The author wishes to make it clear this project is currently undergoing significant construction or revamp.
By all means, take a look around. Thank you.
Progress 93%


This page is basically a English-translated English-rewritten version of 帕提语 on a Chinese conlang wiki. No, even further. I started re-writing the original Chinese version basing on this page.


Patigulh
Type Aggultinating
Alignment Nominative-Accusative
Head direction Mixed, Basically initial
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders 2
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 76%
Statistics
Nouns 50%
Verbs 95%
Adjectives 67%
Syntax 80%
Words 1500 of 1500
Creator 简体中文使用者
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Classification and Dialects[edit | edit source]


Patigulh(/'pʌtɪgʊl/, VżɑiκṡЦ/'pʰatʰik⁼uɫʷ/, lit."Language of Patchouli") is an artlang created by Kaihan Zhang, a Chinese student.

In the Patigulh universe, Patigulh is spoken by about 120 million people in Patikyou and is the official language of it. Numerous dialectical varieties also exist.

Patikyou(VżɑiᴚȷS̱̄/'pʰatʰikʰɪəʊ/, lit."Land of Patchouli") is an empire in an alternate universe which is far from ours.

Phonology[edit | edit source]


Vovel[edit | edit source]

Front Central Back
High i y ɨ u
Mid e ø o
Low

Consonants[edit | edit source]

Bilabial Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive plain p⁼ t⁼ k⁼ ʔ
aspirated
Fricative f s ʃ (ɕ) x
Africative plain t͡s⁼ t͡ʃ⁼ (t͡ɕ⁼)
aspirated t͡sʰ t͡ʃʰ (t͡ɕʰ)
Approximant ʋ~w l ɬʷ ɹ̱ j
  1. [h/kʰ/k⁼] are palatalised [ɕ/tɕʰ/tɕ⁼] before [i], but the spelling doesn't change.
  2. [pʰ/tʰ/kʰ] are disaspiratised [p⁼/t⁼/k⁼] after[s/ʂ], the spelling also change.
  3. [p⁼/t⁼/k⁼] are unreleased [p̚/t̚/k̚] at the end of a syllable, expect when ends with two consonants like [lp⁼].

Syllables[edit | edit source]

The basic syllable structure of Patigulh is "(CCC)(A)V(A)(CCC)". Where "A" stands for Approximants which are indicated by vovel or digraph letters. A consonant cluster can (but rarely) have up to three consonants, and one or two normally.

Words may begin with a stop with an "s" before it, or a affricative. Words may end with a stop with an "s" before or after it, or a nasal with a same-POA stop or fricative.

If odd number of consonants are between syllables, the later one will get one more consonant than the former. As in ɒiևᴚbẓƞ(ding-kcrn)thought. If it was even number, they will get same amount of consonants. As in ɑżʌbẓƞ(tab-crn)food. But affricatives are treated as single consonant: As in vżɑqi(pa-tsi)knowledgeable.

Stress[edit | edit source]

Words are stressed on the second-to-last syllable, and nonstandard stress is indicated by an accent mark over the vowel of the stressed syllable.

The stress of a Vowel-Consonant-Vowel word is commonly on the last vowel, it is considered a nonstandard stress and thus should be indicated.

  • Compare ṣqı̯(Osé)[o'sɛ]"I teach" and ṣbı̣(Oce)['ɔʃe]"from that time"
  • A Class Ⅱ verb can have its stress not on its stem, but on the syllable after the stem:
  • ṣqı̯u(Osélh)"to teach"ṣqı̯(Osé)"I teach"ṣqiʎṣq(Osímas)"We teach"

The suffixes never affect a word's stress. Like:

  • The stress of qżʌżn-ż('sabal-a)"cat-ɴᴏᴍ" is still on the "sa", not on the second-to last syllable like "sa'bala". Pay attention to that it is not considered a "nonstandard" stress.

As for compound words, the stress is on the last word's original stress.

Writing System[edit | edit source]


Patigulh is written in Hijilaiya(ᖷiκinẓ̇ȷZ̄/xitɕ⁼i'laija/, lit."Saint-script"), which looks like Latin letters. The reason is that a passing-by time-traveller accidently dropped his comic books into the Patigulh universe when getting lost in the time-axis.

The Latin transliteration given below is never used by Patikyou people, only by the author, in order to make Patigulh more readable.

There are recently 27 letters in Hijilaiya.

Consonant letters
Letter Vv ʋ Yy ʯ Λʌ л ⅄ʎ ɦ
Phonetic pʰ ‹p› f ‹f› p⁼ ‹b› m ‹m›
Letter Ɑɑ ɑ ᑫq ɋ ɒ Ьb ɓ
Phonetic tʰ ‹t› s ‹s› t⁼ ‹d› ʃ ‹c›
Letter ꓘᴚ ᖷʞ ʞ 𝖪ĸ ʀ ᖶk ƙ
Phonetic kʰ ‹k› x ‹h› k⁼ ‹g› ʔ ‹'›
Letter Πn n ᒣƞ ɳ Цu u և
Phonetic l ‹l› n ‹n› ɫʷ ‹lh› ŋ ‹ng›
Vowel letters
Letter ȷ ʃ Γſ l
Phonetic j ‹y› ɹ ‹z› w ‹w›
Letter Īi ì Z̄ż S̄ṡ
Phonetic i/ɪ ‹i› ᴀ/ɐ ‹a› u/ʊ ‹u›
Letter I̱ı̣ ı̗ Ẕẓ S̱ṣ
Phonetic ɛ/e ‹e› ɨ/ᵻ ‹r› ɔ/o ‹o›
Letter S̱̄ṩ s̗̀ Ẕ̄ẓ̇ z̗̀
Phonetic ɔu/əʊ ‹ou› ai/ɐe ‹ai›
Diagraphs
Letter ɑq ɒq ɑb ɒb ṡi ṣı̣ ᴚi ʞi κi
Phonetic tsʰ ‹ts› ts⁼ ‹ds› tʃʰ ‹tc› tʃ⁼ ‹dc› y ‹ui› ø ‹oe› tɕʰi ‹qi› ɕi ‹xi› tɕ⁼i ‹ji›

Orthography[edit | edit source]

u(lh) only appears at the end of a word. If any letter appear after it, the u(lh) will become a n(l).

  • qʌiu(sbilh)"game" → qʌinʌṡᴚ(sbilbuk)"gamebook"

Unless when appearing at the end of a word, v(p), ɑ(t) or ᴚ(k) won't appear behind a q(s). If they had to, they only become ʌ(b), ɒ(d) or κ(g).

  • ʞżƞżqı̣q(hanases)"he says" + -ɑ-(d)"-ed"ʞżƞżqɒı̣q(hanasdes)"he said"

Plosives like p/t/k/b/d/g, when followed by another plosive, the first one will be reduced to a [ʔ]. The spelling only changes when the two plosives have the same places of articulation.

  • ɑżʌı̣q(tabes)"he ate" + -ɑ-(d)"-ed"ɑżʌɒı̣q(tabdes)[tʰɐʔt⁼ɛs]"he ate"
  • ɑżʌı̣q(tabes)"he ate" + -ʌ-(b)"will do"ɑżkʌı̣q(ta'bes)[tʰɐʔp⁼ɛs]"he will eat"

Spellings like ȷi(yi), ſṡ(wu) or even ʃẓ(zr) are banned in Patigulh.

ᴚ(k), κ(g) or ʞ(h) paralize before i(i), but the spelling doesn't change. And they don't paralize before ȷ(y). For example: ᴚiṩ(qiou) is pronounced as /tɕʰɪəʊ/, and ᴚȷṩ(kyou) is pronounced as /kɪəʊ/, thus:

  • Kı̣ƞqṩᴚȷṩ(Gensoukyou)"Fantasy-land"

While:

  • Kı̣ƞqṩᴚiṩ(Gensouqiou)"Fantasy-ball"

q(s) paralize before i(i) in some dialects, but the spelling doesn't change.

Punctuation[edit | edit source]

Punctuation , ; ⌊ ⌉ ⌊⌊ ⌉⌉ ◌̊ ◌̥ ◌ ◌ 。。。 ·
Name Period Comma Exclam-
ation
Exclam-
comma
Quotation
marks
Double
quotation
marks
Rised-
tone
mark
Accent
mark
Ellipsis Hyphen
Vżɑbiṩni ʞżƞżq ẓ。 ⌊Z̄nṣʞżȷṩ⨟ ſṣq ƞı̣λż ɒı̣q ⌊⌊Vżɑbiṩni⌉⌉,⌉, ᗄi ʞżƞżqı̣u ƞz̊ƞ, Δbiż ʞżƞżqı̣u ẓ bi ɒı̣q Vżɑbiṩni; Z̄żż。。。 ȷṣʎṣ。。,
Patchouli says: "Hello! My name is 'Patchouli'". What did she say? She said that she is Patchouli! Ah... maybe....

If the quotation can be considered as a word in the sentence, a punction should be add both inside and outside the quotation. Otherwise, punctions should only be added inside the quotation marks.

  • Jṣ żnʞżƞżqɒı̣ ⌊żnṣʞżȷṩ,⌉, (Wo alhanasde "Alohajou.".) I didn't say "Hello".
  • Jṣ。 ⌊żnṣʞżȷṩ,⌉ (Wo, "Alohajou.") Me: "Hello."

The punction inside a quotation can be omitted if it is a period, unless it appears between a double quotation mark and a single quotation mark:

  • Jṣ ʞżƞżqɒı̣ ⌊Jṣ żnʞżƞżqɑı̣ ⌊⌊żnṣʞżȷṩ⌉⌉,⌉, (Wo hanasde "Wo alhanasde 'Alohajou'.".) I said "I didn't say 'Hello'".
  • Jṣ。 ⌊żnṣʞżȷṩ⌉ (Wo, "Alohajou") Me: "Hello"

If only the first half of the sentence needs exclaiming, an exclaim-comma should be used.

  • Jṣi⨟ ſṣ ᴚṣᴚı̣ƞ iu, (Woi!, wo kok ilh.) "Hey, I'm here!"

There is no question mark in Patigulh. In interrogative sentences, there should be a rised tone(or linguistically, "suprafix") on the word being asked about, whose dots should be changed into rings (or "rised-tone mark"):

  • ꓘṣnż ɒı̣q ᴚı̥ȷs̥. (kola des kewo?.) "This is what?."
  • ᖷı̥z̥ ɑżʌɑı̣q ᴚṣu. (wer? tabelh kolh) "Who? ate this."

There is no colon in Patigulh. A comma is placed wherever, in English, a colon would be used.

  • Jṣ ʞżƞżq。 ⌊żnṣʞżȷṩ,⌉, (Wo hanas, "Alohajou.".) I say:"Hello.".

The hyphen is used where English would use one. In addition, it is used in multy-word proper nouns, such as a book's name.

  • Πż·nżȷı̣ƞyżʌqṣ·Kı̣ƞqṩᴚȷS̱̄ɒı̣ƞ·Ьı̣ɒiЦ (La-layenfabso-GensoukyOU-CediLH)The Plan to Harem-ize Gensoukyou

Capitalization[edit | edit source]

The first letter of any noun(or gerund) should be capitalized. And the last letter of a proper noun should be capitalized too. Case suffixes of proper nouns should be placed before the capitalized last letter.

  • Aṡiᴚſż ɑżʌ ꓘẓ̇ᴚiſṣ,(SuikAwa tab Kaiqiwo.)"Suika eats cake."
  • Aṡiᴚżſż ɑżʌ ꓘẓ̇ᴚĪſṣ,(Suikawa tab KaiqIwo.)"Watermelon eats Keiki."

Name of books, as is written as many words connected with hyphens, should be written in italics with its first and last letter capitalized. If a noun or another proper noun appears in it, the original capitalization is preserved:

  • Πż·nżȷı̣ƞyżʌqṣ·Kı̣ƞqṩᴚȷS̱̄ɒı̣ƞ·Ьı̣ɒiЦſż ɒı̣q ż Λṡᴚṣ (La-layenfabso-GensoukyOU-CediLH des a Buko)The Plan to Harem-ize Gensoukyou is a book.

Grammar[edit | edit source]


Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No Yes Yes No Yes Yes
Nouns No Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article Yes No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


Nouns[edit | edit source]

In Patigulh, nouns decline based on number and case, gender is shown by atricles.

Number[edit | edit source]

Usually, plural form of a countable noun is made by adding plural suffix -ʎ(m) to the ending of the singular noun, regardless of whether the word ends by a consonant or vowel, except becoming -iʎ(im) after another "m".

  • qżʌżu(sabalh)"cat"qżʌżnʎ(sabalm)"cats"
  • ʎiᴚi(miqi)"mouse"ʎiᴚiʎ(mikim)"mouse"

However, some nouns change irregularly.

  • ṣȷṣ(oyo)"eye"ı̣ȷı̣(eye)"eyes"
  • ṩvẓ̇(oupai)"boob"ṩvẓ̇(oupai)"boobs"

In patigulh, uncountable(mass) nouns can have a "singular"(technically "singulative") form made by attaching a -ƞ(n), or -iƞ(in) after another "n", after the stem.

  • ʎinẓ̇q(milais)"rice"ʎinẓ̇qƞ(milaisn)"a grain of rice"
  • ʎiq(mis)"water"ʎiqƞ(misn)"a vessel of water"

Case[edit | edit source]

4 cases are marked in Patigul, They are:

  1. Nominative — marks the subject.
  2. Ablative —marks where the action starts “from”.
    • Also marks the instrument(or what Patikyou grammarians call, "indirect subject")
  3. Dative — marks where the action goes “to”.
    • Also the indirect object.
  4. Accusative — marks the object.

Take two pairs of English and Patigulh sentences for example:

The mouse gave a flower to the cat with its hands.
Πı̣ ʎiᴚiſż ɑżq ṣɑı̣ʎı̣ nı̣ qżʌżni κiyı̣u ż ynżƞżſṣ.
The dog threw an apple from the tree to the house.
Πı̣ qƞṡʌiſż nż ᴚiſı̣ nż ʞżqi ᴚiƞṣȷı̣u ż ẓ̇vṩſṣ.

Pay attention to ṣɑı̣ʎı̣(oteme)"hand-ᴩʟ-ᴀʙʟ". It shows that the plural suffix comes after the case suffix.

Noun
End Original
(Vocalative)
Nominative ablative Dative Accusative
Constant ʎiᴚi(miki) ʎiᴚiſż(mikiwa) ʎiᴚiſı̣(mikiwe) ʎiᴚiſi(mikiwi) ʎiᴚiſṣ(mikiwo)
Vowel qżʌżu(sabalh) qżʌżnż(sabala) qżʌżnı̣(sabale) qżʌżni(sabali) qżʌżn(sabalo)

What case the noun before the verb is can affect the meaning of the whole sentence.

Jṣ viᴚq i nṣniſı̣,
(Wo piks e loliwe.)
Jṣ viᴚq i nṣniſṣ,
(Wo piks e loliwo.)
I paint (about) a girl(indirect object). I paint (on) a girl(direct object).

Besides four "regular" cases, Patigulh also features four other "sub-cases".

Noun
End Original
(Vocalative)
Sub-nominative Sub-ablative Sub-dative Sub-accusative
Constant ʎiᴚi(miki) ʎiᴚiɒı̣ẓ(miqider) ʎiᴚiɒı̣q(miqides) ʎiᴚiɒı̣ʎ(miqidem) ʎiᴚiɒı̣ƞ(miqiden)
Vowel qżʌżu(sabalh) qżʌżnı̣ẓ(sabaler) qżʌżniq(sabales) qżʌżnı̣ʎ(sabalem) qżʌżnı̣ƞ(sabalen)

Sub-cases are used for preposotion phrases, participle phrases and gerunds.

  • Jṣɒı̣ẓ Δżʌiƞż Aṡiᴚżʎı̣ƞ qżvnibı̣u AṡiᴚZ̄ſṣ(Woder tabina suikamen saplicelh Suikawo)"My eating watermelons surprises Suika."

I'm not sure what this phenomenon is actually called among real linguists. The most similar term I found is "Oblique-Nominative/Ablative/etc." but I doubt if it does makes sense.

Gender[edit | edit source]

There are 2 genders in Patigulh, which is not divided by sеx but by consciousity. It is mainly shown by changing the article of the noun.

It should be noticed that a noun's gender isn't fixed. For example, a train can be conscious when operated by a driver, a person can be unconscious when knocked out.

Noun
First letter Conscious Unconscious
Consonant nż qżʌżu(ala has)"the house"
ż qżʌżu(a has)"a house"
nı̣ qżʌżu(ele sabalh)"the cat"
i qżʌżu(i sabalh)"a cat"
Vovel żu ẓ̇vṩ(al aipou)"the apple"
żƞ ẓ̇vṩ(an aipou)"an apple"
ı̣u ṣqκiż(el osjia)"the teacher"
ı̣ƞ ṣqκiż(en osjia)"a teacher"

The only three kinds of words that needs seprating genders are: articles(as menitoned above), verbs in 3rd/4th person declension and third personal pronoun bi/ɑż(ci/ta)it-ᴄɴsᴄ/it-ᴜɴsᴄ.

Among the verbs, a special verb iu/żu(ilh/alh)exist-ᴄɴsᴄ/exist-ᴜɴsᴄ conjugates irregularly by gender, not only in 3rd/4th person declension.

Usage
Z̄ ⅄ı̣ᴚżʎṣʌiſż ɒı̣ ꓘṣᴚı̣ƞ żu, Ɑż ɒżɑ ɒẓ̇,
a mekamobiwa de koken alh. ta dat dai.
A.ᴜɴsᴄ machine-mobile-ɴᴏᴍ at ᴩʀᴏx-ᴩʟᴀᴄᴇ-s.ᴀᴄᴄ exist.ᴜɴsᴄ . 3ʀᴅ.ᴜɴsᴄ.ɴᴏᴍ ᴄᴏᴩ.ᴩʀᴇ.3sg.ᴜɴsᴄ big .
There is a (unoperated)train. It is big.
Ī ⅄ı̣ᴚżʎṣʌiſż ɒı̣ ꓘṣᴚı̣ƞ iu, Ьi ɒı̣q ɒẓ̇,
a mekamobiwa de koken ilh. ci des dai.
A.ᴄɴsᴄ machine-mobile-ɴᴏᴍ at ᴩʀᴏx-ᴩʟᴀᴄᴇ-s.ᴀᴄᴄ exist.ᴄɴsᴄ . 3ʀᴅ.ᴄɴsᴄ.ɴᴏᴍ ᴄᴏᴩ.ᴩʀᴇ.3sg.ᴄɴsᴄ big .
There is a (operated)train. It is big.

Pronouns[edit | edit source]

In Patigulh, pronouns are divided as personal pronouns and demonstrative pronouns.

Personal pronouns[edit | edit source]

Personal pronouns pluralize based on person, number, case and gender(3rd pronoun only).

There are three different methods to decline, but the declensions of sub-cases are same with normal noun's in all methods. Except in the half-irregular one, where the main-cases' and sub-cases' declension are the same.

Personal pronouns with irregular case declinations
(Vocalative) Nominative (Genetive) Ablative Dative Accusative
1st

sg.

Normal Γṣ(Wo) Γṣ(wo) ſṣq(wos) Γṣq(Wos) Γiẓ(Wir) Γi(Wi)
Polite ⅄ṡ(Mu) ⅄ṡ(Mu) ʎṡq(mus) ⅄ṡq(Mus) ⅄iẓ(Mir) ⅄i(Mi)
2nd

sg.

Normal Dṡ(Du) Dṡ(Du) ɒṡq(dus) Dṡq(Dus) Diẓ(Dir) Di(Di)
Polite ᒣṣƞ(Non) ᒣṣƞ(Non) ƞṣq(nos) ᒣṣq(Nos) ᒣiẓ(Nir) ᒣiƞ(Nin)
Personal pronouns with half-regular case declinations
(Vocalative) Nominative (Genetive) Ablative Dative Accusative
3rd

sg.

Conscious Ɑż(Ta) Ɑżẓ(Tar) ɑżq(tas) Ɑżq(Tas) Ɑżʎ(Tam) Ɑżƞ(Tan)
Unconscious Ьi(Ci) Ьiẓ(Cir) biq(cis) Ьiq(Cis) Ьiʎ(Cim) Ьiƞ(Cin)
4th sg. ᑫṡ(Su) ᑫṡẓ(Sur) qṡq(sus) ᑫṡq(Sus) ᑫṡʎ(Sum) ᑫṡƞ(Sun)
Interrogative Γı̣(We) Γı̣ẓ(Wer) ſı̣q(wes) Γı̣q(Wes) Γı̣ʎ(Wem) Γı̣ƞ(Wen)
Personal pronouns with regular case declinations
(Vocalative) Nominative (Genetive) Ablative Dative Accusative
1st

pl.

Exclusive Z̄ɑẓ̇(Atai) Z̄ɑẓ̇ſż(Ataiwa) żɑẓ̇ſı̣(ataiwe) Z̄ɑẓ̇ſı̣(Ataiwe) Z̄ɑẓ̇ſi(Ataiwi) Z̄ɑẓ̇ſṣ(Ataiwo)
Inclusive Z̄ƞɑẓ̇(Antai) Z̄ƞɑẓ̇ſż(Antaiwa) żƞɑẓ̇ſı̣(antaiwe) Z̄ƞɑẓ̇ſı̣(Antaiwe) Z̄ƞɑẓ̇ſi(Antaiwi) Z̄ƞɑẓ̇ſṣ(Antaiwo)
2nd pl. Z̄ƞɑż(Anta) Z̄ƞɑżſż(Antawa) żƞɑżſı̣(antawe) Z̄ƞɑżſı̣(Antawe) Z̄ƞɑżſi(Antawi) Z̄ƞɑżſṣ(Antawo)
3rd

pl.

Conscinious Ɑẓ̇ƞ(Tain) Ɑẓ̇ƞż(Taina) ɑẓ̇ƞı̣(Taine) Ɑẓ̇ƞı̣(Taine) Ɑẓ̇ƞi(Taini) Ɑẓ̇ƞṣ(Taino)
Unconsc. ᑫẓ̇ƞ(Sain) ᑫẓ̇ƞż(Saina) qẓ̇ƞı̣(saine) ᑫẓ̇ƞı̣(Saine) ᑫẓ̇ƞi(Saini) ᑫẓ̇ƞṣ(Saino)
4nd pl. Ẕ̄ƞ(Ain) Ẕ̄ƞż(Aina) ẓ̇ƞı̣(aine) Ẕ̄ƞı̣(Aine) Ẕ̄ƞi(Aini) Ẕ̄ƞṣ(Aino)
  1. Z̄ƞɑżn(antai)"you&we" is inclusive and Z̄ɑẓ̇(atai)"we" is exclusive. That is: Z̄ƞɑẓ̇(antai)"you&we" includes "you" inside "we", while Z̄ɑẓ̇(atai)"we" does not:
    VżɑbiṩnĪſż ʞżƞżqı̣q ЬiƞᴚĪſi ẓ。 ⌊Z̄nżṡqɑ (Z̄ƞɑẓ̇/Z̄ɑẓ̇)ſi ᴚı̣ᴚṣƞı̣u qʎiɒż,⌉,
    PatcioulIwa hanases CinqIwi r: "Alaust (Antai/Atai)wi kekonel smida.".
    Patchouli tells Shinki: "Please allow (you&me/us) get married".
    →Patchouli wants to marry (Shinki/Alice).
  2. Patigulh features a "fourth person" pronoun ᑫṡ(su)"alt-it"(or "Obviative" in real linguists). It is used when the "third person" pronoun had already referred to someone else(normally the subject), for example:
    VżɑbiṩnĪſż ſiɒiɑı̣ ẓ ʎżniqZ̄ſż ſżq ɑżɑqκṣ (biq/qṡq) S̱̄vẓ̇ſṣ,
    PatcioulIwa widite r MalisAwa was tatsgo (cis/sus) OUpaiwo.
    Patchouli saw that Marisa was touching (her/alt-her) chest.
    →Marisa is touching (Patchouli's/herselfs) chest.

The genetive case of a personal pronoun is same to its ablative form, except having the first letter in lower case for it is used as an adjective, not a noun.

Add a żṡɑṣ(auto)"self" after a pronoun's genetive form to form its reflexive form.

Demonstrative pronouns[edit | edit source]

Demonstrative pronouns is very regular in Patigulh. It can be numerously generated by using the pre- and suffixes shown below:

demonstrative pronouns
Proximal Medial¹ Distal Existential Universal Interro
gative
Negatory
Elective Assertive
Preffix ᴚṣ~(ko~)
h~
qṣ~(so~)
thy~
ṣ~(o~)
th~
ȷṣ~(jo~)
anywh~
ʎṣ~(mo~)
somewh~
ᴚṣ~(ho~)
everywh~
ɑṣ~(to~)
wh~
ƞṣ~(no~)
no~

Place

ᴚṣᴚ(kok)
here
qṣᴚ(sok)
thyre
ṣᴚ(ok)
there
ȷṣᴚ(jok)
anywhere
ʎṣᴚ(mok)
somewhere
ᴚṣᴚ(hok)
everywhere
ɑṣᴚ(tok)
where
ƞṣᴚ(nok)
nowhere
Adj. ᴚṣƞ(kon)
this
qṣƞ(son)
thy
ṣƞ(on)
that
ȷṣƞ(jon)
any
ʎṣƞ(mon)
some
ᴚṣƞ(hon)
every
ɑṣƞ(ton)
which
ƞṣƞ(non)
no
Noun ᴚṣu(kolh)
this
qṣu(solh)
thine
ṣu(olh)
that
ȷṣu(jolh)
anything
ʎṣu(molh)
something
ᴚṣu(holh)
everything
ɑṣu(tolh)
whichthing
ƞṣu(nolh)
nothing
Adv. ᴚṣqɑ(kost)
thishow
qṣqɑ(sost)
thyhow
ṣqɑ(ost)
thathow
ȷṣqɑ(jost)
anyhow
ʎṣqɑ(most)
somehow
ᴚṣqɑ(host)
everyhow
ɑṣqɑ(tost)
how
ƞṣqɑ(nost)
no way
Time ᴚṣb(koc)
this time
qṣb(soc)
thy time
ṣb(oc)
that time
ȷṣb(joc)
anytime
ʎṣb(moc)
sometime
ᴚṣb(hoc)
everytime
ɑṣb(toc)
which time
ƞṣb(noc)
no time
People ᴚṣƞɑ(kont)
thisbody
qṣƞɑ(sont)
thybody
ṣƞɑ(ont)
thatbody
ȷṣƞɑ(jont)
anybody
ʎṣƞɑ(mont)
somebody
ᴚṣƞɑ(hont)
everybody
ɑṣƞɑ(tont)
whichbody²
ƞṣƞɑ(nont)
nobody
Reason ᴚṣyṣ(kofo)
herefore
qṣyṣ(sofo)
thyrefore
ṣyṣ(ofo)
therefore
ȷṣyṣ(jofo)
anywhe-refore
ʎṣyṣ(mofo)
somewhe-refore
ᴚṣyṣ(hofo)
everywhe-refore
ɑṣyṣ(tofo)
wherefore
ƞṣyṣ(nofo)
nowherefore

P.S.:Red words are made-up English words to appproximate Patigulh words.

The difference between qṣƞ(son)"this" and ṣƞ(on)"thy" is that qṣƞ is something close to the listener, while ṣƞ is something far from both the listener and the speaker.

ɑṣƞɑ(tont)"whichbody" and ſı̣(we)"who" means the same. But ɑṣƞɑ(tont)"whichbody" is only used as a conjunction of nominal clauses, while ſı̣(we)"who" is only used as a pronoun. The same goes with ɑṣu(tolh)"which thing" and ƞżƞ(nan)"what".

Adjectives[edit | edit source]

Adjectives in Patigul do not decline. Comparatives and superlatives are shown by two adverbs: κı̣ƞ(gen)"more" and qẓ̇(sai)"most".

  • κżṡ(gau)"high"κı̣ƞ κżṣ(gen gau)"higher"qẓ̇ κżṣ(sai gau)"highest"

Verbs[edit | edit source]

Caution: This section is in reforming progress. Any given information could change.

In Patigulh, verbs conjugate basing on tense, voice, number, and person(which includes gender). Aspects are basically shown by auxialy verbs.

Class[edit | edit source]

Verbs in Patigulh are divided into two classes of declensions:

  • Class Ⅰ: Identified by having their infinitives ending with -ṡ(u): ƞṣʎṡ(nomu)"to drink"
    • Or same as their stem if the stem ends with a vovel: ſiɒi(widi)"to look/see"
    • Is the "normal" class of a verb devired from other parts of speech.
  • Class Ⅱ: Identified by having their infinitives ending with -ı̣u(elh): ɑżʌı̣u(tabelh)"to eat"
    • No verbs with their stem ending in vowel are categoried into Class Ⅱ.
    • Not productive anymore. That is, new verbs are always categoried into Class Ⅰ.

Person[edit | edit source]

Person suffix goes after tense.

Class Ⅰ declensions
1sg ~(ſ)ṣ 1pl(excl) ~(i)ʎṣq
2sg ~(ſ)i 1pl(incl)
2sg
~(i)ʎżq
3sg(anim) ~(ſ)ı̣ 3pl(anim) ~(ſ)ı̣ƞ
3sg(inam) ~(ſ)ż 3pl(inam) ~(ſ)żƞ
4sg ~(ſ)ż/ı̣ 4pl ~(ſ)ż/ı̣ƞ
Class Ⅱ declensions
1sg ~ı̣ 1pl(excl) ~iʎṣq
2sg ~ı̣qɑ 1pl(incl)
2sg
~iʎżq
3sg(anim) ~ı̣q 3pl(anim) ı̣ƞ
3sg(inam) ~żɑ
4sg ~ı̣q/ı̣ɑ 4pl ~ı̣ƞ

Tenses[edit | edit source]

The tense-aspect system of Patigulh consists of twelve(that is, 3×4) composite tenses, which is formed by composing three simple tenses and four aspects.

The simple tenses are: past tense, present tense and future tense.

Past tense is formed by adding a "t" betweem the verb's stem and person suffix. And as for future tense, it is a "b".

Tense midfixes with 3sg.anim person suffix for example
Present Past Future
ƞṣʎṡ(Ⅰ) ƞṣʎı̣(nome)drinks ƞṣʎɑı̣(nomte)drank ƞṣʎʌı̣(nombe)will drink
ɑżʌı̣u(Ⅱ) ɑżʌı̣q(tabes)eats ɑżʌɑı̣q(tabtes)ate ɑżkʌı̣q(ta'bes)will eat

Aspects[edit | edit source]

There are actually five simple aspects in Patigulh, but two of them are treated differently(see below).

The aspects are: simple(imperfect) aspect, retrospective(A.K.A. perfect) aspect, continuous aspect, prospective aspect.

  • Retrospective(Perfect) aspect: Brings attention to the consequences of a situation in the past.
  • Continuous aspect: Emphasising that the situation is ongoing, not indicating whether it is evolving.
    • Differ from English Progressive aspect(evolving; I am eating) by including both progressive aspect and stative aspect(non-evolving; I know French).
  • Prospective aspect: Brings attention to the anticipation of an imminent future situation
    • Approximate to English "be about to do" or "got to do".

The three aspects areall formed by auxiliary verbs and participles.

  • Con.: iɒż(ida)to be + Prs.Ptcp.
  • Ret.: ʞży(haf)to have + Pst.Ptcp.
  • Pro.: κı̣ɑ(get)to get + Fut.Ptcp.
Future Present Past
κı̣ɑ ɑżkʌqṣ(got ta'bso)<br\>"to get to eat" iɒż ɑżʌqṣ(ida tabso)<br\>"to be eating" ʞı̣y ɑżʌɑqṣ(hef tabtso)<br\>"to have eaten"

When not specificslly mentioned, all verbs below are in 3rd-animative singular declension in the usage chart below.

CAUTION: THIS CHART NEEDS UPDATE
Future Present Past
Normal ΓṡȷṡᴚS̱ſż ɑżkʌı̣q ⅄iqɒiZ̄ſṣ,
Yuyuko will eat Mystia.
Ptglh YYK1.png
ΓṡȷṡᴚS̱ſż ɑżʌı̣q ⅄iqɒiZ̄ſṣ,
Yuyuko eats Mystia.
Ptglh YYK2.png
ΓṡȷṡᴚS̱ſż ɑżʌɑı̣q ⅄iqɒiZ̄ſṣ,
Yuyuko ate Mystia.
Ptglh YYK3.png
Progressive ΓṡȷṡᴚS̱ſż ʌiq ɑżʌqṣ ⅄iqɒiZ̄ſṣ ɒżև ΓṩʎS̄ſż ɒżnṣu,
Yuyuko will be eating Mystia when Youmu will arrive.
Ptglh YYK1.pngPtglh YUM1.png
ΓṡȷṡᴚS̱ſż ɒı̣q ɑżʌqṣ ⅄iqɒiZ̄ſṣ ɒżև ΓṩʎS̄ſż
ɒżu,
Yuyuko is eating Mystia when Youmu arrives.
Ptglh YYK2.pngPtglh YUM2.png
ΓṡȷṡᴚS̱ſż ſżq ɑżʌqṣ ⅄iqɒiZ̄ſṣ ɒżև ΓṩʎS̄ſż ɒżnı̣u,
Yuyuko was eating Mystia when Youmu arrived.
Ptglh YYK3.pngPtglh YUM3.png
Perfect ΓṡȷṡᴚS̱ſż ʞı̣ʌ ɑżʌɑqṣ ⅄iqɒiZ̄ſṣ ɒżև ΓṩʎS̄ſż ɒżnṣu,
Yuyuko will have eaten Mystia when Youmu will arrive.
Ptglh YYK2.pngPtglh YUM1.png
ΓṡȷṡᴚS̱ſż ʞı̣q ɑżʌɑqṣ ⅄iqɒiZ̄ſṣ ɒżև ΓṩʎS̄ſż
ɒżu,
Yuyuko have eaten Mystia when Youmu arrives.
Ptglh YYK3.pngPtglh YUM2.png
ΓṡȷṡᴚS̱ſż ʞı̣ɑ ɑżʌɑqṣ ⅄iqɒiZ̄ſṣ ɒżև ΓṩʎS̄ſż ɒżnı̣u,
Yuyuko had eaten Mystia when Youmu arrived.
Ptglh YYK4.pngPtglh YUM3.png
Starting ΓṡȷṡᴚS̱ſż κı̣ɑ ɑżkʌqṣ ⅄iqɒiZ̄ſṣ ɒżև ΓṩʎS̄ſż ɒżnṣu,
Yuyuko will get to eat Mystia when Youmu will arrive.
Ptglh YYK5.pngPtglh YUM1.png
ΓṡȷṡᴚS̱ſż κı̣q ɑżkʌqṣ ⅄iqɒiZ̄ſṣ ɒżև ΓṩʎS̄ſż ɒżnṣu,
Yuyuko will get to eat Mystia when Youmu will arrive.
Ptglh YYK1.pngPtglh YUM2.png
ΓṡȷṡᴚS̱ſż κı̣ʌ ɑżkʌqṣ ⅄iqɒiZ̄ſṣ ɒżև ΓṩʎS̄ſż ɒżu,
Yuyuko get to eat Mystia when Youmu arrives.
Ptglh YYK2.pngPtglh YUM4.png
  • P.S.:In Patigulh, the clause uses the same tense as the main clause, even in Future tense.

Participles[edit | edit source]

Patriciples doesn't decline by person. Thus the Participle siffix -qṣ(so) takes the place of person suffixes.

Patriciple Future Present Past
simple ɑżkʌqṣ(ta'bso)<br\>≈"to eat" ɑżʌqṣ(tabso)<br\>≈"eating" ɑżʌɑqṣ(tabtso)<br\>"eaten"

As for the irregular verbs, their participles are based on their stem form.

Present Past Future
iɒż(ida)"to be" iɒ-(id-)"ᴄᴏᴩᴜʟᴀ-" ikɑ-(i't-)"ᴄᴏᴩᴜʟᴀ.PST-" iɒʌ(idb-)-"ᴄᴏᴩᴜʟᴀ.FUT-"
participle qṣ(idso)"being" ikɑqṣ(i'tso)"been" iɒʌqṣ(idbso)≈"to be"

Participles can also be used as an adjective or adverb.

Examples
Active Passive
Future ż yṣnʌqṣ ʞżȷı̣q
A leaf to fall
Ptglh SZH1.png ż ʌiᴚżκʌqṣ ᴚṣɑṣʌ
A word to be written
Ptglh PCL1.png
Present ż yṣnqṣ ʞżȷı̣q
A falling leaf
Ptglh SZH2.png ż ʌiᴚżκqṣ ᴚṣɑṣʌ
A word being written
Ptglh PCL2.png
Past ż yṣnɑqṣ ʞżȷı̣q
A fallen leaf
Ptglh SZH3.png ż ʌiᴚżκɑqṣ ᴚṣɑṣʌ
A written word
Ptglh PCL3.png

Unlike in English, past participles in Patigulh can't mark pasaiveness. It is marked by passive participles

Past participle Past passive participle
Meaning ı̣ ᴚżκɑqṣ ᴚṣɑṣʌ
A having written word
A word that wrote (another word).
Ptglh PCL4.png ż ʌiᴚżκɑqṣ ᴚṣɑṣʌ
A having been written word
A word that was written (by someone).
Ptglh PCL3.png

Gerunds[edit | edit source]

P.S. I once heard that English "gerund"s,real "gerund"s and "verbal noun"s aren't the same, but I've not worked that out yet.

Gerund Future Present Past
Cons ʞżƞżqʎż(hanasma)<br\>≈"to say" ʞżƞżqևż(hanasnga)<br\>"saying" ʞżƞżqƞż(hanasna)<br\>≈"having said"
Vowel ſiɒiʎʌż(widimba)<br\>≈"to see" ſiɒiևκż(widingga)<br\>"seeing" ſiɒiƞɒż(widinda)<br\>≈"having seen"

As for the irregular verbs, their gerunds are based on their stem form.

Present Past Future
iɒż(ida)"to be" iɒ-(id-)"ᴄᴏᴩᴜʟᴀ-"(Ⅱ) ikɑ-(i't-)"ᴄᴏᴩᴜʟᴀ-" iɒʌ(idb-)-"ᴄᴏᴩᴜʟᴀ-"
participle ı̣ƞɑ(ideny)"being" ikɑı̣ƞɑ(i'tent)"having been" iɒʌı̣ƞɑ(idbent)≈"to be"

The (past/future) gerunds are used to express the action happen (before/after) the verb.

Examples
Gerund
Future ṡɒṡᴚi ᴚṡᴚʌı̣ƞɑṣ (uduqi kukbento) "forget to cook" Ptglh MRS1.png
Present ṡɒṡᴚi ᴚṡᴚı̣ƞɑṣ (uduqi kukento) "forget cooking" Ptglh MRS2.png
Past ṡɒṡᴚi ᴚṡᴚɑı̣ƞɑṣ (uduqi kukteno) "forget having cooked" Ptglh MRS3.png

Irregular verbs[edit | edit source]

TO BE RE-WRITTEN

Passive voice[edit | edit source]

Passive voice is indicated by preffix ʌi-(bi-).

First letter
Consonant Vowel
ʌiɑżʌı̣u(bitabelh)"to be eaten" ʌikṣqı̣u(bi'oselh)"to be taught"

“Verbal number”[edit | edit source]

Besides three time aspects, Patigulh also features two other aspects: Momentane and Iterative.

  • Momentane: Indicates the action is sudden and short-lived.(I kicked once)
    • When the object is in plural, it also suggests that the action is applied to all the objects at once.(I ate the biscuits at once.)
  • Iterative: Expresses the repetition of an event observable on one single occasion.(I kicked for times)
    • When the object is in plural, it also suggests that the action is applied to all the objects one by one.(I ate the biscuits one by one.)

As these two aspects indicates the "times" of an action, they are treated totally different from other three "time aspects". To be specific, instead of auxiliary verb and participle, they are expressed by suffixes which looked exactly like plural and singilative suffixes.

Regular(aspectless) Momentane Iterative
ı̣ ᴚiṩqʌinκiżſż ɑiᴚı̣ nż vı̣ɒᴚiṩſṣ,
(e qiousbiljia tike la pedqiouwo)
"A football player kicks the football."
ı̣ ᴚiṩqʌinκiżſż ɑiᴚı̣ʎ nż vı̣ɒᴚiṩſṣ,
(e qiousbiljia tikem la pedqiouwo)
"A football player kicks the football repeatly."
ı̣ ᴚiṩqʌinκiżſż ɑiᴚı̣ƞ nż vı̣ɒᴚiṩſṣ,
(e qiousbiljia tiken la pedqiouwo)
"A football player kicks the football once."
ı̣ biʎṡyκsiżſż biʎṡyı̣ ʌṩᴚqʎṣ,
(e cimufjiawa cimufe bouksmo)
"A carrier carries boxes"
ı̣ biʎṡyκsiżſż biʎṡyı̣ʎ ʌṩᴚqʎṣ,
(e cimufjiawa cimufem bouksmo)
"A carrier carries boxes one by one"
ı̣ biʎṡyκsiżſż biʎṡyı̣ƞ ʌṩᴚqʎṣ,
(e cimufjiawa cimufen bouksmo)
"A carrier carries boxes at once"

When the subject is in plural:

  • Itr.Asp. suggests that the action is performed by each subject separatly.
  • Regular Aspect suggests, well, nothing.
  • Mon.Asp. suggests the subjects perform the action together.
Iterative Regular Momentane
ɑżʌiʎṣqʎ(tabimosm)"we eat separatly" ɑżʌiʎṣq(tabimos)"we eat" ɑżʌiʎṣqƞ(tabimosn)"we eat together"

Among Patikyou grammarians, these two aspects aren't regarded as aspects but "Verbal number".

Volition[edit | edit source]

Volition of in- and transitive verbs are shown differently.

Volition of intranstive verbs are indicated by case of the subject(techinally, "agent"):

  • ſi qnżyı̣,(Wi slafe)"Me sleep(accidentally)"
  • ſṣ qnżyı̣,(Wo slafe)"I sleep(delibrately)"

Volition of transtive verbs are indicated by using SVO or SOV order:

  • ſi ɑiᴚṣ nż ᴚiſṣ,(Wi tiko la qiwo)"I kick the tree(delibrately)"
  • ſṣ nż ᴚiſṣ ɑiᴚṣ,(Wi la qiwo tiko)"I the tree kick(accidentally)"

Prepositions[edit | edit source]

The nouns after a preposition should be in sub-case.

Position Prepositions[edit | edit source]

In the table below, the red words are the root words, black ones are derived words, blank combinations are considered not making sense or unneeded.

Position Prepositions and related Miscellaniouses
"at" class
(adv.prep.)
"of" class
(adj.prep)
"ward" class
(adv.)
"side" class
(n.)
ɒı̣(de)at yṣƞ(fon)of -ſżɒ(wad)-ward ʌı̣ƞ(ben)side
ɒı̣yṣƞ̣(defon)at-of
ni(li)in niyṣƞ(lifon)in-of niſżɒ(liwad)inward niʌı̣ƞ(liben)inside
ſẓ̇ɑ(wait)out ſẓ̇ɑyṣƞ(waitfon)out-of ſẓ̇ɑſżɒ(waitwad)outward ſẓ̇kʌı̣ƞ(wai'ben)outside
żƞ(an)on żƞyṣƞ(onfon)on-of żƞſżɒ(anwad)onward
ṣʌ(ob)off ṣʌyṣƞ(obfon)off-of ṣƞſżɒ(obwad)offward
ſı̣ɒı̣(wede)up(prep.) ſı̣yṣƞ(wefon)up-of ſı̣(we)up(adv.) ſı̣ʌı̣ƞ(weben)upside
qżʌɒı̣(sab)down(prep.) qżʌyṣƞ(sabfon)down-of qżʌ(sab)down(adv.) qżkʌı̣ƞ(sa'ben)downside
ƞżkı̣ɒı̣(na'ede)left-at ƞżkı̣yṣƞ(na'efon)left-of ƞżkı̣(na'e)leftward ƞżkı̣ʌı̣ƞ(na'eben)left
ƞżnṣɒı̣(nalode)right-at ƞżnṣyṣƞ(nalofon)right-of ƞżnṣ(nalo)rightward ƞżnṣʌı̣ƞ(naloben)righ
żkɒı̣(a'de)before żʌyṣƞ(abfon)before-of żʌſżɒ(abwad)forward żʌ(ab)front
ʌı̣ᴚ(bek)after ʌı̣ᴚyṣƞ(bekfon)back-of ʌı̣ᴚſżɒ(bekwad)backward ʌı̣ᴚ(bek)back

The "at" class prepositions are used to form adverbtive modifying phrases, which comes before the verb it modifies:

  • Dı̣ żnż ʞżqı̣ƞ qɒı̣vṣ. (De la hasen sdepo.) [At the house walk.] "Walk at the house".
  • Πi nż ʞżqı̣ƞ qɒı̣vṣ. (Li la hasen sdepo.) [In the house walk.] "Walk in the house".

The "of" class prepositions are used to form adjective modifying phrases, which comes before the noun it modifies:

  • Πiyṣƞ nż ᴚiɒı̣ƞ żƞ ẓ̇vṩ, (Lifon la qiden an aipou.) [In-of the tree an apple.] "An apple in the tree."
  • Jṣ ɑżʌı̣ niyṣƞ nż ᴚiɒı̣ƞ żƞ ẓ̇vṩſṣ, (Wo tabe lifon qiden an aipouwo.) [I eat in-of the trees the apples] "I eat apples in the tree."

There in no disguntion between directional and static prepositions because the directionalness is indicated by what the case of the noun to the preposition is.

Sub-Dative Sub-Acuusative Sub-Ablative
ni nż qʌṡᴚʞżqı̣ʎ qɒı̣vṣ(li la sbukhasem sdepo)"I walk into the Library" ni nż qʌṡᴚʞżqı̣ƞ qɒı̣vṣ(li la sbukhasen sdepo)"I walk in the Library" ni nż qʌṡᴚʞżqı̣q qɒı̣vṣ(li la sbukhases sdepo)"I walk from the inside of the Library"

Unlike in German, Dative noun after preposition indicates directionalness, not staticness.

  • ni biq ʞı̣ȷżɒı̣ƞ(li cis heyaden)"in seinem Zimmer"/"in his room"
  • ni biq ʞı̣ſżɒı̣ʎ(li cis heyaden)"in sein Zimmer"/"into his room"

It should be noticed that verb-modifing and noun-modifing prepositions in Patigulh not only uses different prepositions, but also should be put in different places.

Verb-modifing Noun-modifing
Jṣ ɑṣ Πẓ̇qı̣ƞ biʎṡyı̣ƞ ż ʌżᴚiɑṣ, Jṣ biʎṡyı̣ƞ ż ɑṣyṣƞ Πẓ̇qı̣ƞ ʌżᴚiɑṣ,
(Wo to Laisen cimufen a baqito.) (Wo cimifen a tofon Laisen baqito.)
I (lift a bucket) with Reisen. I lift (a bucket with Reisen).
RISN&TI1.png RISN&TI2.png

Non-Position Prepositions[edit | edit source]

In Patigulh, the word for "expect" is iʞżƞ(ihan)"unincluding", which is diversed from ʞżƞ(han)"including". And "besides(prep.)" is κṣʞżƞ(gohan)co-including.


Sub-Dative Sub-Acuusative Sub-Ablative
yṣƞ nı̣ ʞiɑṣɒı̣q(fon le xitodes)"By the people" yṣƞ nı̣ ʞiɑṣɒı̣ƞ(fon le xitodem)"Of the people" yṣƞ nı̣ ʞiɑṣɒı̣ʎ(fon le xitodem)"For the people"

English prepositional "for" have two correspondences in Patigulh:

  • yṣƞ(fon)"of", for beneficary and goal "for", as in "for the king".
    • When indicating beneficary, the noun after it should be in sub-dative.
  • qnṡ(slu)"through", for time "for", as in "for one day".

Conjunctions[edit | edit source]

  • ı̣ɑ(et)and
Conjunction only Conj. and ellipsis
Jṣ ɑżʌı̣ ı̣ɑ ɒṡ ɑżʌı̣qɑ,
(Wo tabe et du tabst.)
I eat and you eat.
Jṣ ı̣ɑ ɒṡ ɑżʌı̣ƞ,
(Wo et du taben.)
I and you eat.
Jṣ ɑżʌı̣ ı̣ɑ ſṣ qnżyı̣,
(Wo tabe et wo slafe.)
I eat and I sleep.
Jṣ ɑżʌı̣ ı̣ɑ qnżyı̣,
(Wo tabe et slafe.)
I eat and sleep.
  • qı̣ɒ(sed)but
Conjunction only Conj. and ellipsis
Jṣ żƞɑżʌı̣ qı̣ɒ ɒṡ ɑżʌı̣qɑ,
(Wo antabe sed du tabest.)
I don't eat but you eat.
7ṡu ſṣ qı̣ɒ ɒṡ ɑżʌı̣qɑ,
(Nul wo sed du tabest.)
Not me but you eat.
Jṣ żƞɑżʌı̣ qı̣ɒ ſṣ qnżyı̣,
(Wo antabe sed wo slafe.)
I don't eat but I sleep.
Jṣ żƞɑżʌı̣ qı̣ɒ qnżyı̣,
(Wo antabe sed slafe.)
I don't eat but sleep.
  • ȷı̣u(wel)"and/or" żṡɑ(aut)"either/or, xor" ƞżƞɒ(nand)"nand"

With "wel" you can choose both, with "aut" you can only choose one, and with "nand" you can choose none.

Clauses[edit | edit source]

PS: It is now still a mess.

  • ẓ(r)"that" — introduces any nominal clause and direct speech.
  • ɑṣƞɑ(tont)"who" — introduces nominal clause of person.
  • ɑṣu(tolh)"what" — introduces nominal clause of object.
  • ɑṣb(toc)"when" — introduces nominal clause of time.
  • ɑṣᴚ(tok)"where" — introduces nominal clause of place.
  • ɒżև(dang)"when" — introduces adverbial clause of time.
  • ṡʌi(ubi)"where" — introduces adverbial clause of place.
ſṣ ʞżƞżqı̣u qiẓ ɑṣb ſṣ ɑżʌı̣u,(wo hanaselh cir toc wo tabelh.)[I told him (when I ate)]"I told him when I ate."
→ I told him about the time I ate.
ſṣ ɒżʎ ſṣ ɑżʌı̣u ʞżƞżqı̣u biẓ,(wo dang wo tabelh hanaselh cir.)[I (when I ate)told him]"I told him when I ate."
→ I told him about something else at the time I ate.

Syntax[edit | edit source]


Head direction[edit | edit source]

Adjectives always come before the noun they modify, and so are modifying phrases and clauses.

Adverbs always come before the verb they modify, and so are modifying phrases and clauses.

Possession[edit | edit source]

Possession is made by using the particle yṣƞ(fon)of, which is similar with "of" in English. Possession can also be marked by using a noun's "genetive" case form, which is basically its ablative case form used as an adjective. For example:

  • ſṣq ẓ̇vṩ。 ɒṡq ẓ̇vṩ,(Wos aipou, dus aipou.)"My apple, your apple."
  • Yṣƞ VżɑbiṩnÎƞ ẓ̇vṩ, VżɑbiṩnÎſı̣ ẓ̇vṩ,(Fon PatcioulIn aipou. PatcioulIwe aipou.)"Apple of Patchouli. Patchouli's apple."

There is no real possessive pronoun like English "mine/yours". Patigulh use a compound noun like "my this" or "your that" instead.

  • ſṣqκṣu。 ɒṡqṣu,(Wosgol, dusol.)"Mine, yours."

Voices[edit | edit source]

Passive voice is formed by adding the prefix ʌi(bi) before the verb:

qżʌżnż ɑżʌ ʎiᴚiſṣ,(Sabala tab mikiwo)"Cat eats mouse."
ʎiᴚiſż qżʌżnı̣ʌiɑżʌ qżʌżnṣ,(Mikiwa sabale bitab)"Mouse is eaten by cat."

The object of the original sentence becomes the new subject, and the original subject becomes an adverbal noun in ablative case.

Mood[edit | edit source]

Declarative[edit | edit source]

The Affirmative Sentences in Patigulh uses a SVO word order.

To make a sentence negative, the prefix żn(al-)"don't-" should be added to the beginning of the verb. However, this prefix has many other forms:

Negative Preffix
Preffix Verb begins with Example
żʎ(am) v/y/ʌ (p/f/b) ʌẓ̇(bai)buy→żʎʌẓ̇(ambai)don't buy
żƞ(an) ɑ/q/ɒ/b (t/s/d/c) biu(cilh)know→żƞbiu(ancilh)dont' know
żև(ang) ᴚ/κ (k/g) ᴚṡɒ(kud)can→żևᴚṡɒ(angkud)can't
ż(a) ʎ/ƞ/n (m/n/l) ʎẓ̇(mai)sell→żʎẓ̇(amai)don't sell
żn(al) All else ṣqı̣(ose)teach→żnṣqı̣(alose)don't teach

By the way, the negative suffix for adjectives/adverbs change its form in similiar patterns:

Negative Preffix
Preffix Verb begins with Example
iʎ(im) v/y/ʌ (p/f/b) ʌṣƞ(bon)good → iʎʌṣƞ(imbon)ungood
iƞ(in) ɑ/q/ɒ/b (t/s/d/c) ɒẓ̇(dai)know→iƞɒẓ̇(indai)unbig
iև(ing) ᴚ/κ (k/g) ᴚnẓ̇(klai)can→iևᴚnẓ̇(ingklai)unsmall
i(i) ʎ/ƞ/n (m/n/l) nżƞ(lan)blue→inżƞ(ilan)unblue
in(il) All else ȷı̣nṣ(yelo)yellow→inȷı̣nṣ(ilyelo)unyellow

When the usage of adverbs causes ambiguty in negatilization, put the adverb ƞı̣ɑ(net)"not" at the beginning of a sentence or before the adverb instead.

  • ſṣ iᴚżni żʎʌẓ̇ɑṣ(Wo ikali ambaito)Angrily, I didn't buy.
  • ƞı̣ɑ ſṣ iᴚżni ʌẓ̇ɑṣ(Net wo ikali baito)I did not buy angrily.
    • → I either bought without anger; or didn't buy, with anger.
  • ȷṣ [ƞı̣ɑ iᴚżni/iniᴚżni] ʌẓ̇ɑṣ(Wo [net ikali/ilikali] baito)[Not angrily/unangrily], I bought.

Interrogative[edit | edit source]

Questioning sentences in Patigulh is devided into "general questions" and "special questions".

Before going further, notice that Patigulh don't have question marks.

General questons (Yes/No questions) are created by taking the verb(and its adverb) to the beginning of the sentence.

  • Dṡ ȷṩᴚni ɑżʌıɑı̣qɑ ż Ẕ̄vṩſṣ,(Du joukli tabtest a aipouwo,)[Thou slow-ly eat-ᴩsᴛ-1sɢ a-ᴜɴsᴄ apple-ᴀᴄᴄ]"You ate an apple slowly."
  • Jṩᴚni ɑz̊ʌs̥u Dṡ ẓ̇ Ẕ̄vṩſṣ,(Joukli tabelh du ai sago,)"Slowly ate you an apple?/Did you eat an apple slowly?"

Special questons (Wh- questions) are created by taking the subject or object or anything with interrogative pronouns.

  • ᴚṣnż ɒı̣q ᴚı̣ſs̥. (kola des kewo\?.)[ᴀᴩᴩ.ᴅᴇᴍ-ɴᴏᴍ ᴄᴏᴩ.ᴩʀᴇ.3sɢ.ᴄᴏɴs ɪɴᴛ.ᴅᴇᴍ\Q.]"What is this?"
  • ſı̥ ɑżʌı̣u ᴚṣnṣ. (ye\? tabelh kolo) "Who ate this."

Imperative[edit | edit source]

Imperative in Patigulh can be easily made by simply add the interjective ɒı̣(de)"imp."(or qʎiɒż(smida)"please" to show polite) before the whole sentence.

  • ɑżʌı̣qɑ,(Tabest.)"You eat."
  • ɑżʌı̣qɑ ɒı̣,(Tabest de.)"Eat."
  • ɑżʌı̣qɑ qʎiɒż,(Tabest smida.)"Sir, please eat."
  • ɑżʌiʎżq qʎiɒż,(Tabimas smida.)"Sirs, please eat."
    • Use 2nd plural imperative to a singular object to show the greatest politeness Patigulh can show.

Subjunctive[edit | edit source]

Subjunctive mood can be made by adding the prefix iy-(if-) to the beginning of the verb. Regardless of whether it starts with a consonant or a vovel.

The subjunctive suffix comes before the passive suffix: iyʌiɑżʌɑı̣qɑ(ifbitabtest)"you would have been eaten".

The tense of subjunctive verbs agrees with other verbs in the context.

  • Jṣ ſiq ẓ ſṣ ɒı̣ɑṡu i nṣniſṣ,(Wo wis r wo detulh e loliwo.)"I wish that I were a girl."
  • Jṣ ſiqı̣u ẓ ſṣ ſżɑṡu ẓ nṣniſṣ,(Wo wiselh r wo watulh e loliwo.)"I wished that I had been a girl."

A subjunctive verbal phrase can be used alone in interrogative mood, to express what is expressed as "what if…" in English.

  • i̊yʌi̊ɑz̊ʌɑı̥qɑ(ifbitabtest\?)[sᴜʙᴊ-ᴩᴀss-eat-ᴩsᴛ-2sɢ\Q]"What if you were eaten?".
  • 被-吃过二单?

Miscellaneous[edit | edit source]


Number[edit | edit source]

Patigulh uses base 12.

ƞṡu nulh 0 0
ȷżɒ yad 1 1 ɒṣq dos 2 2
qżƞ san 3 3 ȷṣƞ yon 4 4
yẓ̇ fai 5 5 nṣκ log 6 6
qı̣v sep 7 7 ẓ̇ɑ ait 8 8
ʌżκ bag 9 9 nṡʎ lum A 10
nı̣y lef B 11 ɒż da 10 12
ȷı̣qṡ yesu 11 13 bẓq crs 12 14
ɒżqżƞ dasan 13 15 ɒżȷṣƞ dayon 14 16

Numbers bigger than 24(or 20 in base12) are represented like: [Y]ɒż[X] means [Y]×12+[X].

Add κṣ after a number to make it an adjective: ɒṣqκṣ nṣκʎ(dosgo logm)"two 'six's".

Diminutives and augmentatives[edit | edit source]

"A diminutive is a word that has been modified to convey a slighter degree of its root meaning, to convey the smallness of the object or quality named, or to convey a sense of intimacy or endearment."

In Patigulh, dimunitivation is shown with a ẓ(r) added at the end of a word. Regardless whether it ends with consonants or vovel. The dimunitivation suffix comes before the case and plural suffix.

  • qżʌżu(sabal)cat → qżʌżnẓ(sabalr)kitten → qżʌżnẓʎ(sabalrm)kittens → qżʌżnẓʎż(sabalrma)kittensᴬᶜᶜ

"An augmentative (abbreviated aug) is a morphological form of a word which expresses greater intensity, often in size but also in other attributes."

In Patigulh, argumentativation is shown with a ṣ(o) or ṣκ(og) added at the end of a word.

  • ʞżq(has)house → ṣʞżq(ohas)your house

Answering Question[edit | edit source]

Patigulh features a four-form system of question-answering words as Early English did.

Dı̥qɑ ɒṡ Vżɑbiṩni,
(Dest\? du Patciouli.)
Aren't you Patchouli?
ƞẓ̇。 żƞɒż.
(Nai, anda.)<br /Ney, I ain't.
ʞṩ。 ɒż.
(Hou, da.)
Yea, I am.
z̊ƞɒı̥qɑ ɒṡ Vżɑbiṩni,
(Andest\? du Patciouli.)
Aren't you Patchouli?
ʞẓ̇。 ɒż,
(Hai, da.)
False, I am.
ƞṩ。 żƞɒż,
(Nou, anda.)
True, I ain't.

Lexicon[edit | edit source]


Main articlle: Patigulh/Lexicon

The table of personal pronouns and demonstrative pronouns can be found above.

Suffixes[edit | edit source]

Suffixes can change the word's meaning from verb to noun, noun to adjective/adverb, and so on.

Suffixes
Suffix Meaning Similar Type Examples
see
gerund
the action of ~ing ~ing
(n.)
v.→n. ɑżʌ(tab)eat → ɑżʌiⴑ(tabing)eating(n.)
~[V]bẓƞ
~[C]ibẓƞ
thing used in ~ing ~tion v.→n. ɑżʌ(tab)eat → ɑżʌı̣bẓƞ(tabecrn)food
see
participle
~ing
(adj.)
~ing
(adj.)
v.→adj. ʞżƞżq(hanas)say → ʞżƞżqiƞ(hanasin)speaking(adj.)
as in "the speaking cat"
~[V]y
~[C]iy
be often ~ing ~ive v.→adj. ʞżƞżq(hanas)say → ʞżƞżqiy(hanasif)speakactive
~[V]ƞż
~[C]i
be of ~ ~y n.→adj. vżɑq(pats)Knowledge → vżɑbi(patci)Knowledgable
~[V]ᴚẓ̇ɑ
~[C]ẓ̇ɑ
the action of being of ~ ~ness adj.→n. ʎı̣ɒ(med)mad → ʎı̣ɒẓ̇ɑ(medait)madness
~[V]b
~[C]ib
make sth. ~ ~fy adj. → v. ʌı̣nṣ(belo)beautiful→ʌı̣nṣb(beloc)beautify
~yż make sth. be of ~ ~ize n.→v. qɒṩ(sdou)stone → qɒṩyż(sdoufa)fossilize
~ni in the method of ~ ~ly adj.→adv. ʌṣƞɒ(bond)real → ʌṣƞɒni(bondli)really
~[V]ȷı̣
~[C]iȷı̣
consider sth. as ~ 意动用法 in Old Chinese adj.→v. ʌṣƞɒ(bond)real → ʌṣƞɒiſı̣(bondiwe)take sth. for real
consider sth. be of ~
use sth. as a ~
n.→v. ʌżκż(baga)fool(n.) → ʌżκżſı̣(bagawe)fool(v.)
~ĸi
~ĸiż
thing/person who ~ ~tion
~er
v.→n. yżƞɑq(fants)weave → yżƞɑqκiż(fantsjia)weaver
→ yżƞɑqκi(fantsji)weaving machine

Preffixes[edit | edit source]

Preffixes can change word's meaning to a related one. They seldon change the word's kind.

Preffixes
Preffix Meaning Similar Type Examples
żn~
(varies)
doesn't do ~ un- v. binż(cila)"know" → żƞbinż(ancila)"doesn't know"
ʌẓ̇(bai)"buy" → żʎʌẓ̇(ambai)"don't buy"
in~
(varies)
not ~ in- adj.
adv.
biƞı̣(cine)"dead" → iƞbiƞı̣(incine)"undead"
ʌṣƞ(bon)"good" → iʎʌṣƞ(imbon)"ungood"
ɒṣ~ extremly ~ ex~ adj. qżɒi(sadi)"violent"→ɒṣqżɒi(dosadi)"extremely violent"
ʌṣƞ(bon)"good" → ɒṣʌṣƞ(dobon)"overgood"
ṡ~ wrongly ~ mis~ v. ᴚżκ(kag)"write" → ṡᴚżκ(ukag)"miswrite"

Swadesh table[edit | edit source]


No. English Patigulh
1Iſṣ(wo)
2you (singular)ɒṡ(du)
3heɑż(ta)
4weɑbiż(tcia)
5you (plural)żƞɑż(anta)
6theyɑżʎ(tam)
7thisᴚṣu(kolh)
8thatṣu(olh)
9hereᴚṣᴚ(kok)
10thereṣᴚ(ok)
11whoʞṡ(hu)
12whatƞżƞ(nan)
13whereɑṣᴚ(tok)
14whenɑṣb(toc)
15howɑṣqɑ(tost)
16notżƞ(an)
17allʞṣnṣ(holo)
18manyɑżɒṣ(tado)
19someqı̣(se)
20fewyiṡ(fiu)
21otherżnɑ(alt)
22oneȷżɒ(yad)
23twoɒṣq(dos)
24threeqżƞ(san)
25fourȷṣƞ(yon)
26fiveyẓ̇(fai)
27bigɒẓ̇(dai)
28longnṣƞ(lon)
29wideſiɒı̣(wide)
30thickʞṩ(hou)
31heavyyẓ̇(fai)
32smallᴚṣ(ko)
33shortbṣɒ(cod)
34narrowqʌṣ(sbo)
35thinȷżqı̣u(yaselh)
36womanynżṡ(flau)
37man (adult male)ƞżʎ(nam)
38man (human being)ʞṣʎṣ(homo)
39childᴚiɒṣ(qido)
40wifeʞżnı̣(hale)
41husbandʌı̣ᴚi(beqi)
42motherʎṡʎż(muma)
43fatheryṡʌż(fuba)
44animalɑqṡ(tsu)
45fishyiq(fis)
46birdɑṡiɒ(tuid)
47cat
48dogqƞṡʌi(snubi)
49lousebẓqż(crsa)
50snakeṡɑżʞṡ(utahu)
51wormniκ(lig)
52treeʎṡɒ(mud)
53forestʎṣni(moli)
54sticknṣɒ(lod)
55fruitκṣqż(gosa)
56seedƞı̣ɑż(neta)
57leafı̣qż(esa)
58rootnṡɒ(lud)
59barkſżƞ(wan)
60flowerʞṡżƞż(huana)
61grassſżnż(wala)
62ropeƞżſż(nawa)
63skinviy(pif)
64meatȷṣκ(yog)
65bloodᴚı̣ɑq(kets)
66boneqżƞż(sans)
67fat
68eggʌṣu(bolh)
69hornɑqṡƞṣ(tsuno)
70tailȷı̣ʌż(jeba)
71featherſiʎṣ(wimo)
72hairʎṣyż(mofa)
73headżɑʎż(atma)
74earżɒṣ(ado)
75eyeṣȷṣ(oyo)
76noseʌiqż(bisa)
77mouthyı̣nż(fela)
78toothɑṡq(tus)
79tongueqı̣ɑṣ(seto)
80fingernailȷṡʌibı̣u(yubicelh)
81footʌżu(balh)
82legżbi(aci)
83kneeżbibı̣u(acicelh)
84handżʎṡ(amu)
85wingɑqẓʌż(tsrba)
86bellyɒṡy(duf)
87gutsκżɑq(gats)
88neckʌṣqż(bosa)
89backʌẓ̇ᴚ(baik)
90breastṩvẓ̇(oupai)
91heartᴚnṣ(klo)
92liverκżƞɒi(gandi)
93drinkbiniṡ(ciliu)
94eatɑżʌ(tab)
95biteȷżṡ(yau)
96suckbiqżκ(cisag)
97spitvṣi(poi)
98vomitṣɑṡ(otu)
99blowyṡᴚi(fuki)
100breatheyṡbi(fuci)
101laughᴚqż(ksa)
102seeɑqı̣ƞ(tsen)
103hearżṡɒi(audi)
104knowqinż(sila)
105thinkɒiⴑᴚ(dingk)
106smellqṡʎ(sum)
107fearᴚṡẓ̇(kuai)
108sleepƞı̣u(nelh)
109liveʎṣʞż(moha)
110diebiƞı̣(cine)
111killᴚẓṣq(kros)
112fightſżu(walh)
113huntɒżnı̣(dale)
114hitʞiɑ(hit)
115cutᴚżɒ(kad)
116splityṡƞ(fun)
117stabɑbż(tca)
118scratchᴚiκṡż(kigua)
119digſżɒ(wad)
120swimȷṡȷṣƞ(yuyon)
121fly
122walkʌṡκ(bug)
123comeᴚżʎ(kam)
124lieɑżƞ(tan)
125sitqṡżu(sualh)
126standɑbi(tci)
127turnʞiƞż(hina)
128fallɒı̣u(delh)
129giveκẓ̇y(gaif)
130holdʞṣnṡɒ(holud)
131squeezeɒbiż(dcia)
132rubʃṩ(jou)
133washſżbi(waci)
134wipeɑżɑq(tats)
135pullvṡu(pulh)
136pushɑṣı̣(toe)
137throwᴚiƞṣ(kino)
138tieʌżƞɑẓ̇(bantai)
139sewyṣև(fong)
140countʎı̣qı̣(mase)
141sayʞżƞżq(hanas)
142singṡɑżṡ(utau)
143playqʌiu(sbilh)
144floatyṩɑ(fout)
145flowniṣ(lio)
146freezeyniq(flis)
147swellqṣı̣u(soel)
148sunƞiʎż(nima)
149moonnṡƞż(luna)
150starqɒı̣nż(stela)
151waterʎiq(mis)
151rainqʎı̣(sme)
152riverᴚṡż(kua)
153lakeʎiqʎi(mismi)
154seaṡʎ(um)
155saltqżnż(sala)
156stoneqɒṩ(sdou)
157sandqƞżɒ(snad)
158dustᴚqṡ(ksu)
160earthɑṡɑi(tuti)
161cloudᴚnżʎṣ(klamo)
162fogᴚini(kili)
163skyɑı̣ƞ(ten)
164windᴚżqẓ̇(kasai)
165snowȷṡᴚi(yuki)
166iceɑbiu(tcilh)
167smokeɑżʌżᴚ(tabak)
168fireʎṣᴚṩ(mokou)
169ash
170burnbżṡ(cau)
171roadɒṣu(dolh)
172mountainȷżʎż(yama)
173rednṡʌi(lubi)
174greennṡiƞ(luin)
175yellowı̣nṣ(elo)
176whiteʞṣſżɑ(howat)
177blackʌnẓ̇ᴚ(blaik)
178nightȷżȷı̣(yaye)
179dayɑżκ(tag)
180yearżƞṣ(ano)
181warmɑżᴚẓ̇(takai)
182coldqżʎṣi(samoi)
183fullivẓ̇(ipai)
184newƞı̣ſṣ(newo)
185oldṣnṡɒṣ(oludo)
186goodʌṣƞ(bon)
187badʌnżq(blas)
188rotten
189dirty
190straight
191roundʎżu(malh)
192sharp
193dullʌżκż(baga)
194smooth
195wet
196dry
197correctʌiևκṩ(binggou)
198near
199farṣı̣ƞ(oen)
200rightƞżnṣ(nalo)
201leftƞżkı̣(na'e)
202atɒı̣(de)
203inni(li)
204withɑṣ(to)
205andı̣ɑ(et)
206ifȷṡκ(yug)
207becauseᴚṡq(kus)
208nameƞżʎı̣(name)


Example text[edit | edit source]


Daily phrase[edit | edit source]

  1. żnṣʞżȷṩ;(Alohajou!) Hello!
  2. żnṩ;(Alou!) Hi!
  3. bżniṣƞżnż;(Calionara!) Goodbye!
  4. bżni;(Cali!) Bye!
  5. qṣniʎżqı̣ƞ,(solimasen.) Sorry.
  6. żniκżƞqż,(Aligansa) Thank you!
  7. qκı̣ɒẓ̇;(Sgedai) Fuск уоu!

"Our tent was blown away!"[edit | edit source]

There was a completed example text here till I updated so many new grammars that I decided to have it rewritten totally.

VżɑbiṩnĪſż ı̣ɑ Πı̣ʎiniȷZ̄ſż yṣ Γẓ̇niyʌiƞı̣ʎ iᴚɑı̣ƞ żƞ Jṩᴚẓ̇ȷżʎZ̄ɒı̣ʎ, Dżև Πı̣ʎiniZ̄ſż ſżq qnżyqṣ。 VżɑqiṩnĪſż bibṡᴚɑı̣ biƞ ſı̣ᴚqṣ ı̣ɑ ʞżƞżqɒı̣q ẓ。⌊Πı̣ʎĪẓ。 ſiɒiſi ṣƞ qɒı̣nżyṡu S̱ᴚs̆ſṣ ɒı̣⌉, ⌊ᖷẓ̇。 VżɑbĪẓ。⌉。 ɑṣ qnżyiy I̱ȷı̣ɒı̣ƞ Πı̣ʎiniȷZ̄ſż ſṣƞɑı̣ ẓ。 ⌊ɒs̥ᴚs̥ɑz̊ ṣᴚẓſı̣u⌉, ⌊Γiɒiſi ɒı̣;⌉。 VżɑbiṩnĪſż iʞżvini ʞżƞżqɒı̣q ẓ。⌊Jṣnı̣ƞ z̊ƞbi̊ɒi̊ևᴚɑı̥ɑ S̱nż Di⌉, Πı̣ʎiniȷZ̄ſż qnṡ iqı̣ Ɑqẓ̇ɑı̣ƞ ſiɒiɑı̣ nż S̱ᴚs̆ſṣ ı̣ɑ ṡκżƞżni ʌı̣ᴚʞżƞżqı̣q ẓ

Patchouli-ɴᴏᴍ and Remilia-ɴᴏᴍ for out.live-ғᴛʀ-ɢᴇʀ-sᴜʙ.ᴅᴀᴛ go-ᴩsᴛ-3pl on Youkai.moutain-sᴜʙ.ᴅᴀᴛ. when.ᴄᴏɴᴊ Remilia-ɴᴏᴍ be.ᴩsᴛ.3sg.ᴄɴsᴄ sleep-ᴩᴛᴄᴩ, Patchouli-ɴᴏᴍ ᴄᴀᴜs-shake-ᴩsᴛ-3sg.ᴄɴsᴄ 3sg.ᴄɴsᴄ.ᴩʀᴏɴ.ᴀᴄᴄ be.awake-ᴩᴛᴄᴩ and say-ᴩsᴛ-3sg.ᴄɴsᴄ that.ᴄᴏɴᴊ:"Remi-ᴅɪᴍ, look.at-2sg that star.full sky-ᴀᴄᴄ ɪᴍᴩ". "ɪɴᴛᴇʀᴊ, Patchy-ᴅɪᴍ,", with sleep-ᴀᴅᴊ eye.ᴩʟ-sᴜʙ.ᴀᴄᴄ Remilia-ɴᴏᴍ ask-ᴩsᴛ-3sg.ᴄɴsᴄ, "what.event-ɴᴏᴍ\Q occur-ᴩsᴛ". "Look.at-2sg ɪᴍᴩ!", Patchouli-ɴᴏᴍ ɴᴇɢ-happiness-ᴀᴅᴊ say-ᴩsᴛ-3sg.ᴄɴsᴄ ,"anything-sᴜʙ.ᴀᴄᴄ ɴᴇɢ-ᴄᴀᴜs-think-ᴩsᴛ-3sg.ᴜɴsᴄ\Q that.thing-ɴᴏᴍ 1sg.ᴩʀᴏɴ.ᴀᴄᴄ". Remilia-ɴᴏᴍ through some time-sᴜʙ.ᴀᴄᴄ look.at-ᴩsᴛ-3sg.ᴄɴsᴄ the.ᴜɴsᴄ sky-ᴀᴄᴄ and end-ᴀᴅᴊ-ᴀᴅᴠ back-say-ᴩsᴛ-3sg.ᴄɴsᴄ that.ᴄᴏɴᴊ

Patchouli and Remilia went to Youkai Moutain for camping. When Remilia was sleeping, Patchouli woke her up and said: "Look at the starry sky, Remi." Remilia asked with sleepy eyes: "Yeah, Patche. What's wrong?" "Just look at it!" Patchouli said unhappily, "Didn't that remind you of anything?" Remilia looked at the sky for a while and eventually replied: "It made me thought about how big the universe is, and how small we mortals are." "Oh, Remilia Scarlet, you stupid!" Patchouli yelled angrily, "Why didn't you think about that our tent was blown away by the wind?!"

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