FANDOM



The author wishes to make it clear this project is currently undergoing significant construction or revamp.
By all means, take a look around. Thank you.
Progress 94%


This page is basically a English-translated English-rewritten version of 帕提语. No, even worse, I started re-writing the origin Chinese version basing on this page.


Patigulh
Type Fusional
Alignment Nominative-Accusative
Head direction Mixed
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders 2
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 77%
Statistics
Nouns 50%
Verbs 95%
Adjectives 67%
Syntax 85%
Words 1500 of 1500
Creator 简体中文使用者
||   


Classification and DialectsEdit


Patigulh(/'pʌtɪgʊl/, Vżɑiκṡu/'pʰatʰik⁼uɫʷ/, lit."Language of Patchouli") is an artlang created by Kaihan Zhang, a Chinese student.

In the Patigulh universe, Patigulh is spoken by about 120 million people in Patikyou and is the official language of it. Numerous dialectical varieties also exist.

Patikyou(Vżɑiᴚȷṩ/'pʰatʰikʰɪəʊ/, lit."Land of Patchouli") is a great empire in an alternate universe which is far from ours.

PhonologyEdit


The stress is mostly on the syllable before the last one.

VovelEdit

Front Central Back
High i y ɨ u
Mid e ø o
Low

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive plain p⁼ t⁼ k⁼ ʔ
aspirated
Fricative f s ʃ (ɕ) x
Africative plain t͡s⁼ t͡ʃ⁼ (t͡ɕ⁼)
aspirated t͡sʰ t͡ʃʰ (t͡ɕʰ)
Approximant ʋ~w l ɬʷ ɹ̱ j
  1. [h/kʰ/k⁼] are palatalised [ɕ/tɕʰ/tɕ⁼] before [i], but the spelling doesn't change.
  2. [pʰ/tʰ/kʰ] are disaspiratised [p⁼/t⁼/k⁼] after[s/ʂ], the spelling also change.
  3. [p⁼/t⁼/k⁼] are unreleased [p̚/t̚/k̚] at the end of a syllable, expect when ends with two consonants like [sp⁼].

SyllablesEdit

The syllable structure of Patigulh is "(CCC)V(VV)(CCC)". Every consonant cluster can mostly(but rarely) have three consonants, and one or two normally. Every vowel cluster can mostly(but rarely) have three vowels, and one or two normally.

If there are odd number of consonants between two vowels, the later one will get one consonant more than the former. As in qżʌżu(sa-balh)cat. If there are even number of consonants between two vowels, they will get same amount of consonants. As in żƞɒı̣q(an-des)isn't. But if there were "ts/ds/tc/dc", they should be treated like a single consonant: As in vżɑqi(pa-tsi)knowledgeable.

Writing SystemEdit


Patigulh is written in Hijilaiya(ᖷiκinẓ̇ȷZ̄/xitɕ⁼i'laija/, lit."Saint-script"), which looks like Latin letters. The reason is that a passing-by time-traveller accidently dropped his comic books into the Patigulh universe when getting lost in the time-axis.

The Latin transliteration below is never used by Patikyou people, only by the author, in order to make Patigulh more readable.

There are recently 27 letters in Hijilaiya.

Consonant letters
Letter Vv ʋ Yy ʯ Λʌ л ⅄ʎ ɦ
Phonetic pʰ ‹p› f ‹f› p⁼ ‹b› m ‹m›
Letter Ɑɑ ɑ ᑫq ɋ ɒ Ьb ɓ
Phonetic tʰ ‹t› s ‹s› t⁼ ‹d› ʃ ‹c›
Letter ꓘᴚ ᖷʞ ʞ 𝖪ĸ ʀ ᖶk ƙ
Phonetic kʰ ‹k› x ‹h› k⁼ ‹g› ʔ ‹'›
Letter Πn n ᒣƞ ɳ Цu u և
Phonetic l ‹l› n ‹n› ɫʷ ‹lh› ŋ ‹ng›
Vowel letters
Letter ȷ ʃ Γſ l
Phonetic j ‹y› ɹ ‹z› w ‹w›
Letter Īi ì Z̄ż S̄ṡ
Phonetic i/ɪ ‹i› ᴀ/ɐ ‹a› u/ʊ ‹u›
Letter I̱ı̣ ı̗ Ẕẓ S̱ṣ
Phonetic ɛ/e ‹e› ɨ/ᵻ ‹r› ɔ/o ‹o›
Letter S̱̄ṩ s̗̀ Ẕ̄ẓ̇ z̗̀
Phonetic ɔu/əʊ ‹ou› ai/ɐe ‹ai›
Diagraphs
Letter ɑq ɒq ɑb ɒb ṡi ṣı̣ ᴚi ʞi κi
Phonetic tsʰ ‹ts› ts⁼ ‹ds› tʃʰ ‹tc› tʃ⁼ ‹dc› y ‹ui› ø ‹oe› tɕʰi ‹qi› ɕi ‹xi› tɕ⁼i ‹ji›

OrthographyEdit

u(lh) only appears at the end of a word. If any letter appears after it, the u(lh) will become n(l).

  • ṣqı̣u(oselh)"teach" → ṣqı̣nĸiż(oseljia)"teacher"

Unless when appearing at the end of a word, v(p), ɑ(t) or ᴚ(k) won't appear behind a q(s). If they had to, they only become ʌ(b), ɒ(d) or κ(g).

  • ɒı̣qɑ(dest)"was-2sg"ɒı̣qɒiƞ(desdin)"been-2sg"

Plosives like p/t/k/b/d/g, when followed by another plosive, an "k(/'/)" will replace the plosives.

  • ʎṡɒ(mud)wood + vnżƞ(plan)plankʎṡkvnżƞ(mu'plan)wood-plank

Spellings like ȷi(yi), ſṡ(wu) or even ʃẓ(zr) are banned in Patigulh.

ᴚ(k), κ(g) or ʞ(h) paralize before i(i), but the spelling doesn't change. And they don't paralize before ȷ(y). For example: ᴚiṩ(qiou) is pronounced as /tɕʰɪəʊ/, and ᴚȷṩ(kyou) is pronounced as /kɪəʊ/:

  • Kı̣ƞqṩᴚȷṩ(Gensoukyou)"Fantasy-land"

While:

  • Kı̣ƞqṩᴚiṩ(Gensouqiou)"Fantasy-ball"

q(s) paralize before i(i) in some dialects, but the spelling doesn't change.

PunctuationEdit

Punctuation , ; ⌊ ⌉ ⌊⌊ ⌉⌉ ◌̊ ◌̥ 。。。 。。,
Name Period Comma Exclamation Exclam-
comma
Quotation
marks
Double
quotation
marks
Rising-
tone
mark
Ellipsis Sentence-
ending
Ellipsis
Vżɑbiṩni ʞżƞżq ẓ。 ⌊Z̄nṣʞżȷṩ⨟ ſṣq ƞı̣λż ɒı̣q ⌊⌊Vżɑbiṩni⌉⌉,⌉, ᗄi ʞżƞżqı̣u ƞz̊ƞ, Δbiż ʞżƞżqı̣u ẓ bi ɒı̣q Vżɑbiṩni; Z̄żż。。。 ȷṣʎṣ。。,
Patchouli says: "Hello! My name is 'Patchouli'". What did she say? She said that she is Patchouli! Ah... maybe....

If the quotation can be considered as a word in the sentence, a punction should be add both inside and outside the quotation. Otherwise, punctions should only be added inside the quotation marks.

  • Jṣ żʞżƞżqı̣u ⌊żnṣʞżȷṩ,⌉, (Wo ahanasel "Alohajou!".) I didn't say "Hello".
  • Jṣ。 ⌊żnṣʞżȷṩ,⌉ (Wo, "Alohajou.") Me: "Hello."

The punction of a quotation can be omited if it os a perion, unless it appears between a double quotation mark and a normal quotation mark:

  • Jṣ ʞżƞżqı̣u ⌊Jṣ żʞżƞżqı̣u ⌊⌊żnṣʞżȷṩ⌉⌉,⌉, (Wo hanasel "Wo ahanasel 'Alohajou'.".) I said "I didn't say 'Hello'".
  • Jṣ。 ⌊żnṣʞżȷṩ,⌉ (Wo, "Alohajou") Me: "Hello"

If only the first half of the sentence needs exclaiming, an exclaim-comma should be used.

  • Jṣi⨟ ſṣ ᴚṣᴚ iu, (Woi!, wo kok ilh.) "Hey, I'm here!"

There is no question marks in Patigulh. In interrogative sentences, there should be a rising tone on the word being asked about, whose dots should be changed into rings (or "rising tone mark"):

  • ꓘṣu ɒı̣q ƞz̊ƞ. (kol des nan?.) "This is what?."
  • ᖷṡ ɑżʌı̣u ᴚṣu. (we? tabelh kolh) "Who? ate this."

There is no colon in Patigulh. A comma is placed wherever, in English, a colon would be used.

  • Jṣ ʞżƞżq。 ⌊żnṣʞżȷṩ,⌉, (Wo hanas, "Alohajou.".) I say:"Hello.".

CapitalizationEdit

The first letter of any noun(or gerund) should be capitalized. And the last letter of a proper noun should be capitalized too. Case suffixes of proper nouns should be placed before the capitalized last letter.

  • Aṡiᴚſż ɑżʌ ꓘẓ̇ᴚiſṣ,(SuikAwa tab Kaiqiwo.)"Suika eats cake."
  • Aṡiᴚżſż ɑżʌ ꓘẓ̇ᴚĪſṣ,(Suikawa tab KaiqIwo.)"Watermelon eats Keiki."

Name of books should be written in italics with every word's first and last letter capitalized. If another proper noun appears in the name with uncapitalized suffix, its last letter should be capitalized:

κı̣ƞqṩᴚȷṩƞ nżȷı̣ƞyżſṣև bı̣ɒiu

GrammarEdit


Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No Yes No No Yes No
Nouns No Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No Yes Yes No No Yes No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns No No Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article Yes No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No


NounsEdit

In Patigulh, nouns decline based on number and case, gender is shown by atricles.

NumberEdit

Usually, plural is made by adding plural suffix -ʎ(m) to the ending of the singular noun, regardless of whether the word ends by a consonant or vowel.

  • qżʌżu(sabalh)"cat"qżʌżnʎ(sabalm)"cats"
  • ʎiᴚi(miqi)"mouse"ʎiᴚiʎ(mikim)"mouse"

However, some nouns change irregularly.

  • ṣȷṣ(oyo)"eye"ı̣ȷı̣(eye)"eyes"
  • ṩvẓ̇(oupai)"boob"ṩvẓ̇(oupai)"boobs"

CaseEdit

4 cases are marked in Patigul, They are:

  • Nominative — marks the subject.
  • Ablative — marks the instrument(I personally call it "indirect subject."), or where the action starts “from”.
  • Dative — marks the indirect object, or where the action goes “to”.
  • Accusative — marks the object.

Take two pairs of English and Patigulh sentences for example:

The mouse gave a flower to the cat with its hands.
Πı̣ ʎiᴚiſż ɑżq ṣɑı̣ʎı̣ nı̣ qżʌżni κiyı̣u ż ynżƞżſṣ.
The dog threw an apple from the tree to the house.
Πı̣ qƞṡʌiſż nż ᴚiſı̣ nż ʞżqi ᴚiƞṣȷı̣u ż ẓ̇vṩſṣ.

Pay attention to ṣɑı̣ʎı̣(oteme)"hand-ᴩʟ-ᴀʙʟ". It shows that the plural suffix comes after the case suffix.

Noun
End Original Nominative ablative Dative Accusative
Constant ʎiᴚi(miki) ʎiᴚiſż(mikiwa) ʎiᴚiſı̣(mikiwe) ʎiᴚiſi(mikiwi) ʎiᴚiſṣ(mikiwo)
Vowel qżʌżu(sabalh) qżʌżnż(sabala) qżʌżnı̣(sabale) qżʌżni(sabali) qżʌżn(sabalo)

What case the noun before the verb is can affect the meaning of the whole sentence.

Jṣ viᴚq i nṣniſı̣,
(Wo piks e loliwe.)
Jṣ viᴚq i nṣniſṣ,
(Wo piks e loliwo.)
I paint (about) a girl(indirect object). I paint (on) a girl(direct object).

Besides four "main-cases", Patigulh also features four other "sub-cases".

Noun
End Original Sub-nominative Sub-ablative Sub-dative Sub-accusative
Constant ʎiᴚi(miki) ʎiᴚiu(miqilh) ʎiᴚiq(miqis) ʎiᴚiɒ(miqid) ʎiᴚiƞ(miqin)
Vowel qżʌżu(sabalh) qżʌżnı̣u(sabalelh) qżʌżniq(sabales) qżʌżnı̣ʎ(sabalem) qżʌżnı̣ƞ(sabalen)

Sub-cases are used for subject- and object participle phrases and gerunds.

  • Jṣu Δżʌiƞż Aṡiᴚżʎṡu qżvnibı̣u AṡiᴚZ̄ſṣ(Wolh tabina suikamulh saplicelh Suikawo)"My eating watermelons surprises Suika."

GenderEdit

There are 2 genders in Patigulh, which is not divided by sеx but by consciousity. It is shown by changing the article of the noun.

It should be noticed that a noun's gender isn't always the same. For example, a "train" can be conscious when operated by a driver, a person can be unconscious when knocked out.

Noun
First letter Conscious Unconscious
Consonant nż qżʌżu(ala has)"the house"
ż qżʌżu(a has)"a house"
nı̣ qżʌżu(ele sabalh)"the cat"
i qżʌżu(i sabalh)"a cat"
Vovel żu ẓ̇vṩ(al aipou)"the apple"
żƞ ẓ̇vṩ(an aipou)"an apple"
ı̣u ṣqı̣nκiż(el oseljia)"the teacher"
ı̣ƞ ṣqı̣nκiż(en oseljia)"a teacher"

The only three kinds of words that needs seprating genders are: articles(as menitoned above), a special verb iu/żu(ilh/alh)exist-ᴄɴsᴄ/exist-ᴜɴsᴄ and third personal pronoun bi/ɑż(ci/ta)it-ᴄɴsᴄ/it-ᴜɴsᴄ.

Usage
ż ʎı̣ᴚżʎṣʌiſż ɒı̣ ᴚṣᴚı̣ƞ żu, ɑż ɒı̣q ɒẓ̇,
a mekamobiwa de koken alh. ta des dai.
A.ᴜɴsᴄ machine-mobile-ɴᴏᴍ at ᴩʀᴏx-ᴩʟᴀᴄᴇ-s.ᴀᴄᴄ exist.ᴜɴsᴄ. 3ʀᴅ.ᴜɴsᴄ.ɴᴏᴍ be.ᴩʀᴇ.3sg big.
There is a (unoperated)train. It is big.
i ʎı̣ᴚżʎṣʌiſż ɒı̣ ᴚṣᴚı̣ƞ iu, bi ɒı̣q ɒẓ̇,
a mekamobiwa de koken ilh. ci des dai.
A.ᴄɴsᴄ machine-mobile-ɴᴏᴍ at ᴩʀᴏx-ᴩʟᴀᴄᴇ-s.ᴀᴄᴄ exist.ᴄɴsᴄ. 3ʀᴅ.ᴄɴsᴄ.ɴᴏᴍ be.ᴩʀᴇ.3sg big.
There is a (operated)train. It is big.

PronounsEdit

In Patigulh, pronouns are divided as personal pronouns and demonstrative pronouns.

Personal pronounsEdit

Personal pronouns pluralize based on person, number, case and gender(inanimate/animate).

There are three different methods to decline, but the declination of sub-cases is same in all methods. Even in the half-irregular one, where the main-cases' and sub-cases' declination are the same.

Personal pronouns with irregular case declinations
(Vocalative) Nominative (Genetive) Ablative Dative Accusative
1st

sg.

Normal Γṣ(Wo) Γṣ(wo) ſṣq(wos) Γṣq(Wos) Γiẓ(Wir) Γi(Wi)
Polite ⅄ṡ(Mu) ⅄ṡ(Mu) ʎṡq(mus) ⅄ṡq(Mus) ⅄iẓ(Mir) ⅄i(Mi)
2nd

sg.

Normal Dṡ(Du) Dṡ(Du) ɒṡq(dus) Dṡq(Dus) Diẓ(Dir) Di(Di)
Polite ᒣṣƞ(Non) ᒣṣƞ(Non) ƞṣq(nos) ᒣṣq(Nos) ᒣiẓ(Nir) ᒣiƞ(Nin)
Personal pronouns with half-regular case declinations
(Vocalative) Nominative (Genetive) Ablative Dative Accusative
3rd

sg.

Conscious Ɑż(Ta) Ɑżẓ(Tar) ɑżq(tas) Ɑżq(Tas) Ɑżʎ(Tam) Ɑżƞ(Tan)
Unconscious Ьi(Ci) Ьiẓ(Cir) biq(cis) Ьiq(Cis) Ьiʎ(Cim) Ьiƞ(Cin)
4th sg. ᑫṡ(Su) ᑫṡẓ(Sur) qṡq(sus) ᑫṡq(Sus) ᑫṡʎ(Sum) ᑫṡƞ(Sun)
Interrogative Γı̣(We) Γı̣ẓ(Wer) ſı̣q(wes) Γı̣q(Wes) Γı̣ʎ(Wem) Γı̣ƞ(Wen)
Personal pronouns with regular case declinations
(Vocalative) Nominative (Genetive) Ablative Dative Accusative
1st

pl.

Exclusive Z̄ɑẓ̇(Atai) Z̄ɑẓ̇ſż(Ataiwa) żɑẓ̇ſı̣(ataiwe) Z̄ɑẓ̇ſı̣(Ataiwe) Z̄ɑẓ̇ſi(Ataiwi) Z̄ɑẓ̇ſṣ(Ataiwo)
Inclusive Z̄ƞɑẓ̇(Antai) Z̄ƞɑẓ̇ſż(Antaiwa) żƞɑẓ̇ſı̣(antaiwe) Z̄ƞɑẓ̇ſı̣(Antaiwe) Z̄ƞɑẓ̇ſi(Antaiwi) Z̄ƞɑẓ̇ſṣ(Antaiwo)
2nd pl. Z̄ƞɑż(Anta) Z̄ƞɑżſż(Antawa) żƞɑżſı̣(antawe) Z̄ƞɑżſı̣(Antawe) Z̄ƞɑżſi(Antawi) Z̄ƞɑżſṣ(Antawo)
  1. Z̄ƞɑżn(antai)"you&we" is inclusive and Z̄ɑẓ̇(atai)"we" is exclusive. That is: Z̄ƞɑẓ̇(antai)"you&we" includes "you" inside "we", while Z̄ɑẓ̇(atai)"we" does not:
    VżɑbiṩnĪſż ʞżƞżq ЬiƞᴚĪſi ẓ。 ⌊Z̄nżṡ (Z̄ƞɑẓ̇/Z̄ɑẓ̇)ſi ᴚı̣ᴚṣƞṣև qʎiɒż,⌉,
    PatcioulIwa hanas CinqIwi r: "Alau (Antai/Atai)wi kekonong smida.".
    Patchouli tells Shinki: "Please allow (you&me/us) get married".
    →Patchouli wants to marry (Shinki/Alice).
  2. Patigulh features a "fourth person" pronoun ᑫṡ(su)"alt-it". It is used when the "third person" pronoun had already referred to someone else, i.e.:
    VżɑbiṩnĪſż ſiɒiȷı̣u ẓ ʎżniqZ̄ſż ſżqɑ ɑżɑqiև (ɑżq/biq) S̱̄vẓ̇ſṣ,
    PatcioulIwa widiyelh r MalisAwa wast tatsing (tas/cis) OUpaiwo.
    Patchouli saw that Marisa is touching (her/alt-her) chest.
    →Marisa is touching (herselfs/Patchouli's) chest.

The genetive case of a personal pronoun is same to its ablative form except the having first letter in lower case.

The word żṡɑṣ(auto)"self" is any of the pronouns' reflexive form. Whether it stands for "yourself" of "myself" or else relys on the context.

Demonstrative pronounsEdit

Demonstrative pronouns is very regular in Patigulh. It can be numerously generated by using the preffixes shown below:

demonstrative pronouns
Proximal Medial¹ Distal Existential Universal Interro
gative
Negatory
Elective Assertive
Preffix ᴚṣ~(ko~)
h~
qṣ~(so~)
thy~
ṣ~(o~)
th~
ȷṣ~(jo~)
anywh~
ʎṣ~(mo~)
somewh~
ᴚṣ~(ho~)
everywh~
ɑṣ~(to~)
wh~
ƞṣ~(no~)
no~

Place

ᴚṣᴚ(kok)
here
qṣᴚ(sok)
thyre
ṣᴚ(ok)
there
ȷṣᴚ(jok)
anywhere
ʎṣᴚ(mok)
somewhere
ᴚṣᴚ(hok)
everywhere
ɑṣᴚ(tok)
where
ƞṣᴚ(nok)
nowhere
Adj. ᴚṣƞ(kon)
this
qṣƞ(son)
thy
ṣƞ(on)
that
ȷṣƞ(jon)
any
ʎṣƞ(mon)
some
ᴚṣƞ(hon)
every
ɑṣƞ(ton)
which
ƞṣƞ(non)
no
Noun ᴚṣu(kolh)
this
qṣu(solh)
thine
ṣu(olh)
that
ȷṣu(jolh)
anything
ʎṣu(molh)
something
ᴚṣu(holh)
everything
ɑṣu(tolh)
whichthing
ƞṣu(nolh)
nothing
Adv. ᴚṣqɑ(kost)
thishow
qṣqɑ(sost)
thyhow
ṣqɑ(ost)
thathow
ȷṣqɑ(jost)
anyhow
ʎṣqɑ(most)
somehow
ᴚṣqɑ(host)
everyhow
ɑṣqɑ(tost)
how
ƞṣqɑ(nost)
no way
Time ᴚṣb(koc)
this time
qṣb(soc)
thy time
ṣb(oc)
that time
ȷṣb(joc)
anytime
ʎṣb(moc)
sometime
ᴚṣb(hoc)
everytime
ɑṣb(toc)
which time
ƞṣb(noc)
no time
People ᴚṣƞɑ(kont)
thisbody
qṣƞɑ(sont)
thybody
ṣƞɑ(ont)
thatbody
ȷṣƞɑ(jont)
anybody
ʎṣƞɑ(mont)
somebody
ᴚṣƞɑ(hont)
everybody
ɑṣƞɑ(tont)
whichbody²
ƞṣƞɑ(nont)
nobody
Reason ᴚṣyṣ(kofo)
herefore
qṣyṣ(sofo)
thyrefore
ṣyṣ(ofo)
therefore
ȷṣyṣ(jofo)
anywhe-refore
ʎṣyṣ(mofo)
somewhe-refore
ᴚṣyṣ(hofo)
everywhe-refore
ɑṣyṣ(tofo)
wherefore
ƞṣyṣ(nofo)
nowherefore

P.S.:Red words are made-up English words to appproximate Patigulh words.

The difference between qṣƞ(son)"this" and ṣƞ(on)"thy" is that qṣƞ is something close to the listener, while ṣƞ is something far from both the listener and the speaker.

ɑṣƞɑ(tont)"whichbody" and ſı̣(we)"who" means the same. But ɑṣƞɑ(tont)"whichbody" is only used as a conjunction of nominal clauses, while ſı̣(we)"who" is only used as a pronoun. The same goes with ɑṣu(tolh)"which thing" and ƞżƞ(nan)"what".

AdjectivesEdit

Adjectives in Patigul do not decline. Comparatives and superlatives are shown by two adverbs: κı̣ƞ(gen)"more" and qẓ̇(sai)"most".

  • κżṡ(gau)"high"κı̣ƞ κżṣ(gen gau)"higher"qẓ̇ κżṣ(sai gau)"highest"

VerbsEdit

In Patigulh, verbs conjugate basing on tense, aspect, voice, and number, and a few on person.

The tense-aspect system of Patigulh consists of twelve(that is, 3×4) composite tenses, which is formed by composing three simple tenses and four aspects.

The simple tenses are: past tense, present tense and future tense.

The aspects are: normal aspect, incepetive aspect, imperfective aspect(not imperfect aspect), perfective aspect(not perfect aspect)

  • Incepetive aspect: emphasis on that something's state has changed or an action has started. Like the "了" in Chinese "我吃饭了(I start eating)".
  • Perfective aspect: emphasis on the action's wholeness, like the "了" in Chinese "我吃了饭(The fact that I have eaten is whole.)"
    • Differ from Perfect aspect by not indicating the consequence to cause.
  • Imperfective aspect: emphasis on that the action hasn't been wholly done, like the "着" in Chinese "我吃着饭(The fact that I eat hasn't been done wholly.)"
    • Differ from Countinious aspect by not indicating whether the action is being done at the time.

In the chart below, the imperfective aspect will be approximated into "get to do", as the "future participle" in Patigulh is approximated into English adjective imperative.

Example
Future Present Past
Normal ΓṡȷṡᴚS̱ſż ɑżʌṣu 人iqɒiZ̄ſṣ,
Yuyuko will eat Mystia.
Ptglh YYK1
ΓṡȷṡᴚS̱ſż ɑżʌ 人iqɒiZ̄ſṣ,
Yuyuko eats Mystia.
Ptglh YYK2
ΓṡȷṡᴚS̱ſż ɑżʌᴉu 人iqɒiZ̄ſṣ,
Yuyuko ate Mystia.
Ptglh YYK3
Progressive ΓṡȷṡᴚS̱ſż ſinq ɑżʌiև 人iqɒiZ̄ſṣ ɒżև ΓṩʎS̄ſż ɒżnṣu,
Yuyuko will be eating Mystia when Youmu will arrive.
Ptglh YYK1Ptglh YUM1
ΓṡȷṡᴚS̱ſż ɒı̣q ɑżʌiև 人iqɒiZ̄ſṣ ɒżև ΓṩʎS̄ſż
ɒżu,
Yuyuko is eating Mystia when Youmu arrives.
Ptglh YYK2Ptglh YUM2
ΓṡȷṡᴚS̱ſż ſżq ɑżʌiև 人iqɒiZ̄ſṣ ɒżև ΓṩʎS̄ſż ɒżnı̣u,
Yuyuko was eating Mystia when Youmu arrived.
Ptglh YYK3Ptglh YUM3
Perfect ΓṡȷṡᴚS̱ſż ʞı̣qṣu ɑżʌı̣և 人iqɒiZ̄ſṣ ɒżև ΓṩʎS̄ſż ɒżnṣu,
Yuyuko will have eaten Mystia when Youmu will arrive.
Ptglh YYK2Ptglh YUM1
ΓṡȷṡᴚS̱ſż ʞı̣q ɑżʌı̣և 人iqɒiZ̄ſṣ ɒżև ΓṩʎS̄ſż
ɒżu,
Yuyuko have eaten Mystia when Youmu arrives.
Ptglh YYK3Ptglh YUM2
ΓṡȷṡᴚS̱ſż ʞı̣qı̣u ɑżʌı̣և 人iqɒiZ̄ſṣ ɒżև ΓṩʎS̄ſż ɒżnı̣u,
Yuyuko had eaten Mystia when Youmu arrived.
Ptglh YYK4Ptglh YUM3
Starting ΓṡȷṡᴚS̱ſż κṣſż ɑżʌṣև 人iqɒiZ̄ſṣ ɒżև ΓṩʎS̄ſż ɒżnṣu,
Yuyuko will get to eat Mystia when Youmu will arrive.
Ptglh YYK5Ptglh YUM1
ΓṡȷṡᴚS̱ſż κı̣qɑṣu ɑżʌṣև 人iqɒiZ̄ſṣ ɒżև ΓṩʎS̄ſż ɒżnṣu,
Yuyuko will get to eat Mystia when Youmu will arrive.
Ptglh YYK1Ptglh YUM2
ΓṡȷṡᴚS̱ſż κṣɑq ɑżʌṣև 人iqɒiZ̄ſṣ ɒżև ΓṩʎS̄ſż ɒżu,
Yuyuko get to eat Mystia when Youmu arrives.
Ptglh YYK2Ptglh YUM4
  • P.S.:In Patigulh, the clause uses the same tense as the main clause, even in Future tense.

About the "-elh" suffix, if the root word:

  1. Ends with an consonant, the suffix does not change: ɑżʌ(tab)"eat"ɑżʌı̣u(tabelh)"ate"
  2. Ends with a non-e vovel, a "y" appears before the suffix: ᴚiƞṣ(kino)"throw"ᴚiƞṣȷı̣u(kinoyel)"threw"
  3. Ends with an "e", the suffix appears without an "e": ṣqı̣(ose)"teach"ṣqı̣u(osel)"taught"

About the "-olh" suffix, if the root word:

  1. Ends with an consonant, the suffix does not change: ɑżʌ(tab)"eat"ɑżʌṣu(tabolh)"will eat"
  2. Ends with a non-o vovel, a "w" appears before the suffix: ṣqı̣(ose)"teach"ṣqı̣ſṣu(osewol)"will teach"
  3. Ends with an "o", the suffix appears without an "o": ᴚiƞṣ(kino)"throw"ᴚiƞṣu(kinol)"will throw"

The same goes with "-en" "-on" suffixes.

Only ɒı̣q(des)"be", ʞı̣ɒ(hed)"have", κṣɑ(got)"get" conjugate irregularly by person. Among which, ɒı̣q(des)"be" also conjugate irregularly by tense.

3sg/pl. 2sg. 1sg.
be ɒı̣q(des) ɒı̣qɑ(dest) ɒı̣ɑ(det)
ſżq(was) ſżqɑ(wast) ſżɑ(wat)
ſinq(wils) ſinqɑ(wilst) ſinɑ(wilt)
have ʞı̣q(hes) ʞı̣qɑ(hest) ʞı̣ɑ(het)
get κṣq(gos) κṣqɑ(gost) κṣɑ(got)
do ɒżq(das) ɒṡqɑ(dust) ɒiɑ(dit)

As for ɒı̣q(des)"be", its (past/present/future) participle is its (past/present/future) tense form with the suffix -iև(ing), and its (past/present/future) gerund is its (past/present/future) tense form with the suffix -iƞ(in). That is:

  • ſżq(was)is3rd.p.verb→ſżq(wasing)is3rd.p.part.→ſżq(wasin)is3rd.p.ger.

Verbs also have a passive voice conjugation.

Tense Future Present Past
Passive voice ʌiɑżʌṣu(bitabolh)
"will be eaten"
ʌiɑżʌ(bitab)
"is eaten"
ʌiɑżʌı̣u(bitabelh)
"was eaten"

ParticiplesEdit

Patriciple Future Present Past
simple ɑżʌṣև(tabong)
≈"to eat"
ɑżʌiև(tabing)
≈"eating"
ɑżʌı̣և(tabeng)
"eaten"

As for the irregular verbs, their (past/present/future) participle is their (past/present/future) tense form with the suffix -iև(ing).

Present Past Future
verb ɒı̣q(des)"is" ſżq(was)"was" ſinq(wils)"will be"
participle ɒı̣q(desing)"being" ſżq(wasding)"been" ſinq(wilsing)≈"to be"

Participles can be used to form aspects. Past participle forms completed aspect, present particle for progressive aspect, future particle for "starting aspect".

Future Present Past
κṣɑ ɑżʌṣև(got tabong)
"get to eat"
ɒı̣q ɑżʌiև(des tabing)
"is eating"
ʞı̣ɒ ɑżʌı̣և(hed tabeng)
"have eaten"

Participles can also be used as an adjective or adverb.

Examples
Active Passive
Future ż yṣnṣև ʞżȷı̣q
A leaf to fall
Ptglh SZH1 ż ʌiᴚżκṣև ᴚṣɑṣʌ
A word to be written
Ptglh PCL1
Present i yṣniև ʞżȷı̣q
A falling leaf
Ptglh SZH2 ż ʌiᴚżκiև ᴚṣɑṣʌ
A word being written
Ptglh PCL2
Past ż yṣnı̣և ʞżȷı̣q
A fallen leaf
Ptglh SZH3 ż ʌiᴚżκı̣և ᴚṣɑṣʌ
A written word
Ptglh PCL3

Unlike in English, past participles in Patigulh can't mark pasaiveness. It is marked by passive participles

Past participle Past passive participle
Meaning ı̣ ᴚżκı̣և ᴚṣɑṣʌ
A having written word
A word that wrote another word.
Ptglh PCL4 ı̣ ʌiᴚżκı̣և ᴚṣɑṣʌ
A having been written word
A word that was written.
Ptglh PCL3

GerundsEdit

Gerund Future Present Past
simple ɑżʌṣƞ(tabon)
≈"to eat"
ɑżʌiƞ(tabin)
"eating"
ɑżʌı̣ƞ(taben)
≈"having eaten"

As for the irregular verbs, their (past/present/future) gerund is their (past/present/future) tense form with the suffix -iƞ(in).

Present Past Future
verb ɒı̣q(des)"is" ſżq(was)"was" ſinq(wils)"will be"
gerund ɒı̣q(desin)"being" ſżq(wasdin)"been" ſinq(wilsin)≈"to be"

The (past/future) gerunds are used to express the action happen (before/after) the verb.

Examples
Gerund
Future ṡɒṡᴚi ᴚṡᴚṣƞṣ (uduqi kukono) "forget to cook" Ptglh MRS1
Present ṡɒṡᴚi ᴚṡᴚiƞṣ (uduqi kuqino) "forget cooking" Ptglh MRS2
Past ṡɒṡᴚi ᴚṡᴚı̣ƞṣ (uduqi kukeno) "forget having cooked" Ptglh MRS3

Pay attention to the word ᴚṡᴚiև(kuqin)"cooking". It wasn't wirtten as ᴚṡᴚiƞṣ(kuqino)"cookingᴼᵇʲ", because gerunds don't decline by number or case.

Well, now it does.

PrepositionsEdit

The nouns after a preposition should be in sub-case.

Position PrepositionsEdit

记得提醒我往里边加上动三静四。是的,动三静四。

Prepositions
"at" class "to" class¹ "of" class
ɒı̣(de)at ʎż(ma)towards yṣƞ(fon)of
ʎżɒı̣(made)to yṣƞɒı̣(fonde)at-of
ni(li)in ʎżni(mali)into niyṣƞ(lifon)in-of
ſẓ̇ɑ(wait)out ʎżſẓ̇ɑ(mawait)out-to ſẓ̇ɑyṣƞ(waitfon)out-of
żƞ(an)on² ʎżkżᴚ(ma'an)on-to żƞyṣƞ(onfan)on-of
ṣʌ(ob)off ʎżkṣʌ(ma'ob)off-to ṣʌyṣƞ(obfon)off-of
ſı̣(we)up ʎżſı̣(mawe)up-to ſı̣yṣƞ(wefon)up-of
qżʌ(sab)down ʎżqżʌ(masab)down-to qżʌyṣƞ(sabfon)down-of
ƞżkı̣(na'e)left ʎżƞżkı̣(mana'e)left-to ƞżkı̣yṣƞ(na'efon)left-of
ƞżnṣ(nalo)right ʎżƞżnṣ(manalo)right-to ƞżnṣyṣƞ(nalofon)right-of
żʌ(ab)front ʎżʌ(mab)front-to żʌyṣƞ(abfon)front-of
ʌı̣ᴚ(bek)back ʎżʌı̣ᴚ(mabek)back-to ʌı̣ᴚyṣƞ(bekfon)back-of
  1. There also exists a "'from' class", which is formed by adding "żṡq(aus)from" after the preposition. It isn't shown in the table.
  2. 「żƞ(an)on」means to be at surface of something, while「ſı̣(ue)up」means to be upper than something.

The "to" class prepositions are used to form adverbtive modifying phrases, which comes before the verb it modifies:

  • ʎżɒı̣ żnż ʞżqiṣ qɒı̣v. (made ala hasio sdep.) [To the house walk.] "Walk to the house".
  • ʎżni żnż ʞżqiṣ qɒı̣v. (mali ala hasio sdep.) [Into the house walk.] "Walk into the house".

The "of" class prepositions are used to form adjective modifying phrases, which comes before the noun it modifies:

  • Πiyṣƞ żnż ᴚiȷṣ żƞ ẓ̇vṩ, (Lifon ala kiyo an aipou.) [In-of the tree an apple.] "An apple in the tree."
  • Jṣ ɑżʌ niyṣƞ żnż ᴚiʎiṣ żnż ẓ̇vṩʎṣ, (Wo tab lifon kimio aipoumo.) [I eat in-of the trees the apples] "I eat apples in the tree."
Jṣ ɑṣ Πẓ̇qı̣ƞ ʞṩɒ ż ʌżᴚiɑṣ, Jṣ ʞṩɒ ż ɑṣ Πẓ̇qı̣ƞ ʌżᴚiɑṣ,
(Wo to Laisen houd a baqito.) (Wo houd a to Laisen baqito.)
I lift (a bucket) with Reisen. I lift (a bucket with Reisen).
RISN&TI1 RISN&TI2

Non-Position PrepositionsEdit

In Patigulh, the word for "expect" is iʞżƞ(ihan)"unincluding", which is diversed from ʞżƞ(han)"including".

ConjunctionsEdit

  • ı̣ɑ(et)and
Conjunction only Conj. and ellipsis
Jṣ ɑżʌ ı̣ɑ ɒṡ ɑżʌ,
(Wo tab et du tab.)
I eat and you eat.
Jṣ ı̣ɑ ɒṡ ɑżʌ,
(Wo et du tab.)
I and you eat.
Jṣ ɑżʌ ı̣ɑ ſṣ qnży,
(Wo tab et wo slaf.)
I eat and I sleep.
Jṣ ɑżʌ ı̣ɑ qnży,
(Wo tab et slaf.)
I eat and sleep.
  • qı̣ɒ(sed)but
Conjunction only Conj. and ellipsis
Jṣ żƞɑżʌ qı̣ɒ ɒṡ ɑżʌ,
(Wo antab sed du tab.)
I don't eat but you eat.
7ṡu ſṣ qı̣ɒ ɒṡ ɑżʌ,
(Nul wo sed du tab.)
Not me but you eat.
Jṣ żƞɑżʌ qı̣ɒ ſṣ qnży,
(Wo antab sed wo slaf.)
I don't eat but I sleep.
Jṣ żƞɑżʌ qı̣ɒ qnży,
(Wo antab sed slaf.)
I don't eat but sleep.

ClausesEdit

PS: It is now still a mess.

  • ẓ(r)"that" — introduces any nominal clause and direct speech.
  • ɑṣƞɑ(tont)"who" — introduces nominal clause of person.
  • ɑṣu(tolh)"what" — introduces nominal clause of object.
  • ɑṣb(toc)"when" — introduces nominal clause of time.
  • ɑṣᴚ(tok)"where" — introduces nominal clause of place.
  • ɒżև(dang)"when" — introduces adverbial clause of time.
  • ṡʌi(ubi)"where" — introduces adverbial clause of place.
ſṣ ʞżƞżqı̣u qiẓ ɑṣb ſṣ ɑżʌı̣u,(wo hanaselh cir toc wo tabelh.)[I told him (when I ate)]"I told him when I ate."
→ I told him about the time I ate.
ſṣ ɒżʎ ſṣ ɑżʌı̣u ʞżƞżqı̣u biẓ,(wo dang wo tabelh hanaselh cir.)[I (when I ate)told him]"I told him when I ate."
→ I told him about something else at the time I ate.

SyntaxEdit


Head directionEdit

Adjectives always come before the noun they modify, and so are modifying phrases and clauses.

Adverbs always come before the verb they modify, and so are modifying phrases and clauses.

PossessionEdit

Possession is made by using the particle yṣƞ(fon)of, which is similar with "of" in English. Possession can also be marked by using a noun's "genetive" case form, which is basically its ablative case form used as an adjective. For example:

  • ſṣq ẓ̇vṩ。 ɒṡq ẓ̇vṩ,(Wos aipou, dus aipou.)"My apple, your apple."
  • Yṣƞ VżɑbiṩnÎƞ ẓ̇vṩ, VżɑbiṩnÎſı̣ ẓ̇vṩ,(Fon PatcioulIn aipou. PatcioulIwe aipou.)"Apple of Patchouli. Patchouli's apple."

There is no possessive pronoun like English "mine/yours". Patigulh use something like "my this" or "your that" instead.

  • ſṣq ᴚṣu。 ɒṡq qṣu,(Wos, dus.)"Mine, yours."

VoicesEdit

Passive voice is formed by adding the prefix ʌi(bi) before the verb:

qżʌżnż ɑżʌ ʎiᴚiſṣ,(Sabala tab mikiwo)"Cat eats mouse."
ʎiᴚiſż qżʌżnı̣ʌiɑżʌ qżʌżnṣ,(Mikiwa sabale bitab)"Mouse is eaten by cat."

The object of the original sentence becomes the new subject, and the original subject becomes an adverbal noun in ablative case.

MoodEdit

DeclarativeEdit

The Affirmative Sentences in Patigulh uses a SVO word order.

To make a sentence negative, the prefix żn(al-)"don't-" should be added to the beginning of the verb. However, this prefix has many other forms:

Negative Preffix
Preffix Verb begins with Example
żʎ(am)v/y/ʌ (p/f/b)ʌẓ̇(bai)buy→żʎʌẓ̇(ambai)don't buy
żƞ(an)ɑ/q/ɒ/b (t/s/d/c)biu(cilh)know→żƞbiu(ancilh)dont' know
żև(ang)ᴚ/κ (k/g)ᴚṡɒ(kud)can→żևᴚṡɒ(angkud)can't
ż(a)ʎ/ƞ/n (m/n/l)ʎẓ̇(mai)sell→żʎẓ̇(amai)don't sell
żn(al)All elseṣqı̣(ose)teach→żnṣqı̣(alose)don't teach

By the way, the negative suffix for adjectives change its form in similiar rules:

Negative Preffix
Preffix Verb begins with Example
iʎ(im)v/y/ʌ (p/f/b)ʌṣƞ(bon)good → iʎʌṣƞ(imbon)ungood
iƞ(in)ɑ/q/ɒ/b (t/s/d/c)ɒẓ̇(dai)know→iƞɒẓ̇(indai)unbig
iև(ing)ᴚ/κ (k/g)ᴚnẓ̇(klai)can→iևᴚnẓ̇(ingklai)unsmall
i(i)ʎ/ƞ/n (m/n/l)nżƞ(lan)blue→inżƞ(ilan)unblue
in(il)All elseȷı̣nṣ(yelo)yellow→inȷı̣nṣ(ilyelo)unyellow

When the usage of adverbs causes ambiguty. Put another adverb ƞı̣ɑ(net)"not" atthe end of a sentence instead.

  • ſṣ iᴚżni żʎʌẓ̇ȷı̣u(Wo ikali ambaiyelh)Angrily, I didn't buy.
  • ſṣ iᴚżni ʌẓ̇ȷı̣u ƞı̣ɑ(Wo ikali baiyelh net)I did not buy angrily.
  • ȷṣ [ƞı̣ɑ iᴚżni/iniᴚżni] ʌẓ̇ȷı̣u(Wo [net ikali/ilikali] baiyelh)[Not angrily/unangrily], I bought.

InterrogativeEdit

Questioning sentences in Patigulh is devided into "general questions" and "special questions".

Before going further, notice that Patigulh don't have question marks.

General questons (Yes/No questions) are created by taking the verb(and its adverb) to the beginning of the sentence.

  • ɒṡ ȷṩᴚni ɑżʌı̣u ẓ̇ ẓ̇vṩſṣ,(Du joukli tabelh e aipouwo,)[Thou slow-ly eat-ed aⁱᴬᵐⁱ appleᴼᵇʲ]"You ate an apple slowly."
  • ȷṩᴚni ɑz̊ʌs̥u ɒṡ ẓ̇ qżκṣ,(Joukli tabelh du ai sago,)"Slowly ate? you an apple?/Did you eat an apple slowly?"

Special questons (Wh- questions) are created by taking the subject or object or anything with interrogative pronouns.

  • ᴚṣnż ɒı̣q ƞz̊ƞs̥. (kola des nano.)[This is what.]"What is this?"
  • ʞṡ ɑżʌı̣u ᴚṣnṣ. (hu tabelh kolo) "Who ate this."

ImperativeEdit

Imperative in Patigulh can be easily made by simply add the interjective ɒı̣(de)"imp."(or qʎiɒż(smida)"please" to show polite) before the whole sentence.

  • ɑżʌ,(Tab.)"To eat."
  • ɑżʌ ɒı̣,(Tab de.)"Eat."
  • ɑżʌ qʎiɒż,(Tab smida.)"Please eat."

ConditionalEdit

Conditional mood can be made by adding the suffix -ṡu(ulh) to the end of the verb. But if the verb ends with a vovel, an "k(')" will be placed before the "ṡ(u)".

The Conditional suffix comes before the tense suffix: ɑżʌṡnı̣u(tabulel)"would have eaten".

Past Present Future
Normal ɑżʌı̣u ɑżʌ ɑżʌṣu
Conditional ɑżʌṡnı̣u ɑżʌṡu ɑżʌṡnṣu

The tense of conditional verbs agrees with other verbs in the context.

  • Jṣ ſiq ẓ ſṣ ɒı̣ɑṡu i nṣniſṣ,(Wo wis r wo detulh e loliwo.)"I wish that I were a girl."
  • Jṣ ſiqı̣u ẓ ſṣ ſżɑṡu ẓ nṣniſṣ,(Wo wiselh r wo watulh e loliwo.)"I wished that I had been a girl."

MiscellaneousEdit


NumberEdit

Patigulh uses base 12.

ƞṡunulh00
ȷżɒyad11 ɒṣqdos22
qżƞsan33 ȷṣƞyon44
yẓ̇fai55 nṣκlog66
qı̣vsep77 ẓ̇ɑait88
ʌżκbag99 nṡʎlumA10
nı̣ylefB11 ɒżda1012
ȷı̣qṡyesu1113 bẓqcrs1214
ɒżqżƞdasan1315 ɒżȷṣƞdayon1416

Numbers bigger than 24(or 20 in base12) are represented like: [Y]ɒż[X] means [Y]×12+[X].

Add κṣ after a number to make it an adjective: ɒṣqκṣ nṣκʎ(dosgo logm)"two 'six's".

Diminutives and augmentativesEdit

"A diminutive is a word that has been modified to convey a slighter degree of its root meaning, to convey the smallness of the object or quality named, or to convey a sense of intimacy or endearment."

In Patigulh, dimunitivation is shown with a ẓ(r) added at the end of a word. Regardless whether it ends with consonants or vovel. The dimunitivation suffix comes before the case and plural suffix.

  • qżʌżu(sabal)cat → qżʌżnẓ(sabalr)kitten → qżʌżnẓʎ(sabalrm)kittens → qżʌżnẓʎż(sabalrma)kittensᴬᶜᶜ

"An augmentative (abbreviated aug) is a morphological form of a word which expresses greater intensity, often in size but also in other attributes."

In Patigulh, argumentativation is shown with a ṣ(o) or ṣκ(og) added at the end of a word.

  • ʞżq(has)house → ṣʞżq(ohas)your house

Answering QuestionEdit

ɒı̥qɑ ɒṡ Vżɑbiṩni,
(Mas du Patciouli.)
Are you Patchouli?
ʞẓ̇。 ſṣ ɒı̣ɑ,
(Hai, wo det.)
Yes, I am.
ƞṩ。 ſṣ żƞɒı̣ɑ,
(Nou, wo andet.)
No, I ain't.
z̊ɒı̥qɑ ɒṡ Vżɑbiṩni,
(Amas du Patciouli.)
Aren't you Patchouli?
ƞẓ̇。 ſṣ ɒı̣ɑ.
(Nai, wo det.)
False, I am.
ʞṩ。 ſṣ żƞɒı̣ɑ.
(Hou, wo sndet.)
True, I ain't.

LexiconEdit


Main articlle: Patigulh/Lexicon

The table of personal pronouns and demonstrative pronouns can be found above.

SuffixesEdit

Suffixes can change the word's meaning from verb to noun, noun to adjective/adverb, and so on.

Suffixes
Suffix Meaning Similar Type Examples
~[V]kiև
~[C]iև
the action of ~ing~ing
(gerund)
v.→n.ɑżʌ(tab)eat → ɑżʌiⴑ(tabing)eating(n.)
~[V]bẓƞ
~[C]ibẓƞ
thing used in ~ing~tionv.→n.ɑżʌ(tab)eat → ɑżʌı̣bẓƞ(tabecrn)food
~[V]kiƞ
~[C]iƞ
~ing
(participle)
~ing
(adj.)
v.→adj.ʞżƞżq(hanas)say → ʞżƞżqiƞ(hanasin)speaking(adj.)
~[V]y
~[C]iy
be often ~ing~ivev.→adj.ʞżƞżq(hanas)say → ʞżƞżqiy(hanasif)speakactive
~[V]ƞż
~[C]i
be of ~~yn.→adj.vżɑq(pats)Knowledge → vżɑbi(patci)Knowledgable
~ṡևthe action of being of ~~nessadj.→n.ʎı̣ɒ(med)mad → ʎı̣ɒṡⴑ(medung)madness
~[V]b
~[C]ib
make sth. ~~fyadj. → v.ʌı̣nṣ(belo)beautiful→ʌı̣nṣb(beloc)beautify
~yżmake sth. be of ~~izen.→v.qɒṩ(sdou)stone → qɒṩyż(sdoufa)fossilize
~niin the method of ~~lyadj.→adv.ʌṣƞɒ(bond)real → ʌṣƞɒni(bondli)really
~ĸż
~ĸiż
thing/person who ~~tion
~er
v.→n.ṣqı̣u(oselh)teach → ṣqı̣nṡq(oselus)teacher

PreffixesEdit

Preffixes can change word's meaning to a related one. They seldon change the word's kind.

Preffixes
Preffix Meaning Similar Type Examples
żn~
(varies)
doesn't do ~ un-v.binż(cila)"know" → żƞbinż(ancila)"doesn't know"
ʌẓ̇(bai)"buy" → żʎʌẓ̇(ambai)"don't buy"
in~
(varies)
not ~ in-adj.
adv.
biƞı̣(cine)"dead" → iƞbiƞı̣(incine)"undead"
ʌṣƞ(bon)"good" → iʎʌṣƞ(imbon)"ungood"
ɒṣ~extremly ~ex~adj.qżɒi(sadi)"violent"→ɒṣqżɒi(dosadi)"extremely violent"
ʌṣƞ(bon)"good" → ɒṣʌṣƞ(dobon)"overgood"
ṡ~wrongly ~mis~v.ᴚżκ(kag)"write" → ṡᴚżκ(ukag)"miswrite"

Swadesh tableEdit


No. English Patigulh
1Iſṣ(wo)
2you (singular)ɒṡ(du)
3heɑż(ta)
4weɑbiż(tcia)
5you (plural)żƞɑż(anta)
6theyɑżʎ(tam)
7thisᴚṣu(kolh)
8thatṣu(olh)
9hereᴚṣᴚ(kok)
10thereṣᴚ(ok)
11whoʞṡ(hu)
12whatƞżƞ(nan)
13whereɑṣᴚ(tok)
14whenɑṣb(toc)
15howɑṣqɑ(tost)
16notżƞ(an)
17allʞṣnṣ(holo)
18manyɑżɒṣ(tado)
19someqı̣(se)
20fewyiṡ(fiu)
21otherżnɑ(alt)
22oneȷżɒ(yad)
23twoɒṣq(dos)
24threeqżƞ(san)
25fourȷṣƞ(yon)
26fiveyẓ̇(fai)
27bigɒẓ̇(dai)
28longnṣƞ(lon)
29wideſiɒı̣(wide)
30thickʞṩ(hou)
31heavyyẓ̇(fai)
32smallᴚṣ(ko)
33shortbṣɒ(cod)
34narrowqʌṣ(sbo)
35thinȷżqı̣u(yaselh)
36womanynżṡ(flau)
37man (adult male)ƞżʎ(nam)
38man (human being)ʞṣʎṣ(homo)
39childᴚiɒṣ(qido)
40wifeʞżnı̣(hale)
41husbandʌı̣ᴚi(beqi)
42motherʎṡʎż(muma)
43fatheryṡʌż(fuba)
44animalɑqṡ(tsu)
45fishyiq(fis)
46birdɑṡiɒ(tuid)
47dogqƞṡʌi(snubi)
48lousebẓqż(crsa)
49snakeṡɑżʞṡ(utahu)
50wormniκ(lig)
51treeʎṡɒ(mud)
52forestʎṣni(moli)
53sticknṣɒ(lod)
54fruitκṣqż(gosa)
55seedƞı̣ɑż(neta)
56leafı̣qż(esa)
57rootnṡɒ(lud)
58barkſżƞ(wan)
59flowerʞṡżƞż(huana)
60grassſżnż(wala)
61ropeƞżſż(nawa)
62skinviy(pif)
63meatȷṣκ(yog)
64bloodᴚı̣ɑq(kets)
65boneqżƞż(sans)
66fat
67eggʌṣu(bolh)
68hornɑqṡƞṣ(tsuno)
69tailȷı̣ʌż(jeba)
70featherſiʎṣ(wimo)
71hairʎṣyż(mofa)
72headżɑʎż(atma)
73earżɒṣ(ado)
74eyeṣȷṣ(oyo)
75noseʌiqż(bisa)
76mouthyı̣nż(fela)
77toothɑṡq(tus)
78tongueqı̣ɑṣ(seto)
79fingernailȷṡʌibı̣u(yubicelh)
80footʌżu(balh)
81legżbi(aci)
82kneeżbibı̣u(acicelh)
83handżʎṡ(amu)
84wingɑqẓʌż(tsrba)
85bellyɒṡy(duf)
86gutsκżɑq(gats)
87neckʌṣqż(bosa)
88backʌẓ̇ᴚ(baik)
89breastṩvẓ̇(oupai)
90heartᴚnṣ(klo)
91liverκżƞɒi(gandi)
92drinkbiniṡ(ciliu)
93eatɑżʌ(tab)
94biteȷżṡ(yau)
95suckbiqżκ(cisag)
96spitvṣi(poi)
97vomitṣɑṡ(otu)
98blowyṡᴚi(fuki)
99breatheyṡbi(fuci)
100laughᴚqż(ksa)
101seeɑqı̣ƞ(tsen)
102hearżṡɒi(audi)
103knowqinż(sila)
104thinkɒiⴑᴚ(dingk)
105smellqṡʎ(sum)
106fearᴚṡẓ̇(kuai)
107sleepƞı̣u(nelh)
108liveʎṣʞż(moha)
109diebiƞı̣(cine)
110killᴚẓṣq(kros)
111fightſżu(walh)
112huntɒżnı̣(dale)
113hitʞiɑ(hit)
114cutᴚżɒ(kad)
115splityṡƞ(fun)
116stabɑbż(tca)
117scratchᴚiκṡż(kigua)
118digſżɒ(wad)
119swimȷṡȷṣƞ(yuyon)
120fly
121walkʌṡκ(bug)
122comeᴚżʎ(kam)
123lieɑżƞ(tan)
124sitqṡżu(sualh)
125standɑbi(tci)
126turnʞiƞż(hina)
127fallɒı̣u(delh)
128giveκẓ̇y(gaif)
129holdʞṣnṡɒ(holud)
130squeezeɒbiż(dcia)
131rubʃṩ(jou)
132washſżbi(waci)
133wipeɑżɑq(tats)
134pullvṡu(pulh)
135pushɑṣı̣(toe)
136throwᴚiƞṣ(kino)
137tieʌżƞɑẓ̇(bantai)
138sewyṣև(fong)
139countʎı̣qı̣(mase)
140sayʞżƞżq(hanas)
141singṡɑżṡ(utau)
142playqʌiu(sbilh)
143floatyṩɑ(fout)
144flowniṣ(lio)
145freezeyniq(flis)
146swellqṣı̣u(soel)
147sunƞiʎż(nima)
148moonnṡƞż(luna)
149starqɒı̣nż(stela)
150waterʎiq(mis)
151rainqʎı̣(sme)
152riverᴚṡż(kua)
153lakeʎiqʎi(mismi)
154seaṡʎ(um)
155saltqżnż(sala)
156stoneqɒṩ(sdou)
157sandqƞżɒ(snad)
158dustᴚqṡ(ksu)
159earthɑṡɑi(tuti)
160cloudᴚnżʎṣ(klamo)
161fogᴚini(kili)
162skyɑı̣ƞ(ten)
163windᴚżqẓ̇(kasai)
164snowȷṡᴚi(yuki)
165iceɑbiu(tcilh)
166smokeɑżʌżᴚ(tabak)
167fireʎṣᴚṩ(mokou)
168ash
169burnbżṡ(cau)
170roadɒṣu(dolh)
171mountainȷżʎż(yama)
172rednṡʌi(lubi)
173greennṡiƞ(luin)
174yellowı̣nṣ(elo)
175whiteʞṣſżɑ(howat)
176blackʌnẓ̇ᴚ(blaik)
177nightȷżȷı̣(yaye)
178dayɑżκ(tag)
179yearżƞṣ(ano)
180warmɑżᴚẓ̇(takai)
181coldqżʎṣi(samoi)
182fullivẓ̇(ipai)
183newƞı̣ſṣ(newo)
184oldṣnṡɒṣ(oludo)
185goodʌṣƞ(bon)
186badʌnżq(blas)
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190roundʎżu(malh)
191sharp
192dullʌżκż(baga)
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correctʌiևκṩ(binggou)
197near
198farṣı̣ƞ(oen)
199rightƞżnṣ(nalo)
200leftƞżkı̣(na'e)
201atɒı̣(de)
202inni(li)
203withɑṣ(to)
204andı̣ɑ(et)
205ifȷṡκ(yug)
206becauseᴚṡq(kus)
207nameƞżʎı̣(name)


Example textEdit


Daily phraseEdit

  1. żnṣʞżȷṩ;(Alohajou!) Hello!
  2. żnṩ;(Alou!) Hi!
  3. bżniṣƞżnż;(Calionara!) Goodbye!
  4. bżni;(Cali!) Bye!
  5. qṣniʎżqı̣ƞ,(solimasen.) Sorry.
  6. żniκżƞqż,(Aligansa) Thank you!
  7. qκı̣ɒẓ̇;(Sgedai) Fuск уоu!

"Our tent was blown away!"Edit

There was a completed example text here till I updated so mamy new grammars that I dicided to rewrite it

vżɑbiṩniſż ı̣ɑ nı̣ʎiniżſż yṣ ſẓ̇niyṣƞı̣ɒ ȷṩᴚẓ̇ȷżʎżſi iᴚı̣u, ɒżև nı̣ʎiniżſż ɒı̣qɑ qnżyiև。 vżɑqiṩniſż ſı̣ᴚiżnı̣u biƞ ı̣ɑ ʞżƞżqı̣u ẓ。⌊nı̣ʎi。 ſṣɒi ṣƞ qɒı̣nżyṡu ṣᴚṡſṣ ɒı̣⌉, ⌊ʞẓ̇。 vżɑbi。⌉。 nı̣ʎiniżſż ɑṣ qnżyiy ı̣ȷı̣ƞ ſṣƞı̣u ẓ。 ⌊ƞz̊ƞz̊ ɒı̣q ı̣ʃṣ⌉,

Patchouli-ɴᴏᴍ and Remilia-ɴᴏᴍ for out.live-ғᴛʀ.ɢᴇʀ-sᴜʙ.ᴅᴀᴛ Youkai.moutain-ᴅᴀᴛ go-ᴩsᴛ. ᴄᴏɴᴊ Remilia-ɴᴏᴍ be.3ʀᴅ-ᴩsᴛ sleep-ᴩᴛᴄᴩ, Patchouli-ɴᴏᴍ up.call-ᴩsᴛ 3ʀᴅ.ᴀɴᴍ.ᴩʀᴏɴ.ᴀᴄᴄ and say-ᴩsᴛ ᴄᴏɴᴊ:"Remi, look that star.full sky-ᴀᴄᴄ ɪᴍᴩ". "ɪɴᴛᴇʀᴊ, Patchy,", Remilia-ɴᴏᴍ with sleep-ᴀᴅᴊ eye.ᴩʟ-sᴜʙ.ᴀᴄᴄ ask-ᴩsᴛ, "what-ɴᴏᴍ-ɪɴᴛᴇʀʀᴏ is.3ʀᴅ wrong".

Patchouli and Remilia went to Youkai Moutain for camping. When Remilia was sleeping, Patchouli waked her up and said: "Look at the starry sky, Remi." Remilia aksed with sleepy eyes: "Yeah, Patche. What's wrong?" "Just look at it!" Patchouli said unsatisfiedly, "Don't you have any idea?" Remilia looked at the sky for a while and replyed: "I thought about how big the universe is, and how small we mortals are." "Oh, Remilia Scarlet, you stupid!" Patchouli yelled angrily, "Why didn't you think about that our tent was blown away by the wind?!"

Community content is available under CC-BY-SA unless otherwise noted.