Head direction
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect

General Information[]

Proto-Andem (Andem comes from the Alemarese name for the region, the original speakers may have called their language *Bhaa‘ “speech") is the proto-language of the Andem language family, a rather large language family spoken by a large portion of the alien Patronans of the planet Patrona, specifically originating from the Andem subcontinent off the southwest coast of the largest continent, Chiwar. Andem languages spread along with the Djipirist religion.



bilabial laminal apical velar glottal
nasal m n ɳ ŋ
stop p b t d ʈ ɖ k g ʔ
aspirate pʰ bʰ tʰ dʰ ʈʰ ɖʰ kʰ gʰ
fricative ʂ

m, p, b, ph, bh, n̠, t̠, d̠, t̠h, d̠h, n, t, d, th, dh, s, ŋ, k, g, kh, gh, ‘

  • /ʂ/ was almost certainly voiced before voiced consonants.
  • /d/ may have been a flap or trill in some environments, as it's reflexes in many daughter languages.
  • The voiced aspirate series could have been murmured or breathy voiceless aspirates among other possibilities.


Front Central Back
High i ɨ u
Low ä

i, y, a, u



  • There are no word-initial or word-final consonant clusters. Any potential illegal cluster is broken by an epenthetic /ɨ/.
  • Geminates are suppressed.
  • Any two vowels can occur together in a syllable, forming a diphthong or long vowel. Any additional vowels added onto a diphthong or long vowel will be separated with an epenthetic /ʔ/.
  • Laminal consonants do not begin any native roots, though they may begin syllables otherwise, including suffixes.
  • Legal words have a two-mora minimum, that is, the minimum word is CVV or CVN. An epenthetic /ɨ/ is added to any word which would fall short.


Proto-Andem was an agglutinative language built on a system of roots and affixes (which are mostly suffixes). Roots have no innate part of speech and can alternate freely between verbal, nominal, and adjectival meanings, sometimes with no overt marking. Roots can also be combined to form impressive compounds, the primary method of derivation. Though extremely important and comprehensive, distinctions made via affixes are almost all optional, and affixes can be left out if context is enough to clear up ambiguities. The canonical order of affixes is very fluid, with the most salient affixes being last.

Word order was mostly head-final, though case markings probably made moving words around for focus possible.


Nouns can take markings for: number, case, determiner, tense, diminutive/augmentative, & conjunctions.

Determiners (prefixes): this/here bha-, my/our ghi-, your ni-, his/her/its/their ‘i-, each phyu-, which ’adhy-, no pu-, few ’adpu-, many dyy-, all khama-

Number: collective -0, singular -is, dual -ia, plural -symi

Cases: nominative -0, accusative -u, genitive -i, instrumental -t̠a, comitative -byn, equative -sai, causative -daŋku, dative -ŋa, perlative -sas, ablative -ty, adessive -n̠a, inessive -du, superessive -dyy, subessive -kuph


Verbs can take markings for: subject, object, voice, mood, aspect, tense, diminutive/augmentative, & conjunctions.

Subject (prefixes): first person ghy-, second person na-, third person 0-

Object: first person -d̠am, second person -na, third person definite -yt̠, third person indefinite -’i, propositional object -pham, interrogative object -adh

Voices (prefixes): active 0-, mediopassive bi-, causative ’id-, instrumental applicative ‘yt̠a-, comitative applicative byn-, dative applicative ghi-, perlative applicative sas-, ablative applicative ty-

Aspects: imperfective -0, momentane -syy, iterative -’a’y, generic -yn, continuative -mau, accidental -’u’a, inchoative -ium, cessative -iudh, resumptive -yst̠a

Moods: indicative -0, interrogative -adhy, presumptive -id̠, abilitative -syp, desiderative -a, necessitative -sam, negative -pu

Both nouns and verbs[]

Tense: present -0, past -ak, future -iph

Intensity: diminutive -khi, augmentative -’au

Conjunctions: concatenative -m, counterfactual -mby, causal -daŋku, after/since -baad̠, before/until -baaky, while -biphuṭ, conditional -gaa, relative -t̠hai

Sound changes and Descendants[]

Insular Andem[]

  1. [+asp]>[+fric]
  2. d/r/V_
  3. ɖ/ɭ/V_
  4. V//_#/V_
  5. t(ɨ)/s/_#
  6. ɣ(ɨ)/u/_#
  7. ɣ/j/_
  8. x/h/_
  9. ɸ/w/_
  10. h//_C
  11. S//_C[-j]
  12. ɨ/ɐ/_
  13. au/o/_
  14. ua/o/_
  15. ai/e/_
  16. ia/e/_
  17. V//_²
  18. b/ɖ/ɳ_
  19. p/ʈ/ɳ_
  20. jɐ/i/_
  21. ʔɐ//#_C

Desert Andem[]

Northern Andem[]

Western Andem[]



1 ’is
2 ’ia
3 ?
4 ?
5 ?
6 ?



*’an̠d̠y "land"

*mut̠h "people"

*dha’ "shape"

*dauk "log, trunk"

*phaad̠ "run"

thuk-y, ’isph-y, dad̠-a, daghd̠-is, khyt̠ph-is, suŋ-is, tyn̠d̠-y, bygh-y, kypgh-y, dyt̠h-y, ’yd̠-y, mund-y, khat̠-a