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Pontic
Ποντικα
Type Fusional
Alignment Nominative-Accusative
Head direction Final
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders Masculine-Feminine
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 0%
Statistics
Nouns 0%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 0%
Words of 1500
Creator [[User:|]]


Classification and DialectsEdit

Pontic is an Anatolian language of the Indo-European language family spoken in Pontus. The Pontic vocabulary was very influenced by Ancient Greek and by Old Persian; the Greek alphabet was even adopted during the Classical era to write Pontic.

Writing SystemEdit

Letter α β γ δ η ζ ι κ λ μ ν ξ
Sound a b g d ε z i k l m n ʃ
Letter ο π ρ σ τ ου φ χ ψ βφ γγ τσ
Sound o p r s t u f x v ɣ ts
  1. At the end of a word, sigma is written as such ς, e.g. Ποντος (=Pontus)
  2. The h-sound is written by adding an accent to the following vowel, e.g. άρηνος (=sports - harenos)

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

Nouns may be feminine or masculine, singular or plural and are declined depending on the used case.

singular masculine

(βφιρος = man)

feminine

(λαρα = woman)

plural masculine

(βφιρος = man)

feminine

(λαρα = woman)

nominative βφιρος λαρα βφιρι λαρη
vocative βφιρη λαρο βφιρι λαρη
accusative βφιρον λαραν βφιρι λαρη
dative βφιρι λαρι βφιρις λαρις
genitive βφιρα λαρηι βφιρηι λαραι
ablative βφιρο λαρη βφιρηχ λαρηχ

Masculine nouns may be changed into the feminine by adding the suffix -κα to the word stem instead of the masculine ending -ος, e.g. μιτιλος -- μιτιλκα (=woman artist)

Definiteness Edit

In Pontic the definiteness is expressed by the definite pronoun το :

singular masculine feminine plural
nominative το τα τηι
accusative τον ταν τηι
dative τοι ται τις
genitive τα τηι τια
ablative το τηι τιχ

The plural doesn't make the difference between the two genders in the plural, e.g. Ήψο τηι λαρη να τηι βφιρι. (=I see the women and the men.)

More expressive definiteness forms like the distal and the proximal do not have a special pronoun, but are attached to the word stem following the case ending. The proximal suffix is -ηγ- and the distal one is -ην-, e.g. Ήψο λαρηγαν. (=I am seeing this woman.), Ήψο λαρηναν. (=I am seeing that woman.)

The definite pronoun has to be reduced to τ' if the following noun begins with a vowel or an h-sound and if the pronoun ends with a vowel, e.g. Ήψο τ'άγγαρι. (=I am seeing the windows.), but : Ήψο τον άγγαρον. (=I am seeing the window.)

Adjectives Edit

The adjectives in Pontic are exactly declined like the nouns. The definite pronoun follows the adjective and respects the same rule for the shorten form of these pronouns with the adjectives like with the nouns.

Comparative Edit

The comparative is formed by the prefix τα(ρ)- (rho is added if the adjective begins with a vowel or an h-sound), e.g. τανηος (=newer). Comparison is done by the adjective put in the comparative form followed by the compared noun in the ablative case, e.g. Κολια μου αξτ τανηα κολιη του. (=My car is newer than your car.)

Superlative Edit

The superlative is formed by the suffix -αν- to the stem of the adjective in the comparative, e.g. τανηανος (=newest). Comparison in the superlative is done by the adjective in its superlative form followed by the compared noun in the genitive, e.g. Άμ το ταλημανος κλαςηι μου. (=I am the tallest of my class.)

VerbsEdit

Verbs in Pontic are relatively regular compared to the most Indo-European languages. There are only two ambiguities : the verb βηχηι (=to be) and the aorist stem is different from the infinitive-present stem. Notice that in Pontic there are two different conjugation classes : a-type and η-type.

Conjugation Edit

As conjugation example the verb καρδαι (=to do / to make) is taken for the α-conjugation and άψηι (=to hear) for the η-conjugation.

Indicative Edit
Present καρδαι άψηι βηχηι
ηγγ καρδο άψο άμ
τι καρδας άψης στι
τος, τα, το καρδα άψη αξτ
βφη καρδαμη άψημη άτημ
ζη καρδατη άψητη άτις
τηι καρδαν άψαν άτον
  1. The present expresses present actions, e.g. Ήψο λαραν. (=I am seeing a woman.)
  2. The present expresses repetitive present actions, e.g. Ξηκο ζιο ήψο λαρηγαν. (=Everyday I see this woman.)
  3. The present expresses planned future actions, mostly schedules, e.g. Τ'αφτοβουσος βφημη 15:45'ο. (=The bus comes at 15:45.)
Near Past καρδαι άψηι βηχηι
ηγγ ηκαρδο ηνάψο ηνάμ
τι ηκαρδας ηνάψης ηστι
τος, τα, το ηκαρδα ηνάψη ηναξτ
βφη ηκαρδαμη ηνάψημη ηνάτημ
ζη ηκαρδατη ηνάψητη ηνάτις
τηι ηκαρδαν ηνάψαν ηνάτον
  1. The near past is simply formed by the present tense of the main form with the prefix η(ν)- (nu is added if the verb begins with a vowel or an h-sound), which is inherited from the Ancient Greek past suffix ε-.
  2. The near past expresses past actions having resulted to some situation or state in the present, e.g. Ηρηκη. (It has rained. - the raining occurred in the past, but the result is that the streets are now wet)
Perfect καρδαι άψηι βηχηι
ηγγ καρδουσαμ άκαμ βουδαμ
τι καρδουσαστι άκαστι βουδαστι
τος, τα, το καρδουσαξτ άκαξτ βουδαξτ
βφη καρδουσατημ άκατημ βουδατημ
ζη καρδουσατις άκατις βουδατις
τηι καρδουσατον άκατον βουδατον
  1. The perfect is formed by the aorist stem followed by the perfect endings. The aorist stem is regular for the α-type, since the suffix -ουσ- has just to be added to the verb stem, but the aorist stem for the η-type is irregular and has to be learnt.
  2. The perfect expresses past actions enduring to the present moment (there are mostly time adverbials in sentences with the perfect tense), e.g. Ήψουσαμ ξηκαδ λαρηγαν. (=I have always seen this woman.)
  3. The perfect may be used in a inferential sense like in Persian and Turkish, e.g. Ήψουσαστι λαρηγαν. (=It seems that you saw this woman.)
Aorist καρδαι άψηι βηχηι
ηγγ καρδουσαι άκαι βουδαι
τι καρδουσις άκις βουδις
τος, τα, το καρδουσι άκι βουδι
βφη καρδουσιμη άκιμη βουδιμη
ζη καρδουσιτη άκιτη βουδιτη
τηι καρδουσαν άκαν βουδαν
  1. The aorist is formed by the aorist stem followed by the aorist endings.
  2. The aorist expresses past actions which are finished and completed, e.g. Βφηται βιβλιον. (=I read a book.)
Imperfect καρδαι άψηι βηχηι
ηγγ καρδαμ άψημ βηχημ
τι καρδασι άψησι βηχησι
τος, τα, το καρδι άψι βηχι
βφη καρδαμι άψημι βηχημι
ζη καρδατι άψητι βηχητι
τηι καρδανι άψανι βηχανι
  1. The imperfect expresses ongoing past actions which are not finished and completed, e.g. Καδ βφηξτησι τον βιβλιον, ήψουσαι λαραν. (=While you were reading the book, I saw a woman.)
  2. Notice the difference of the verb βηχηι in the aorist and in the imperfect : in the aorist the state of being is completely finished, so the subject does not exist longer; in the imperfect the state of being is partially finished, so the attribute does no longer qualify the subject, e.g. Πατρος μου βουδι καμαρος. (=My father was doctor. - the verb is in the aorist, so the father is dead), but : Πατρος μου βηχι καμαρος. (=My father was doctor. - the verb is in the imperfect, so the father is no longer doctor, he may be pensioner...)
Remote Past καρδαι άψηι βηχηι
ηγγ καρδουσουδαι άκουδαι βουσαι
τι καρδουσουδις άκουδις βουσις
τος, τα, το καρδουσουδι άκουδι βουσι
βφη καρδουσουδιμη άκουδιμη βουσιμη
ζη καρδουσουδιτη άκουδιτη βουσιτη
τηι καρδουσουδαν άκουδαν βουσαν
  1. The remote past is formed by the aorist stem followed by the remote past endings.
  2. The remote expresses finished and completed past actions being anterior to another past action, e.g. Αιτης βφιμις, βφητουδαι βιβλιον. (=Before you came, I had read a book.)
Pluperfect καρδαι άψηι βηχηι
ηγγ καρδηχημ άψηχημ βηγημ
τι καρδηχησι άψηχησι βηγησι
τος, τα, το καρδηχι άψηχι βηγι
βφη καρδηχημι άψηχημι βηγημι
ζη καρδηχητι άψηχητι βηγητι
τηι καρδηχανι άψηχανι βηγανι
  1. The pluperfect expresses ongoing not finished past actions being anterior to another past action, e.g. Αιτης βφιμις, βφηξτηχημ βιβλιον. (=Before you came, I had been reading a book.)
  2. The pluperfect may be used in an vague sentence (a sentence with the indefinite pronouns somewhere, someone...), e.g. Αλκαδ αλκι ληχι ταν αγαπαν βηχηι ταζιβαναν. (=Sometime someone said that love is the most beautiful thing.)
Near Future καρδαι άψηι βηχηι
ηγγ χακαρδο χανάψο χανάμ
τι χακαρδας χανάψης χαστι
τος, τα, το χακαρδα χανάψη χαναξτ
βφη χακαρδαμη χανάψημη χανάτημ
ζη χακαρδατη χανάψητη χανάτις
τηι χακαρδαν χανάψαν χανάτον
  1. The near future is simply formed by the present tense of the main form with the prefix χα(ν)- (nu is added if the verb begins with a vowel or an h-sound), which is inherited from the Persian auxiliary verb xāhan introducing the future tense.
  2. The near future expresses future actions which the speaker is sure of that they are going to happen, e.g. Χαρηκη. (It is going to rain. - the speaker is sure that it will rain, since it is bad weather, grey clouds are coming...)
Future καρδαι άψηι βηχηι
ηγγ καρδοι άψοι βοι
τι καρδης άψας βας
τος, τα, το καρδη άψα βατ
βφη καρδημη άψαμη βαμη
ζη καρδητη άψατη βατη
τηι καρδην άψην βαν
  1. The future expresses future actions, e.g. Βφηξτοι τον βιβλιον. (=I will read the book.)
Future Perfect καρδαι άψηι βηχηι
ηγγ καρδουσοι άκοι βουδοι
τι καρδουσας άκας βουδας
τος, τα, το καρδουσατ άκατ βουδατ
βφη καρδουσαμη άκαμη βουδαμη
ζη καρδουσατη άκατη βουδατη
τηι καρδουσην άκην βουδην
  1. The future perfect is formed by the aorist stem followed by the future perfect endings.
  2. The future perfect expresses future actions being anterior to another future action, e.g. Αιτης βφημας, βφητοι βιβλιον. (=Before you will come, I will have read a book.)
Future Past καρδαι άψηι βηχηι
ηγγ ηκαρδοι ηνάψοι ηβοι
τι ηκαρδης ηνάψας ηβας
τος, τα, το ηκαρδη ηνάψα ηβατ
βφη ηκαρδημη ηνάψαμη ηβαμη
ζη ηκαρδητη ηνάψατη ηβατη
τηι ηκαρδην ηνάψην ηβαν
  1. The future past is simply formed by the future tense of the main form with the prefix η(ν)- (nu is added if the verb begins with a vowel or an h-sound), which is inherited from the Ancient Greek past suffix ε-.
  2. The future past expresses future actions in the past, e.g. Ησουσαι, ψη ηνήψη ταν λαραν. (=I felt / had the impression that he would see the woman.)
Future Past Perfect καρδαι άψηι βηχηι
ηγγ ηκαρδουσοι ηνάκοι ηβουδοι
τι ηκαρδουσας ηνάκας ηβουδας
τος, τα, το ηκαρδουσατ ηνάκατ ηβουδατ
βφη ηκαρδουσαμη ηνάκαμη ηβουδαμη
ζη ηκαρδουσατη ηνάκατη ηβουδατη
τηι ηκαρδουσην ηνάκην ηβουδην
  1. The future past perfect is formed by the aorist stem followed by the future perfect endings.
  2. The future past perfect is simply formed by the future perfect tense of the main form with the prefix η(ν)- (nu is added if the verb begins with a vowel or an h-sound), which is inherited from the Ancient Greek past suffix ε-.
  3. The future past perfect expresses future actions being anterior to another future action in the past, e.g. Ησουσαι, ψη ηρηψατ, αιτης ηνήψη ταν λαραν. (=I felt / had the impression that it would have rained before he would see the woman.)
Subjunctive Edit
Present καρδαι άψηι βηχηι
ηγγ καρδουσο άκο βουδο
τι καρδουσας άκης βουδης
τος, τα, το καρδουσα άκη βουδη
βφη καρδουσαμη άκαμη βουδημη
ζη καρδουσατη άκατη βουδητη
τηι καρδουσαν άκαν βουδαν
  1. The subjunctive is always followed by the verbal introducing particle σα.
  2. The subjunctive is always formed by the aorist stem followed by the corresponding endings of the different tenses.
Perfect καρδαι άψηι βηχηι
ηγγ καρδουσουδο άκουδο βουδουδο
τι καρδουσουδης άκουδης βουδουδης
τος, τα, το καρδουσουδη άκουδη βουδουδη
βφη καρδουσουδημη άκουδημη βουδουδημη
ζη καρδουσουδητη άκουδητη βουδουδητη
τηι καρδουσουδαν άκουδαν βουδουδαν

SyntaxEdit

LexiconEdit

Example textEdit

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