Conlang
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Polijole
Type Agglutinatively Polysynthetic
Alignment Nominative-Accusative
Head direction Initial
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 48%
Statistics
Nouns 50%
Verbs 67%
Adjectives 50%
Syntax 33%
Words of 1500
Creator Glitchy999

Polijole Logo.png

Polijolè [pˠɒliɟɒlə̆] (Polidish /ˈpolɪdɪʃ/ in English) is the language spoken by the Polidians, a race of humans with magical powers, they existed on earth for around ~7820bc to 692bc, but now live on another planet called Poligathè [pˠɒligatʰə̆] (Poligea /poˈlɪʒia/ in English), and have erased all evidence of their Earth presence.

Classification and Dialects[]

The version of Polijole shown in this article was the average version of the variant spoken at around ~692bc, otherwise known as "Classic Polidish" but the language has changed and has altered into 6 different modern dialects. A list of all historical versions and the modern dialects can be found here.

Classical Polidish[]

Phonology[]

Consonants[]

Labial Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m mˠ n ŋ
Plosive pˠ pˠʰ bˠ t tʰ d ɟ~c k kʰ g ʔ
Fricative s z ʃ ʒ x
Affricate t͡s t͡sʰ t͡ʃ t͡ʃʰ
Lateral app. l

C[+labial][+velarised] > C[+labial] / _i, _ĭ

ɟ > c / C[-voice]V_VC[-voice] / C[-voice]V_

Vowels[]

Front Central Back
High i ĭ u ŭ
Mid ə ə̆
Low a ɒ

diphthongs: /ĭu/, /ĭə/, /ĭa/, /ĭɒ/

Phonotactics[]

Very strict CV syllable structure.

the diphthongs /ĭu/, /ĭə/, /ĭa/ and /ĭɒ/ can only occur before /n/, /l/, /s/, /z/ /ʃ/, and /ʒ/.

Writing System[]

"Polidothu", The classic right-to-left syllabary writing system derived from the Phoenician alphabet, the older writing system is unknown. The symbols for /ʃ/ also fills the role of /ʒ/ and the symbol for /tʰ/ fills the role of /t͡sʰ/ and /t͡ʃʰ/. Short vowels are written using a dot at the top.






Grammar[]

Nouns[]

Singular Dual Plural
Nominative -ga* -kè -sù
Accusative -nè -kènè -şzùnè
Dative -ŋa -kèŋa -zùŋa
Vocative -‘i -‘a
Locative -te -kète -şùte
Genitive -ba/-bo -kèba -zùba
Allative -sa -kèsa -şùsa
Ablative -saka -ke -sùka
Inessive -bì -kèbì -zùbì
Reflexive -(Previous consonant)

*-ga is often considered not neccesary in some dialects

Verbs[]

Tenses/Perfective

Present tense Past tense Future tense
Simple -∅ (Near Present)

-the (Exact Present)

-mu -tu
Imperfect -cu -mù(cu) -tù(cu)
Perfect -ci -mùci -tùci
Infinitive nie-

Poly-Personal Agreement[]

1P 2P 3P
SINGULAR DUAL PLURAL SINGULAR DUAL PLURAL SINGULAR DUAL PLURAL
MASCULINE FEMININE MASCULINE FEMININE
1P SG -nana -memè -tana 'o-...-nagù 'o-...-nania -çena -nagè 'o-...-na -kèna 'o-...-nasù
PL/DU -nagù -megù -tagù -gugù 'o-...-gunia -cegù -gugè 'o-...-gu -kègu 'o...-gusù
2P SG -nania -menia -tania -gunia -niania -mimì -çenia -niagè 'o-...-nia -kènia 'o...-niasù
PL/DU -nagè -megè -tagè -gugè -niagè -migè -çecè -gegè 'o-...-ge -kège 'o...-gesù
3P SG -na -me -ta -gu -nia -mi -çeta -ge -∅ -kèxa 'o-...-xasù
PL/DU -nasù -mesù -tasù -gusù -niasù -misù -çesù -gesù -xasù -kèsù -susù
Indirect Object (Goes After)[]
1P 2P 3P
SG DU PL SG DU PL SG DU PL
MASC FEM MASC FEM
-no -mo -to -gu’o -nio -mi’o -ço -go -∅ -ko -so

Converbs[]

-te = CONV

-tecì = ABL.CONV

-kono = PURP.CONV

-pu = COND.CONV

Evidentiality[]

'e- = INFR

cho-/çho- = VIS.INFR

ba- = HEAR.INFR

jo- = QUOT

Copula[]

1st Person 2nd Person 3rd Person
PR PS FU PR PS FU PR PS FU
Simple nani memu natu niani mimu niatu ni mu tu
Perfect phu* phumu* phutu* phu* phumu* phutu* phu* phumu* phutu*
Imperfect nanicu menimùcu nanitùcu nianicu minimùcu nianitùcu nicu nimùcu nitùcu
Infinitive nieni

Copula Object

1P 2P 3P
SG PL SG PL SG PL
-na -gù -nia -gè -∅ -kè

*The imperfect forms just behave like regular verbs except the tense goes first

The inderect remains the same

Pronouns[]

Singular Dual Plural
Masculine Feminine Masculine Neuter Feminine Neuter
NOM 1st Person Exc. Na Me Na+DUAL Mena Me+DUAL Gu
1st Person Inc. Ta Mapho Tama Go
2nd Person Nia Mi Nia+DUAL Neta Mi+DUAL Ge
OBL 1st Person Exc. No Mo No+DUAL Meno Mo+DUAL Gu'o
1st Person Inc. To Mopho Ta'o Go'o
2nd Person Nio Mi’o Nio+DUAL Neto Mi’o+DUAL Ga’o

Adjectives[]

phe- = Adjective

pho- = Adverb

add the accusative case if it is in stative form

Syntax[]

it has a VSO word order and is head initial, however adjectives go before nouns

Nouns[]

(NEG)-NOUN-(affix)-case

Verbs[]

(evidential)-VERB-agreement-tense-(affix)-(converb)

Adjectives[]

(adj/adv)-(affix)-ADJECTIVE-(acc)

Lexicon[]

here

Example text - The North Wind and the Sun[]

Romanisation:

'Èlabukèxamù phelapatopho miḿega niu gonaga ŋoniogekhenè xakeba. Phoxi'o niu phomime dulamìkèxamùçite, siumù zamaŋenio'agasa chùŋite phepuçota'anè pulolobi.

Lilemùci gonaga "lamìta", "gùmitatatùci niogekhega xa zamaŋenio'agabo pulolonè".

Phodema lilemùci phelapatopho miḿega "lamìnanio", pholathe lumemùci pheşuniamo miḿenè, xujoni zamaŋenio'agasa.

Pilogèmù phojukana miḿega puloloba zamaŋenio'agabo khemanè. Niu phothigi puçotamùci xaxa, niu phoniogekhe xujonimùci miḿega, phoniothigi puçotamùci xaxa. Phodema kuthomèmùci mimega pulolonè, niu nimùci phetidi xabo tutapega du'ocakoba.

Photuke mìkomù gonaga. nimu xabo mìkosù ŋelakinè, niu siumù phegìna xi'obi, dupuçotamùci zamaŋenio'agaga xabo pulolonè niu paŋamùci phomèta şzaliudamù xabo daşzinişzùnè. Phùmu gonabo mìkosù nioxi'onè niu nioxi'onè. Gùmitamùci linajoga xabo jena niu şacumùci xabo philanè. Phocimani phùmùci ziagu xi'onè gùmita xabo pulolonè, niu, kisotamu nieşzadèna phosuxi'o gonabo mìkonè, cìmìmùci xaxa phetonia takaneba xalusa khulìchùŋite.

IPA:

[ʔə̆labˠukə̆xamŭ pˠʰəlapˠatɒpˠʰɒ mimˠəga nĭu gɒnaga ŋɒnĭɒgəkʰənə̆ xakəbˠa. pˠʰɒxiʔɒ nĭu pˠʰɒmimə dulamĭkə̆xamŭt͡ʃitə, sĭumŭ zamaŋənĭɒʔagasa t͡sʰŭŋitə pˠʰəpˠut͡ʃɒtaʔanə̆ pˠulɒlɒbi]

[liləmŭt͡si gɒnaga lamĭta, gŭmitatatŭt͡si nĭɒgəkʰəga xa zamaŋənĭɒʔagabˠɒ pˠulɒlɒnə̆]

[pˠʰɒdəma liləmŭt͡si pˠʰəlapˠatɒpˠʰɒ miməga lamĭnanĭɒ pˠʰɒlatʰə luməmŭt͡si pˠʰəʃunĭamɒ mimˠənə̆ xuɟɒni zamaŋənĭɒʔagasa]

[pilɒgə̆mŭ pˠʰɒcukana mimˠəga pˠulɒlɒbˠa zamaŋənĭɒʔagabˠɒ kʰəmanə̆. nĭu pˠʰɒtʰigi pˠut͡ʃɒtamŭt͡si xaxa, nĭu pˠʰɒnĭɒgəkʰə xuɟɒnimŭt͡si mimˠəga, pˠʰɒnĭɒtʰigi pˠut͡ʃɒtamŭt͡si xaxa. pˠʰɒdəma kutʰɒmə̆mŭt͡si miməga pˠulɒlɒnə̆, nĭu nimŭt͡si pˠʰətidi xabˠɒ tutapˠəga duʔɒt͡sakɒbˠa]

[pˠʰɒtukə mĭkɒmŭ gɒnaga. nimu xabˠɒ mĭkɒsŭ ŋəlakinə̆, nĭu sĭumŭ pˠʰəgĭna xiʔɒbi, dupˠut͡ʃɒtamŭt͡si zamaŋənĭɒʔagaga xabˠɒ pˠulɒlɒnə̆ nĭu pˠaŋamŭt͡si pˠʰɒmə̆ta ʒalĭudamŭ xabˠɒ daʒiniʒŭnə̆. pˠʰŭmu gɒnabˠɒ mĭkɒsŭ nĭɒxiʔɒnə̆ nĭu nĭɒxiʔɒnə̆. gŭmitamŭt͡si linaɟɒga xabˠɒ ɟəna nĭu ʃat͡sumŭt͡si xabˠɒ pʰilanə̆. pˠʰɒt͡simani pˠʰŭmŭt͡si zĭagu xiʔɒnə̆ gŭmita xabˠɒ pˠulɒlɒnə̆, nĭu, kisɒtamukɒnɒ nĭəʒadə̆na pˠʰɒsuxiʔɒ gɒnabˠɒ mĭkɒnə̆, t͡sĭmĭmŭt͡si xaxa pˠʰətɒnĭa takanəbˠa xalusa kʰulĭt͡sʰŭŋitə]

Gloss:

argue-3du>3sg-PST.PERF ADJ-north wind-NOM and sun-NOM who-AUG-strong-ACC DEM-GEN.du. ADV-heat and ADJ-wind NEG-agree-3du>3sg-PST.PERF-CONV, COP.LOC-∅-PST.IMPERF travel-AG-ALL path-LOC ADJ-wrap-PAT cloak-INE.

say-∅-PST.PERF sun-NOM "agree-1du>3sg", "take.off-1du>3sg-FUT.PERF AUG-strong-NOM DEM travel-AG-GEN cloak-ACC".

ADV-angry say-∅-PST.PERF ADJ-north wind-NOM "agree-1sg>3sg-2sg.DAT", ADV-PRES create-∅-PST.PERF ADJ-cold wind-ACC, push-∅ travel-AG-ALL.

whip-∅-PST.IMPERF ADV-one.ORD wind-NOM cloak-GEN travel-AG-GEN end-ACC. and ADJ-close wrap-∅-PST.PERF 3sg.RELF, and ADJ-AUG-strong push-∅-PST.PERF wind-NOM, ADJ-AUG-close wrap-∅-PST.PERF 3sg.RELF. ADV-angry tear-∅-PST.PERF wind-NOM cloak-ACC, and-∅-PST.PERF COP ADJ-all DEM.GEN PST.PERF labour-NOM NEG-reason-GEN.

ADV-after shine-∅-PST.IMPERF. COP-∅-PST 3sg.GEN ray-PL weak-ACC, and COP.LOC-∅-PST.IMPERF ADJ-good heat-INE, NEG-wrap-∅-PST.PERF traveler-AG-NOM 3sg.GEN cloak-ACC and allow-∅-PST.PERF ADV-loose hang-3sg>3pl-PST.PERF 3sg.GEN shoulder-ACC.PL. COP.IMPERF.PST sun-GEN ray-PL AUG-hot-ACC and AUG-hot-ACC. take.off-∅-PST.PERF person-NOM 3sg.GEN hat-ACC and wipe-∅-PST.PERF 3sg.GEN brow-ACC. ADV-final become-∅ too hot-ACC take.off 3sg.GEN coat-ACC, and, want-∅-PST-PURP.CONV INF-escape-∅ ADV-pl-hot sun-GEN light-ACC, throw-∅-PST.PERF 3sg.RELF ADJ-welcome tree-GEN shadow-All side-path-LOC.

Translation:

The North Wind and the Sun had a quarrel about which of them was the stronger. While they were disputing with much heat and bluster, a Traveler passed along the road wrapped in a cloak.

"Let us agree," said the Sun, "that he is the stronger who can strip that Traveler of his cloak".

"Very well," growled the North Wind, and at once sent a cold, howling blast against the Traveler.

With the first gust of wind the ends of the cloak whipped about the Traveler's body. But he immediately wrapped it closely around him, and the harder the Wind blew, the tighter he held it to him. The North Wind tore angrily at the cloak, but all his efforts were in vain.

Then the Sun began to shine. At first his beams were gentle, and in the pleasant warmth after the bitter cold of the North Wind, the Traveler unfastened his cloak and let it hang loosely from his shoulders. The Sun's rays grew warmer and warmer. The man took off his cap and mopped his brow. At last he became so heated that he pulled off his cloak, and, to escape the blazing sunshine, threw himself down in the welcome shade of a tree by the roadside."

Romanisation[]

Consonants Vowels
IPA b g d z x tʰ ɟ k l m mˠ n ŋ s p t͡s t͡ʃ t͡sʰ t͡ʃʰ kʰ pʰ ʃ ʒ t ʔ a ə i ɒ u ĭ ŭ ə̆ ĭu ĭə ĭa ĭɒ
Romanisation b g d z x th j k l m ḿ n ŋ s p c ç ch çh kh ph ş şz t ' a e i o u ì ù è iu ie ia io

Other[]

irregularities

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