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InfoEdit

Prevenian is a language isolate spoken in parts of Iceland and Ghana along with some of Southern Asia. It has a script similar to that of English, French, Spanish, Latin itself and other Latin scripts due to it's influence from Icelandic, and has about 35,000 speakers.

History and Temporary Extinction Edit

Prevenian originated from an older language now called Outdated Prevenian which starting being developed at roughly 985 AD. Outdated Prevenian had few clicks, only 30 letters and fit the design of Old English. After around 1200, Outdated Prevenian became extinct. Only 30 or 40 scholars and native people were just barely keeping it alive. Later, in the mid 18th century, new speakers decided to develop a new language which shares characteristics with Outdated Prevenian which eventually became modern Prevenian around the early 30s.

DialectsEdit

3 dialects, the Icelandic, Indian, and Ghanaian dialects are spoken. The Indian dialect uses a tilde to indicate an "r" sound being added to consonant, and also has several other diacritics. There are also several other minor differences between the dialects.

Writing System & PhonologyEdit

Alphabet Edit

As mentioned previously, because Prevenian has been under influence of Icelandic speakers, the Prevenian script is of Latin origin.

The Prevenian alphabet is of moderately large size & has 42 letters/ The Prevenian script has even evolved symbols for clicks alongside vowels and consonants due to being influenced from multiple nations.

Third Case Edit

Unlike most Latin languages, Prevenian uses a Sᴍᴀʟʟ Cᴀᴘɪᴛᴀʟ case for the first word of every other sentence in a paragraph. However, only some letters have a small capital form; letter which do not have a small capital form use lowercase in substitue.

Ranking Edit

Unlike in English or other similar languages, letters are ordered by what sound they represent. Vowels are first, dipthongs are second, consonants are third, semivowels are fourth, and other sounds like the Ghanaian click consonants are fifth.

Vowels & Dipthongs Edit

Both long and short vowel categories have seperate symbols in Prevenian, thus 11 vowels are created (the 11th missing vowel being Æ, which is the [/eɪ/] sound as in aviation). 3 dipthongs or gliding vowels are also used. These are "ai", "oy", and "ow".

All long vowels are represented using macrons, except for the long-e which is shown as Œ. This is because the Latin latter ethel ("Œ") also represents the long E sound.

Also note the letter short U ignores syllable stress, so it can either represent the short U in custom, or the shorter-to-pronounce shwa which can also be found in custom.

Prevenian
Prēvenīen
Type Isolating (partially Indic and/or North Germanic)
Alignment
Head direction
Tonal No
Declensions No
Conjugations No
Genders 3
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress Expression error: Unexpected < operator.%
Statistics
Nouns Expression error: Unexpected < operator.%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 0%
Words of 1500
Creator Nirvana Supermind
# Symbols Rominzation IPA Sound

Example

1 A, a, ᴀ A [/æ/] Ban
2 Ā, ā Ā [/ɑː/] Naan
3 Æ, æ, ᴁ Ae [/eɪ/] Ape
4 E, e, ᴇ E [/ε/] Dozen
5 Œ, œ Ē [/i/] Been
6 O, o O [/ɒ/] Hobby
7 Ō, ō Ō [/oʊ/] Bone
8 I, i, ɪ I [/ɪ/] Thin
9 Ī, ī Ī [/aɪ/] Find
10 U, u, ᴜ U [/ə/];

[/ᴧ/]

Cub
11 Ū, ū Ū [/juː/] Moon
12 ſt, ɒ Ow [/oʊ/] Cow
13 Ꜽ, ꜽ Ai [/aɪ/] Wise
14 Ȳ, ȳ Oy [/ɔɪ/] Boil

Consonants & Semivowels Edit

The list of consonants and semivowels is like that of English with some differences. First of all, adding a grave to a consonant adds an "h" sound to that letter. For instance, "b̀" produces the sound "bh". Secondly, the letter K has been ditched; C serves it's purpose and does not represent the S sound either. Several other letters like L have also been ditched. And finally, additional letters from African languages, Old English, and Sanskrit have also been added to the consonant bank.

# Symbol Rominzation IPA Sound Example
15 B, b, ʙ B [/b/] Burn
16 C, c C [/k/] Record
17 D, d, ᴅ D [/d/] Red
18 Ð, ð, ᴆ Th [/ð/] Father
19 G, g, ɢ G [/g/] Tug
20 H, h, ʜ H [/h/] Hood
21 Ƕ, ƕ Hw [/h/] + [/w/] N/A (combination of "W" and "H" sounds)
22 J, j, ᴊ J [/ʒ/] Jacket
23 M, m, ᴍ M [/m̪/] Mild
24 N, n, ɴ N [/n/] Nasal
25 Ŋ, ŋ Ng [/ŋ/] Thing
26 P, p, ᴘ P [/p/] Pack
27 F, f, ғ F [/f/] Frontier
28 Q, q, ǫ Q [/q/] + [/w/] Quicksand
29 R, r, ʀ [/ɾ/] Rail
30 Ř, ř, ʀ̌ Rr (rolled r) [/r/] Sorry
31 S, s S [/s/] Shape
32 T, t, ᴛ T [/t/] Bat
33 Þ, þ Th [/θ/] Thumb
34 V, v, ᴠ V [/v/] Versatile
35 X, x Gz [/g/] + [/z/] Exotic
36 Z, z Z [/z/] Zip
37 Y, y Y [/j/] You
38 W, w W [/w/] Wet
39 Ł, ł Le [/ɯ/] Treacle

Click Consonants Edit

Because of African speakers modifying the language, Prevenian has evolved to have 3 clicks which are shown in the table below.

# Symbol IPA
40 [/|/]
41 [/!/]
42 [/||/]

So to review, Prevenian has 42 letters [A,Ā,Æ,E,Œ,O,Ō,I,Ī,U,Ū,ſt,Ꜽ,Ȳ,B,C,D,Ð,G,H,Ƕ,J,M,N,Ŋ,P,F,Q,R,Ř,S,T,Þ,X,Z,Y,W,Ł,%̄,\̄,/͒].

Punctuation Edit

Prevenian uses widely the same punctuation as English, with some differences. «Guillemets» are used to quote text which contains quotation marks; this custom is also used in the US state of Iowa.

For example:

In the book Cwms of the Exoplanets it was mentioned that the geysers on HE-5212j were « not caused naturally, but rather “a mix of left over asteroid debris and emitted nearby cold rays from the Y-type brown dwarf it orbits” ».

Another punctuation mark often used in Prevenian is the interrobang ‽, which usually asks a question in an exciting manner (it is often replaced by "?!" or "!?" in English and other languages due to it's lack of ASCII compatibility). An inverted interrobang ⸘ is also used to represent authority.

Phonotactics Edit

Syllables Edit

Prevenian syllables can be both open or closed (meaning they can have a coda, but do not have to). However, like Siglitun and Mandarin, only a small number of coda consonants are allowed, specifically [b̀,ð,n,k,r,ř,x,z].

Letter Restrictions Edit

  1. Consonant digraphs [th,hw,gz] etc. cannot be used in Prevenian because they already have single-letter reprenstation in this language.
  2. This also applies to dipthongs and the consonant combinations [le,ul].

Numerals Edit

My language branches entirely off from most other number systems and uses a Base-28 (octovigesimal) and Base-24 (tetravigesimal) mashup system and shares traits with Mayan numerals. No words are used for numbers, and only symbols are used. Individual symbols are provided for a handful of 28's factors [1,4,7,28], much like in Mayan where symbols for factors of the base or 20's factors [1,5] are given seperate symbols.

Numbers 0 to 3 Edit

Counting from 0 to 3 is fairly easy. 0 has it's own symbol, and after that you just use dots, so 2 for instance is ••.

Prevenian Symbol English Symbol Meaning of Prevenian Symbol Pronounciation
0 Blank sign (nothingness) zek
1 1 ub
•• 2 2 bi
••• 3 3 tri

Numbers 4 to 6 Edit

Numbers four through six use the symbol ⁜ to represent 4 and add on previous numbers from that.

Prevenian Symbol English Symbol Meaning of Prevenian Symbol Pronounciation
4 4 (represented by 4-line cross with dots) qektar
⁜• 5 4+1 qektar-ub
⁜•• 6 4+2 qektar-bi

Numbers 7 to 13 Edit

Numbers seven through thirteen use the symbol --͖̄ for seven, ⁜ for 4, and • for 1 to construct larger numbers.

Prevenian Symbol English Symbol Meaning of Prevenian Symbol Pronounciation
--͖̄ 7 7 (represented by a diagonal complex of 7 lines) sheptar
--͖̄• 8 7+1 sheptar-ub
--͖̄•• 9 7+2 sheptar-bi
--͖̄••• 10 7+3 sheptar-tri
--͖̄⁜ 11 7+4 sheptar-qektar
--͖̄⁜• 12 7+4+1 sheptrar-qektar-ub
--͖̄⁜•• 13 7+4+2 sheptrar-qektar-bi

Numbers 14 to 27 Edit

Now we can just clone the --͖̄ symbol multiple times to express multiples of 7, and we can also use our previous symbols to get all the way up to 27.

Prevenian Symbol English Symbol Meaning of Prevenian Symbol Pronounciation
--͖̄--͖̄ 14 2(7) bi-sheptar
--͖̄--͖̄• 15 2(7)+1 bi-sheptar-ub
--͖̄--͖̄•• 16 2(7)+2 bi-sheptar-bi
--͖̄--͖̄••• 17 2(7)+3 bi-sheptar-tri
--͖̄--͖̄⁜ 18 2(7)+4 bi-sheptar-qektar
--͖̄--͖̄⁜• 19 2(7)+4+1 bi-sheptar-qektar-ub
--͖̄--͖̄⁜•• 20 2(7)+4+2 bi-sheptar-qektar-bi
--͖̄--͖̄--͖̄--͖̄ 21 3(7) tri-sheptar
--͖̄--͖̄--͖̄--͖̄• 22 3(7)+1 tri-sheptar-ub
--͖̄--͖̄--͖̄--͖̄•• 23 3(7)+2 tri-sheptar-bi
--͖̄--͖̄--͖̄--͖̄••• 24 3(7)+3 tri-sheptar-tri
--͖̄--͖̄--͖̄--͖̄⁜ 25 3(7)+4 tri-sheptar-qektar
--͖̄--͖̄--͖̄--͖̄⁜• 26 3(7)+4+1 tri-sheptar-qektar-ub
--͖̄--͖̄--͖̄--͖̄⁜•• 27 3(7)+4+2 tri-sheptar-qektar-bi

Numbers 28 to 671 Edit

After 27, we add a 28s place above from the 1's place and keep on adding 28's, 7's, 4's, and 1's until we reach 671, or 28(24)-1. At this point, I will start skipping numbers for consistency.

Prevenian Symbol English Symbol Meaning of Prevenian Symbol Pronounciation

28 1(28) den

29 1(28)+1 den-ub

••

30 1(28)+2 den-bi

•••

31 1(28)+3 den-tri

32 1(28)+4 den-qektar
... ... ... ...

--͖̄

35 1(28)+7 den-sheptar
... ... ... ...

--͖̄--͖̄--͖̄--͖̄⁜••

55 1(28)+3(7)+4+2 den-tri-sheptar-qektar-bi
••

56 2(28) bi den
••

57 2(28)+1 bi den-ub
••

--͖̄--͖̄--͖̄--͖̄⁜••

83 2(28)+3(7)+4+2 bi den-tri-sheptar-qektar-bi
•••

84 3(28) tri den

112 4(28) qektar den
⁜•

140 (4+1)*28 qektar-ub den
⁜••

168 (4+2)*28 qektar-bi den
--͖̄--͖̄--͖̄--͖̄••

644 (3(7)+2)*28 tri-sheptar-bi den
--͖̄--͖̄--͖̄--͖̄••--͖̄--͖̄-͖̄-͖̄

⁜••

671 ((3(7)+2)*28)+3(7)+4+2 tri-sheptar-bi den-tri-sheptar-qektar-bi

Numbers 672 to 18,815 Edit

Prevenian Symbol English Symbol Meaning of Prevenian Symbol Pronounciation

672 1(672) bethna

673 1(672)+1 bethna-ub

••

674 1(672)+2 bethna-bi

700 1(672)+1(28) bethna-den

701 1(672)+1(28)+1 bethna-den-ub

••

728 1(672)+2(28) bethna-bi-den

--͖̄--͖̄--͖̄--͖̄••

1,316 1(672)+(3(7)+2)*28 bethna-tri-sheptar-bi den

--͖̄--͖̄--͖̄--͖̄••--͖̄--͖̄-͖̄-͖̄

⁜••

1,343 1(672)+((3(7)+2)*28)+3(7)+4+2 bethna-tri-sheptar-bi den-tri-sheptar-qektar-bi
••

1,344 2(672) bi bethna
••

1,345 2(672)+1 bi bethna-ub
••

2,016 3(672) tri bethna
••

2,688 4(672) qektar bethna
--͖̄--͖̄--͖̄--͖̄⁜••

--͖̄--͖̄--͖̄--͖̄••--͖̄--͖̄-͖̄-͖̄

⁜••

18,815 27(672)+((3(7)+2)*28)+3(7)+4+2 tri-sheptar-qektar-bi bethna-tri-sheptar-bi den-tri-sheptar-qektar-bi

GrammarEdit

Dual & Trial Form of Words Edit

The singular vs. plural distiniction is not all in this language. There is also dual form using the suffixes -d, -ȳd, and -ed & a trial form using the suffixes -r, -ȳr, and -er. The plural uses -n, -ȳn, and -en as affixes.


Tense Markers Edit

This conlang has more than 3 tenses. These tenses are based on an absolute tense system, and they each have singular, dual, trial, and plural forms.

Prevenian Tense Markers
Tense Affix
2 weeks or more in the future Singular -eb
Dual -ebȳd
Trial -ebȳr
Plural -ebȳn
1 to 2 weeks in the future

Singular

-vet
Dual -vetȳd
Trial -vetȳr
Plural -vetȳn
2 to 6 days in the future Singular -be
Dual -bed
Trial -ber
Plural -ben
Tomorrow or later today Singular -wy
Dual -wyed
Trial -wyer
Plural -wyen
Present time Singular -of
Dual -ofȳd
Trial -ofȳr
Plural -ofȳn
Yesterday or earlier today Singular -jī
Dual -jīd
Trial -jīr
Plural -jīn
2 to 6 days ago Singular
Dual -ōd
Trial -ōr
Plural -ōn
1 to 2 weeks ago Singular -bo
Dual -bod
Trial -bor
Plural -bon
2 weeks or more ago

Singular

-vew
Dual -vewed
Trial -vewer
Plural -vewen

Noun Cases Edit

Prevenian has 3 noun cases, i.e. the nominative, the genitive, and the locative, however they do not come in the form of affixes. Instead, there are seperate words which indicate the noun cases (the only exception is the genitive case). The word "bif" is used for the nominative case and "vern" for the locative case. The genitive case, being the only case using a prefix or suffix, uses the suffix 'v.

Gender Edit

Prevenian has 3 genders, namely male, female, and neuter. As you know, the male and female genders correspond to well... males and females. But the neuter gender includes undeveloped juveniles which do not have their gender determined yet, genderqueer people & things which don't have gender, but may need to be assigned a gender in a figurative fashion (e.g. "sister country").

Sometimes, Prevenian words use a gender marking to indicate the gender of a person or animal. This involves gender affixes, all of which are listed below:

  1. Masculine gender --> -wic
  2. Feminine gender --> -berv
  3. Neuter gender --> -nōkrā /

Animacy Edit

Much like in Navajo, strings of words which can be ordered in multiple ways are by default ordered by animacy in this conlang.

Animacy is divided like:

Prevenian Animacy Gradations
Animacy Example(s) and/or Description
0 to 1 Other Names
0 Inanimate Abstractions
0.1667 N/A Rocks, tables (objects in inertia)
0.3333 N/A Trams, busses, vans, helicopters (inactive, unconscious objects which can be moved by an owner)
0.5 Semi-animate Hiveminds and insects which live in colonies
0.6667 N/A Insects, plants, animals (live, somewhat inactive beings)
1 Animate Humans, natural phenomena (very active animals and forces)


Example text Edit

For the lexicon, please see the page Prevenian/Dictionary.

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