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This page provides a list and example sentences for all of the historical versions and all of the modern Languages of the Polidish language family.

note: most of the modern langauges' names are based off of their etymological-original classical polidish word, so the names may differ slightly

Proto-Polidish[]

Proto-Polidish, mostly commonly called Tēkʷts [ˈtæːkʷtɿ], but could also be called Kʷʼō līǵōxū ǵāle [kʷʼɑː liːˈɟɑːxuː ˈɟɑːlɛ̞], (often just shortened to Kʼʷōlīǵōle [kʷʼɑːliːˈɟɑːlɛ̞]), was first spoken around ~5820bc and was the oldest form of Polidish, it was very isolating, it had a C(V/F)(P) syllable structure (where P is short for ᵐb, p, t, c, k, kʷ, ʔ and F is a syllabic fricative) It is the ancestor of Classical and Central polidish. It had a preference for a VSO or VOS word order, but because of the marked cases, the word order was allowed to be very free. Except for prepositional verbs, which must go before the object forcing either VOS or SVO.

Phonology[]

Consonants[]

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Labiovelar Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ ŋʷ
Plosive p ᵐb t tʼ d c cʼ ɟ k kʼ g kʷ kʼʷ gʷ ʔ
Fricative s ç x
Liquid l j w

Vowels[]

Front Back
High i iː u uː
Low ɛ̞ æː ʌ̞ ɑː

there are no diphthongs

Syllabic Fricatives[]

Alveolar Velar
Fricative ɿ ɣ̩

Romanisation[]

Consonants Vowels Syllabic Fricatives
IPA m n ɲ ŋ ŋʷ p ᵐb t tʼ d c cʼ ɟ k kʼ g kʷ kʷʼ gʷ ʔ s ç x l j w i iː u uː ɛ̞ æː ʌ̞ ɑː ɿ ɣ̩
Romanisation m n ń ŋ ŋʷ p b t tʼ d ḱ ḱʼ ǵ k kʼ g kʷ kʷʼ gʷ ʼ s x́ x l j w i ī u ū e ē o ō s x

Example Sentences[]

kʷōk

[kʷɑːk

ADV

loǵēḱḱē

lʌ̞ɟæːcˈcæː

slow

sēbūkʼxbū

sæːˈᵐbuːkʼɣ̩ᵐbū

ABL-PERF

tʼēkʼēnetʼekʷ

tʼæːˈkʼæːnɛ̞tʼɛ̞kʷ

tree-LOC.SG

ns

nɿ

1SG.MASC.NOM

sēboʼbū

ˈsæːᵐbʌ̞ʔᵐbuː

ALL-PERF

kʼsḱōnēkʼētʼekʷ

kʼɿcɑːˈnæːkʼæːtʼɛ̞kʷ]

bird-LOC.DU

kʷōk loǵēḱḱē sēbūkʼxbū tʼēkʼēnetʼekʷ ns sēboʼbū kʼsḱōnēkʼētʼekʷ

[kʷɑːk lʌ̞ɟæːcˈcæː sæːˈᵐbuːkʼɣ̩ᵐbū tʼæːˈkʼæːnɛ̞tʼɛ̞kʷ nɿ ˈsæːᵐbʌ̞ʔᵐbuː kʼɿcɑːˈnæːkʼæːtʼɛ̞kʷ]

ADV slow ABL-PERF tree-LOC.SG 1SG.MASC.NOM ALL-PERF bird-LOC.DU

I walked from the tree to the 2 birds.

[suː

very

gisē

giˈsæː

like

ns

nɿ

1SG.MASC.NOM

xɑː

DEM.ACC

tʼītʼōsēb,

tʼiːtʼɑːˈsæːᵐb,

food,

nīnx

ˈniːnɣ̩

COP.PRES.3sg

suː

very

ginē!

giˈnæː]

good.

sū gisē ns xō tʼītʼōsēb, nīnx sū ginē!

[suː giˈsæː nɿ xɑː tʼiːtʼɑːˈsæːᵐb, ˈniːnɣ̩ suː giˈnæː]

very like 1SG.MASC.NOM DEM.ACC food, COP.PRES.3sg very good.

I love this food, it's great!


Məká[]

Məká /məˈka/ is a Polidish language which has no relation to Classical or Central Polidish. These people split off from the other polidians before the others gained their magic, so they had no magical capability. This language is unique for being the only Polidish language to have phonemic stress, while the others may have only had allaphonic stress.

Phonology[]

Consonants[]

Labial Alveolar Dorsal Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p b t d k g ʔ
Fricative s h
Liquid w l j

Vowels[]

Front Central Back
High i iː u uː
Mid ɛ ɛː ə ɔ ɔː
Low ɐ~a aː

there are no diphthongs

Romanisation[]

Consonants Vowels
IPA m n ŋ p t k b d g ʔ s h w l j i iː u uː ɛ ɛː ə ɔ ɔː a aː
Romanisation m n ŋ p t k b d g ʼ s h w l j i ī u ū e ē ə o ō a ā

Example Sentences[]

pak

[pak

ADV

logék

lɔˈgɛk

slow

bɔː

COP.PST

sebṓkə

sɛˈbɔːkə

from

tekéni

tɛˈkɛni

tree

mɔː

1sg.NOM

sébō

ˈsɛbɔː

to

ikskanék

ikskɐˈnɛk]

bird

pak logék bō sebṓkə tekéni mō sébō ikskanék

[pak lɔˈgɛk bɔː sɛˈbɔːkə tɛˈkɛni mɔː ˈsɛbɔː ikskɐˈnɛk]

ADV slow COP.PST from tree 1sg.NOM to bird

I walked from the tree to the 2 birds.

[sɔː

very

gisé

giˈsɛ

like

mɔː

1sg.NOM

haː

DEM.ACC

tātaséb,

taːtɐˈsɛb,

food,

nā́nə

ˈnaːnə

COP.PRES.3SG

sɔː

very

giné!

giˈnɛ]

good

sō gisé mō hā tātaséb, nā́nə sō giné!

[sɔː giˈsɛ mɔː haː taːtɐˈsɛb, ˈnaːnə sɔː giˈnɛ]

very like 1sg.NOM DEM.ACC food, COP.PRES.3SG very good

I love this food, it's great!

Classical Polidish[]

Classical Polidish, or Polijolè [pˠɒliɟɒlə̆] was spoken at around ~692bc, it had a strict CV word order and was quite agglutinatively polysynthetic. It was the ancestor of CIP, Gekhe and Xiophoniol. It had the same word order syntax as Proto-Polidish.

Phonology[]

On the main page

Romanisation[]

On the main page

Example Sentences[]

pholejacha

[pˠʰɒləɟaˈt͡sʰa

ADV-slow

zamukomi

zamuˈkɒmi

ABL-∅-AOR

takanètè

taˈkanə̆tə̆

tree-LOC

na

na

1SG.MASC.NOM

zamemi

ˈzaməmi

ALL-∅-AOR

kaçhonakatè

kat͡ʃʰɒˈnakatə̆]

bird.LOC.DU

pholejacha zamukomi takanètè na zamemi kaçhonakatè

[pˠʰɒləɟaˈt͡sʰa zamuˈkɒmi taˈkanə̆tə̆ na ˈzaməmi kat͡ʃʰɒˈnakatə̆]

ADV-slow ABL-∅-AOR tree-LOC 1SG.MASC.NOM ALL-∅-AOR bird.LOC.DU

I walked from the tree to the 2 birds.

gìşaşzuna

[gĭˈʃaʒuna

love-1SG.MASC

xa

xa

DEM

titozanè,

titɒˈzanə̆,

food-ACC,

nina

niˈna

COP.PRES.3sg

zugìnanè!

zugĭˈnanə̆]

very-good-ACC

gìşaşzuna xa titozanè, nina zugìnanè!

[gĭˈʃaʒuna xa titɒˈzanə̆, niˈna zugĭˈnanə̆]

love-1SG.MASC DEM food-ACC, COP.PRES.3sg very-good-ACC

I love this food, it's great!

Central Polidish[]

Central Polidish, also just called Polijolè [pˠɒliɟɒlə̆], was a dialect of Polidish also spoken around ~692bc which was almost identical in grammar to Classical Polidish and is quite polysynthetic (but more fusional), but shows a few phonological, phonotactical and lexical differences. it had a CV(s) syllable structure where a coda -s could appear (in some locations it could only appear word finally). It had front-back vowel harmony. It was the ancestor of Kikhahi, Bozaje, Cakine and Nagaku. It had the same word order syntax as Proto-Polidish.

Phonology[]

Consonants[]

Labial Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive pˠ pˠʰ bˠ

ᵐb

t tʰ d ɟ k kʰ g
Fricative s z ʃ ʒ x h
Affricate t͡s t͡sʰ t͡ʃ t͡ʃʰ
Lateral app. l

Vowels[]

Front Central Back
High i ĭ u ŭ
Mid ə ə̆
Low a ɒ

diphthongs: /ĭu/, /ĭə/, /ĭa/, /ĭɒ/

Romanisation[]

Consonants Vowels
IPA ᵐb bˠ g d z x tʰ ɟ k l m n ŋ s pˠ t͡s t͡ʃ t͡sʰ t͡ʃʰ kʰ pˠʰ ʃ ʒ t h a ə i ɒ u ĭ ŭ ə̆ ĭu ĭə ĭa ĭɒ
Romanisation mb b g d z x th j k l m n ŋ s p c ç ch çh kh ph ş şz t h a e i o u ì ù è iu ie ia io

Example Sentences[]

phelejacha

[pˠʰələɟaˈt͡sʰa

ADJ-slow

zambukombi

zaᵐbuˈkɒᵐbi

ABL-∅-AOR

takanètè

taˈkanə̆tə̆

tree-LOC

nas

nas

1SG.MASC.NOM

zambembi

ˈzaᵐbəᵐbi

ALL-AOR

ka(s)çhonakotè

ka(s)t͡ʃʰɒˈnakɒtə̆]

bird.LOC.DU

phelejacha zambukombi takanètè nas zambembi ka(s)çhonakotè

[pˠʰələɟaˈt͡sʰa zaᵐbuˈkɒᵐbi taˈkanə̆tə̆ nas ˈzaᵐbəᵐbi ka(s)t͡ʃʰɒˈnakɒtə̆]

ADJ-slow ABL-∅-AOR tree-LOC 1SG.MASC.NOM ALL-AOR bird.LOC.DU

I walked from the tree to the 2 birds.

gìşaşzunas

[gĭˈʃaʒunas

love-1SG.MASC>3SG

xo

DEM.ACC

titozonè,

titɒˈzɒnə̆,

food-ACC,

ninos

niˈnɒs

COP.PRES.3SG

zugìnonè!

zugĭˈnɒnə̆]

very-good-ACC

gìşaşzunas xo titozonè, ninos zugìnonè!

[gĭˈʃaʒunas xɒ titɒˈzɒnə̆, niˈnɒs zugĭˈnɒnə̆]

love-1SG.MASC>3SG DEM.ACC food-ACC, COP.PRES.3SG very-good-ACC

I love this food, it's great!

CIP[]

CIP aka "Common Imperial Polidish", or Pəliçəu [pəlit͡ʃəu], is the most commonly spoken form of Polidish in modern times, the version shown here is spoken around 3012ad, same with all of the other dialects below. The language is very fusional with as many as 9 noun declensions. It had a preference towards an SOV word order. It very interestingly developed the phonemic clicks /ʘ ǃ/ from /mˠ/ and particular consonant clusters.

Phonology[]

Consonants[]

Labial Alveolar Post-Alveolar Palatal Dorsal
Nasal m m̩ n n̩ ŋ ŋ̩
Plosive p t k
Fricative ɸ~w s ʃ (ç) h
Affricate t͡s t͡ʃ
Approximate l ɫ̩ ʟ ʟ̩
Click ʘ ǃ

Vowels[]

Front Central Back
High i ɨ u
Mid e ə o
Low a

Diphthongs: /i̯a/ /i̯e/ /i̯ʊ/ /uɪ/ /ua/ /əɪ/ /əʊ/

[ç] is an allophone of /h/ before /i/

Romanisation[]

Consonants Vowels
IPA h k l ʟ m n s p t͡s t͡ʃ ʃ t f x w ʘ ǃ a e ə i ɨ o u
Romanisation h k l ł m n s p c ç ş t f x w mw q a e ə i ı o u

Example Sentences[]

təkanət

[təˈkanət

tree-LOC

lıçaspl

lɨˈt͡ʃaspɫ̩

slow-GEN

samukani

samuˈkani

ABL-1P.AOR

ki

ki

2

kəşənaşot

kəʃəˈnaʃot

bird-LOC.PL

samıni

saˈmɨni]

ALL-1P.AOR

təkanət lıçaspl samukani ki kəşənaşot samıni

[təˈkanət lɨˈt͡ʃaspɫ̩ samuˈkani ki kəʃəˈnaʃot saˈmɨni]

tree-LOC slow-GEN ABL-1P.AOR 2 bird-LOC.PL ALL-1P.AOR

I walked from the tree to the 2 birds.

cetəsan

[t͡seˈtəsan

food.ACC

DEM.ACC

çeşaşuna,

t͡ʃeʃaˈʃuna,

love-1P,

ha

ha

DEM.NOM

hu

hu

very

çenan!

ˈt͡ʃenan]

good-ACC

cetəsan hə çeşaşuna, ha hu çenan!

[t͡seˈtəsan hə t͡ʃeʃaˈʃuna, ha hu ˈt͡ʃenan]

food.ACC DEM.ACC love-1P, DEM.NOM very good-ACC

I love this food, it's great!

Kikhahi[]

Kikhahi, or modernly Ḱihehi [c̠ihɛhi], it is very fusional and has 6 declensions. It had a strong preference for a SVO word order but VSO and SOV was also allowed. The language shows many similarities in phonology, grammar and syntax to Cakine due to being in close proximity to it.

Phonology[]

Consonants[]

Labial Dental Alveolar Post-Alveolar Retracted Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ̠ ŋ
Plosive p~b θ ð t~d c̠~ɟ̠ k~g
Fricative f v s z ʃ ʒ x~ɣ h
Affricate t͡s t͡ʃ
Lateral l

Vowels[]

Front Central Back
High i y u
Mid ɛ œ ə ɔ
Low a

Diphthongs: /ɪa/ /ɪe/ /ɪo/

Consonants Vowels
IPA v ɣ ð z x θ k c̠ l m n ŋ s p t͡s t͡ʃ f ʃ t a ɛ ə i ɔ œ u y
Romanisation b g d z x þ k ḱ l m n ŋ s p c ç f ş t a e ə i o ö u ü

Example Sentences[]

nas

[nas

1SG.NOM

plecə

plɛt͡sə

ADJ-slow

zapuköpi

zapukœpi

ABL-AOR

takanət

takanət

tree-LOC.SG

zamepi

zamɛpi

ALL-AOR

kaçonokət

kat͡ʃɔnɔkət]

bird.LOC.DU

nas plecə zapuköpi takanət zamepi kaçonokət

[nas plɛt͡sə zapukœpi takanət zamɛpi kat͡ʃɔnɔkət]

1SG.NOM ADJ-slow ABL-AOR tree-LOC.SG ALL-AOR bird.LOC.DU

I walked from the tree to the 2 birds.

nas

[nas

1SG,NOM

şasu

ʃasu

love

DEM

titoşon,

titɔʃɔn,

food.ACC,

ninos

ninɔs

COP.3P.PRES

su

su

very

nɔn!

nɔn]

good.ACC

nas şasu hə titoşon, ninos su nɔn!

[nas ʃasu hə titɔʃɔn, ninɔs su nɔn]

1SG,NOM love DEM food.ACC, COP.3P.PRES very good.ACC

I love this food, it's great!


Bozaje[]

Bozaje, or modernly, Pə̀sàşè [pə̀sàʃè], it was both a language isolate and was grammatically fairly isolating. It has 4 tones: High, Mid, Low, and Falling, however, The High and Low tones turn into Rising and Falling tones in diphthongs (so the rising tone is allaphonic). It had a strict VOS word order due to lacking any morphological cases.

Phonology[]

Consonants[]

Bilabial Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Dorsal
Nasal m ŋ
Plosive p k
Fricative f θ s ʃ h
Affricate t͡s t͡ʃ
Lateral

Vowels[]

Front Central Back
High i ĩː ɯ u
Mid e ɛ̃ː ə/(ɔ̂ː) ɤ ɔ̃ː
Low a/(ɑ̂ː) ɑ̃ː

Diphthongs: /ĭa/ /ĭe/ /ĭo/ /ĭu/ /ĩɑ̃ː/ /ĩɛ̃ː/ /ĩɔ̃ː/

Example Sentences[]

loşàcápə̀

[l̪ɤʃàt͡sápə̀

slow-GEN

sàmuhômu

sàmuhɔ̂ːmu

ABL-PST

þáhą̀

θáhɑ̃̀ː

tree

n̪ɑ̂ː

1SG

sàmomu

sàmɤmu

ALL-PST

hâçǫ́

hɑ̂ːt͡ʃɔ̃́ː

bird

hɤ́]

two

loşàcápə̀ sàmuhômu þáhą̀ nâ sàmomu hâçǫ́ hó

[l̪ɤʃàt͡sápə̀ sàmuhɔ̂ːmu θáhɑ̃̀ː n̪ɑ̂ː sàmɤmu hɑ̂ːt͡ʃɔ̃́ː hɤ́]

slow-GEN ABL-PST tree 1SG ALL-PST bird two

I walked from the tree to the 2 birds

kìşású

[kìʃású

love

á

á

DEM

tḯtə́sà

t̪ɯ́t̪ə́sà

food

nâ,

n̪ɑ̂ː,

1sg,

ni

n̪i

COP.3P.PRES

very

kį̀

kĩ̀

good

á

á]

DEM

kìşású á tḯtə́sà nâ, ni sú kį̀ á

[kìʃású á t̪ɯ́t̪ə́sà n̪ɑ̂ː, n̪i sú kĩ̀ á]

love DEM food 1sg, COP.3P.PRES very good DEM

I love this food, it's great!

Cakine[]

Cakine, or modernly, Çekiŋ [t͡ʃɛkiŋ], it has a lot of vowel harmony, it has 2 declensions. It had a strong preference for a SVO word order but VSO and SOV was also allowed. The language shows many similarities in phonology, grammar and syntax to Kikhahi due to being in close proximity to it.

Phonology[]

Consonants[]

Labial Coronal Dorsal
Regular Lateral
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p b t d k g
Fricative s ʃ h
Affricate t͡ʃ t͡ɬ
Liquid w r l j

Vowels[]

Front Back
High i y ɯ u
Low ɛ œ ɑ ɔ

Diphthongs: /iɑ/ /iɛ/ /iɔ/ /iu/ /ɑi/ /ui/ /ɑu/

Example Sentences[]

nas

[nɑs

1SG.NOM

welejaç

wɛlɛˈjɑt͡ʃ

ADV-slow

rabukonap

rɑbuˈkɔnap

ABL-1SG-AOR

takanı

tɑˈkɑnɯ

tree-LOC.SG

rabınap

ˈrɑbɯnɑp

ALL-1SG-AOR

kaçonakı

kɑt͡ʃɔˈnɑkɯ]

bird-LOC.DU

nas welejaç rabukonap takanı rabınap kaçonakı

[nɑs wɛlɛˈjɑt͡ʃ rɑbuˈkɔnap tɑˈkɑnɯ ˈrɑbɯnɑp kɑt͡ʃɔˈnɑkɯ]

1SG.NOM ADV-slow ABL-1SG-AOR tree-LOC.SG ALL-1SG-AOR bird-LOC.DU

I walked from the tree to the 2 birds.

giɬarunas

[giˈɬɑrunɑs

love-1SG

ho

ho

DEM.ACC

titoran,

titɔˈrɑn,

food-ACC,

ninös

niˈnœs

COP.PRES.3P

su

su

very

ginen!

giˈnɛn]

good-ACC

giɬarunas ho titoran, ninös su ginen!

[giˈɬɑrunɑs ho titɔˈrɑn, niˈnœs su giˈnɛn]

love-1SG DEM.ACC food-ACC, COP.PRES.3P very good-ACC

I love this food, it's great!

Nagaku[]

Nagaku, or modernly Dagagu [dagagu]. It mainly preffered SOV but other word orders were allowed. The syllable structure is CV(N)(C)

Phonology[]

Consonants[]

Labial Alveolar Post-Alveolar Dorsal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p(ʰ) b t(ʰ) d~ɾ k(ʰ) g
Fricative s ʃ h
Affricate t͡s t͡ʃ d͡ʒ
Approximate l

Vowels[]

Front Back
High i ɯ u
Mid e o
Low a

diphthongs: /ɪa/ /ɪe/ /ɪu/

Example Sentences[]

das

[das

1SG.NOM

taganıt

tʰaganɯt

tree-LOC

pılıçgaça

pʰɯlɯd͡ʒat͡ʃa

ADJ-slow

sabuguci

sabugut͡si

ABL-AOR

kaçunagıt

kʰat͡ʃunagɯt

bird.LOC.DU

sabıci

sabɯt͡si]

ALL-AOR

das taganıt pılıçgaça sabuguci kaçunagıt sabıci

[das tʰaganɯt pʰɯlɯd͡ʒat͡ʃa sabugut͡si kʰat͡ʃunagɯt sabɯt͡si]

1SG.NOM tree-LOC ADJ-slow ABL-AOR bird.LOC.DU ALL-AOR

I walked from the tree to the 2 birds.

Gekhe[]

Gekhe polidish, or kēkhēpo pōlijōl [kɛːkʰɛːpɔ pɔːlijɔːl] (literally "Polidish of the highly magical") is the Polijole spoken by the highest elites of the polidians. It is considered the most similar to classical Polidish in grammar of all dialects. It only allowed for verb initial word orders, VSO was the main prefered word order but VOS was also allowed.

Phonology[]

Consonants[]

Labial Alveolar Post-Alveolar Dorsal
Nasal m n ŋ
Plosive p pʰ t tʰ k kʰ
Fricative s ʃ h
Affricate t͡s t͡sʰ t͡ʃ t͡ʃʰ
Approximate l j

Vowels[]

Front Back
High i u
Low-Mid ɛ ɛː ɔ ɔː
Low a~æ ɑ(ː)

Diphthongs: /ɪa/ /ɪe/ /ɪo/ /ɪu/

Example Sentences[]

pēlejācha

[pɛːlɛjɑːt͡sʰa

ADJ-slow

sāmukāna

sɑːmukɑːna

ABL-1SG>3SG.PERF

sākānat

sɑːkɑːnæt

tree-LOC.SG

sāmena

sɑːmɛna

ALL-1SG>3SG.PERF

kāçhonōkat

kɑːt͡ʃʰɔnɔːkæt]

bird.LOC.DU

pēlejācha sāmukāna sākānat sāmena kāçhonōkat

[pɛːlɛjɑːt͡sʰa sɑːmukɑːna sɑːkɑːnæt sɑːmɛna kɑːt͡ʃʰɔnɔːkæt]

ADJ-slow ABL-1SG>3SG.PERF tree-LOC.SG ALL-1SG>3SG.PERF bird.LOC.DU

I walked from the tree to the 2 birds.

sujeşāşuna

[sujeʃɑːʃuna

love-1SG>3SG

ha

ha

DEM

sitōşōn,

sitɔːʃɔːn,

food.ACC,

nina

nina

COP.3SG.PERF

sujenon

sujenon]

very-good.ACC

sujeşāşuna ha sitōşōn, nina sujenon

[sujeʃɑːʃuna ha sitɔːʃɔːn, nina sujenon]

love-1SG>3SG DEM food.ACC, COP.3SG.PERF very-good.ACC

I love this food, it's great!

Xiophoniol[]

Xiophoniol, or modernly Xöfonöl /çɵfoɲɵl/ is spoken in the Xöfon country of Poligea, the version shown here was spoken until 973ce when the language went extinct. It mainly preffered SVO but other word orders were allowed.

Phonology[]

Consonants[]

Labial Dental Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Stop p t k
Affricate t͡s t͡ʃ
Fricative f s θ ð ʃ x ɣ h
Approximant ʋ j
Liquid l r

Vowels[]

Front Central Back
High i ʉ u
Mid ɵ̞ ɤ̞ o̞
Low æ ɐ

Example sentences[]

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