Head direction
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect

General Information[edit | edit source]

Proto-Alemar-Barejine, also known as True Chevin (Kevirriks) is the most recent common ancestor of Alemarese and Barejine. It was spoken in the center of the Chevin peninsula, spreading west inland, or to the east, the coasts and to the surrounding islands (displacing other languages minus Varrit).

Classification[edit | edit source]

The Alemar-Barejine sub-family started as a dialect continuum until the establishment of unions of city-states under monarchs, which lead to the development of separate languages.

True Chevin is a direct descendant of Proto-Chevin, relating it to other Chevin languages, and more distantly to other Edalith languages.

Sound changes from Proto-Chevin[edit | edit source]

V= vowel, S=stop, C=consonant, F=front vowel, A=approximant, N=nasal, [+vcd]=voiced, [+vls]=voiceless

  1. #S[+vcd][a:, e:] > #S[+vls][a, e] bēlsa > pelsa
  2. rS > Sr qvertoi > huetroi
  3. Vg > e unless stressed
  4. /ʢ/ changes
    1. ʢ > h / _[u, w], V_V feqend > vehend
    2. ʢ > q / elsewhere
    3. nq > q
  5. fricative voicings
    1. ɸ > β / V_V, _F
    2. s > z / i(:)_V, N_, _a unless _a: or [+vls]_ safes > zave
  6. fricativizations
    1. [t, d, p] > [θ, ð, ɸ] /_[u, w] unless N_
    2. w[t, d] > [θ, ð]
  7. other consonant changes
    1. m > n / _#
    2. ng > nj
    3. kn > ng
  8. Adjacent syllables could now only differ by one height level. /i/ and /u/ lower to /e/ and /o/, respectively, after /a/, and /a/ raises to /e/ after /i/ and /u/. Long vowels did not shift, but instead a preceding syllable would shift to keep the height harmony. Diphthongs did not shift nor induce shifts.
  9. vowel changes
    1. ej > i / _#
    2. w > 0 / V_V, u_
    3. j > 0 / _i
    4. ow > wo unless A_
    5. : > 0 / V_V
    6. [a:, o:] > [aw, ow] unless _[A, #]
    7. [aw, ew] > [a:, i:] / _# except in monosyllables
    8. u: > ju / [l, r]_ firūna > viriune
    9. wow > u:
    10. aj > ae
  10. [u, s, t] > 0 / _#
  11. :C > C: unless C is b, d, g, q, ts, h, z, or before another consonant dīna > dinne
  12. Stress shifts to the last long vowel of a word if one is present. Stress also shifts one syllable rightward in verbs when conjugated in the 2nd and 3rd person plural, as well as in participles. Long vowels then shorten.

Phonology[edit | edit source]

Consonants[edit | edit source]

The traditional classification and symbols are shown below.

labial dental alveolar palatal velar uvular glottal
nasal m n
stop p b t d k g q
affricate ts
fricative f v þ ð s z j h
approximant l i u
rhotic r

Vowels[edit | edit source]

front back
close i u
mid e o
open a
  • Diphthongs are /ei/, /oi/, /ae/, /eu/, /ou/, and /au/. Diphthongs and triphthongs with a first element of /i/ or /u/ are also found (except for */uou/, which is unattested). All other adjacent vowels are pronounced in two separate syllables.

Stress[edit | edit source]

Stress is typically on the final syllable of the root, though some roots have an earlier stress and some suffixes attract stress. Most syllables are equally timed, though stressed monophthongs are lengthened unless followed by a coda consonant.

Morphology[edit | edit source]

Nouns[edit | edit source]

/p/, /t/, and /d/ regularly become /f/, /þ/, and /ð/, respectively, before all 3rd declension noun endings except for those beginning with oi.

1st 2nd 3rd
sg pl sg pl sg pl
nom a/e ae i/e 0 oi
gen ae á í oi ú/iu
all an/en aen in/en ein un/on oin
instr ame/eme aeme ime/eme eime ume/ome oime
voc á ae
  • The Proto-Alemar-Barejine nominative descends from the Proto-Chevin accusative.
  • Vowel harmony split each Proto-Chevin class in two.
  • The 3rd declension genitive plural is -iu after /l/ and /r/.
  • Inanimate nouns cannot be vocatives.

Adjectives[edit | edit source]

1st 2nd 3rd
sg pl sg pl sg pl sg pl sg pl sg pl
nom a ae 0 oi ia iae i e i e i
gen ae á oi ú/iu iae í i í í
all an aen un/on oin ian iaen in ein en ein en ein
instr ame aeme ume/ome oime iame iaeme ime eime eme eime eme eime
voc á ae iae á ei
  • The 1st declension inanimate allative and instrumental singular take the second form if the last vowel of the stem is /a/ and occasionally /au/ (if it originates from a former long /a/).
  • The 1st declension inanimate genitive plural is -iu after /l/ and /r/.
  • The 2nd declension originates from Proto-Chevin's 1st declension adjectives if the last vowel of the stem was a high vowel.

Pronouns[edit | edit source]

Some personal pronouns retain separate nominative and accusative forms. Where the roots differ, other cases are built on the nominative, except for the 3rd person inanimates, which are formed as if the pronoun were third declension nouns (e)l. The 3rd person inanimate is also never used as the subject. An absence of an explicit subject when the verb is conjugated in the 3rd person is taken to mean the subject is some inanimate.

sg pl
1 seo/zae nave/nauf
2 tau/tauhe tiuoq/tiuoh joa joae
3.obv tie tiae
3.inan 0/li 0/eli

Definite article[edit | edit source]

Later True Chevin had developed a definite article in the form of the irregular adjective ko "aforementioned", which tended to be voiced to go in rapid speech.

sg pl sg pl
nom koa koae ko koi
gen koae koá koi koú
all koan koaen kuon koin
instr koame koaeme kuome koime
voc koá koae

Verbs[edit | edit source]

Verbs made irregular by sound changes tended to be 'corrected' by analogy. /p/, /t/, and /d/ regularly become /f/, /þ/, and /ð/, respectively, before all U verb endings except for the 1p present, active present participle, and secondhand and thirdhand past. This also occurs in O verbs which originate from vowel harmony. Stress is on the final vowel of the stem unless marked on the ending.

Present[edit | edit source]

sg pl sg pl sg pl sg pl
1 i aen i ein i oin i oin
2 ak áro ek éru uk úru ok óru
3 a áhe e éhi u úhi o óhi

Firsthand past[edit | edit source]

sg pl sg pl sg pl sg pl
1 ásui ásuein ésui ésuein úsui úsuein ósui ósuein
2 ásuek asuéru ésuek esuéru úsuek usuéru ósuek osuéru
3 ásue asuéhi ésue esuéhi úsue usuéhi ósue osuéhi

Secondhand past[edit | edit source]

sg pl sg pl sg pl sg pl
1 izi izaen izi izein izi izoin izi izoin
2 izek ízeru izek ízeru izuk ízuru izok ízoru
3 ize ízehi ize ízehi izu ízuhi izo ízohi

Stems where the final vowel is /a/ or sometimes /au/ (if it originates from a former long /a/) take different endings:

sg pl sg pl sg pl sg pl
1 ezi ezaen ezi ezein ezi ezoin ezi ezoin
2 ezak ézaro ezek ézeru ezuk ézuru ezok ézoru
3 eza ézahi eze ézehi ezu ézuhi ezo ézohi

Thirdhand past[edit | edit source]

The thirdhand past takes the same endings as the secondhand, with the /z/ replaced by /v/.

Future[edit | edit source]

sg pl sg pl sg pl sg pl
1 áemi áemoin émmi émmoin uémi uémoin oémi oémoin
2 áemok aemóru émmok emmóru uémok uemóru oémok oemóru
3 áen aemóhi énn emmóhi uén uemóhi oén oemóhi

Hypothetical[edit | edit source]

sg pl sg pl sg pl sg pl
1 aji ajaen eji ejaen uji ujaen oji ojaen
2 ajak ájaro ejak éjaro ujek újeru ojak ójaro
3 aja ájahe eja éjahe uje újehi oja ójahe

There is also a periphrastic hypothetical past formed with the hypothetical of fuo + a past participle.

Imperative[edit | edit source]

sg pl sg pl sg pl sg pl
2 al áll el éll ul úll ol óll

Participles[edit | edit source]

active present áer éir óir óir
past ás és ús ós
passive present áug égg úgg óug
past áuþ éþþ úþþ óuþ

Passive[edit | edit source]

Passives are formed with a conjugated fuo "do" + a passive participle.

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