
191sharp
192dullʌżκż(baga)
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correctʌiևκṩ(binggou)
197near
198farṣı̣ƞ(oen)
199rightƞżnṣ(nalo)
200leftƞżkı̣(na'e)
201atɒı̣(de)
202inni(li)
203withɑṣ(to)
204andı̣ɑ(et)
205ifſṡκ(jug)
206becauseᴚṡq(kus)
207nameƞı̣ʎ(nem)


Example textEdit


Daily phraseEdit

  1. żnṣʞżſṩ;(Alohajou!) Hello!
  2. żnṩ;(Alou!) Hi!
  3. qżnṡiƞżnż;(Saluinara!) Goodbye!
  4. qżnị;(Salei!) Bye!
  5. qṣniʎżqı̣ƞ,(solimasen.) Sorry.
  6. żniκżƞqż,(Aligansa) Thank you!
  7. qκı̣ɒżi;(Sgedai) Fuск уоu!
    • Because if you can't swear in a conlang, it will be a totally failure.

"Our tent is missing!"Edit

P.S.: Here are the marks I used in word-to-word translating version.

  • N=Nominative I=Instrumental D=Dative A=Accusative
  • Present Particle=-in' (In order to distinguish it from gerund)
  • "Past Gerund"=-eng "Present Gerund"=-ing "Future Gerund"=-to
Vżɑbiṩniı̣ɑΠı̣ʎiniſżʎżɒı̣ſżʎżyṡnɒiyżƞκṩkı̣uᴚı̣ʎʌṣⴑ,ΔṣbΠı̣ʎiniżɒı̣qɑqżɑṣniƞ。
PatcioulietLemilijamadeeijamafuldifangou'elhkembong.TocLemilijadestsatolin,
PatchouliandRemiliato-atamountain-fulareago-edcamp-to.WhenRemiliais-edsleep-in',
Patchouli and Remilia went to a mountainious area to camp. When Remilia was sleeping,
Vżɑbiṩniȷżᴚı̣bı̣uΠı̣ʎiniſżı̣ɑqʌiᴚı̣uẓ。⌊Πı̣ʎi。ɑqı̣ƞṣƞbṩyṡuȷı̣nᴚṣɑı̣,⌉,Πı̣ʎiniſż
Patciouliwakecelhlemilijaetsbikelhr,"Lemi,tsenoncoufulwelkote.".Lemilija
Patchouliawake-ize-edRemiliaandsay-edthat:"Remi,lookthatstar-fulsky-Aplease."Remilia
Patchouli enwaked Remilia and said:"Remi, look at that starry sky". Remilia
niqʌiᴚı̣uẓ。⌊ẓƞ。Vżɑbiṩni,ƞz̊ƞɒı̣qʌnżq,⌉,⌊Δqı̣ƞɒı̣;⌉Vżɑbiṩniiᴚżniqʌiᴚı̣uẓ。
lisbikelhr,"Rn,Patciouli.Nåndesblas."."Tsende!"Patciouliikalisbikelhr,
re-speak-edthat:"Hmm,Patchouli.What?isbad."."Lookplease!"Patchoulianger-lysay-edthat:
responded:"Uh-huh, Patchouli. What's wrong?" "Look at it!" Patchouli said angrily,
⌈z̊ƞʞı̥ɒɒṡịƞiɒiⴑᴚbẓƞṣ,⌋
"ånhe̥ddueinidingkcrno."
"Un-have?you-Nanythink-tion-A"
"Haven't you any thoughts?"
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