Conlang
Proto-Chevin
Gēfī riksu
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Accusative
Head direction
head-initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
No
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


General Information[]

Proto-Chevin (Gēfī riksu) is one of several descendants of Proto-Edalith. It was spoken by the early migrants into the Chevi (Gēfi) peninsula, extending north from the greater Edalith (Aidālītu) peninsula. The Edalith peninsula extends northeast from the equator on the east side of Chiwar, the largest continent of the planet Patrona (Bārtonar), home of the alien Patronans (Bārtonai bēlsar).

Classification[]

Proto-Chevin diverged into the Northern Edalith language family. The Chevin people stayed in the sub-peninsula and spread island-ward, with their language becoming Proto-Alemar-Barejine. The Chevin people also spread back into the main Edalith peninsula and across the Chevi-Holkey strait.

  • Northern Edalith (Proto-Chevin)
    • Chevin (Old Chevin/Proto-Alemar-Barejine)
    • Mid-Northern Edalith (Proto-Mid-Northern Edalith)
    • East Holkeyan (Proto-East Holkeyan)

Phonology[]

Consonants[]

The traditional classification and symbols are shown below.

bilabial alveolar palatal velar
nasal m n
stop p b t d k g
affricate ts
fricative f s h q
approximant r l y v
  • The column labeled 'alveolar' was most likely laminal dentialveolar.
  • /f/ was almost certainly bilabial [ɸ].
  • /r/ could have been nearly any rhotic consonant, but it is currently constructed as an alveolar approximant, in line with other early Edalith languages.
  • /h/ was most likely a voiceless velar fricative [x].
  • /q/ was most likely farther back in the mouth than velar, possibly pharyngeal/epiglottal. It could have been a stop, fricative, approximant, or even a trill. There is simply no way to know given its diverse reflexes in descendant languages.
  • /v/ was almost certainly a labiovelar approximant [w].

Vowels[]

front back
close i ī u ū
mid e ē o ō
open a ā
  • The vowel length distinction may have been accompanied by a tense/lax distinction.
  • The only diphthongs were /ei/, /oi/, /ai/, and /eu/, /ou/, /au/. Combinations of /u/ and /i/ with /y/ and /v/ in the morphology cause the vowels to lower.

Therefore, korēmu* "guideline, rule" may have been pronounced [kɔˈɹeˑmʊ].

Phonotactics[]

(C)V(C)

  • Word-initial clusters: /pm/, /pn/, /pt/, /ps/, /km/, /kn/, /kt/, /ks/, /pr/, /br/, /tr/, /dr/, /kr/, /gr/, /sr/, /hr/, /qr/, /pl/, /bl/, /tl/, /dl/, /kl/, /gl/, /sl/, /hl/, /ps/, or any obstruent or cluster ending in an obstruent plus /y/ or /v/
  • Intervocalic clusters: word-initial clusters plus /mp/, /mb/, /mf/, /nt/, /nts/, /nd/, /ns/, /nr/, /mr/, /nl/, /nk/, /ng/, /nh/, /nq/, /ny/, /mpt/, /mps/, /nks/, /nkt/, /rm/, /rp/, /rb/, /rf/, /rn/, /rt/, /rts/, /rd/, /rs/, /rl/, /rk/, /rg/, /rh/, /rq/, /ry/, /rv/, /lm/, /lp/, /lb/, /lf/, /ln/, /lt/, /lts/, /ld/, /ls/, /lk/, /lg/, /lh/, /lq/, /ly/, /lv/, /hn/, /qn/, /tn/, or any cluster ending with an obstruent or nasal plus /y/ or /v/
  • The vowel can be any short or long monophthong or a diphthong.
  • Vowel hiatus is not permitted.
  • Word-final codas can be any consonant or cluster except for the semivowels /y/ and /v/ or clusters ending with them, though word-final clusters are rare.

Stress[]

Stress was fairly regular, appearing on the final syllable of the root. ex. fetútya "tree" and bārúmu "mountain"

Nouns[]

Gender[]

Proto-Chevin had three gender classes: animate, lustrous, and dull, shown in fusional suffixes and agreement with adjectives.

Examples

  • Animate: luqar "spinnerfly"
  • Lustrous: dōhi "gold"
  • Dull: qvertu "house, home"

Cases[]

There are six cases. Proto-Chevin retained all but the locative and ablative of Proto-Edalith.

  • Nominative: The dictionary form of a word. Used for the subject of verbs and as the object of a select few prepositions.
  • Accusative: Used for the object of a transitive verb, and the indirect object of a ditransitive verb, as well as the object of locative prepositions.
  • Instrumental: Used for instruments used to do an action and the direct object of a ditransitive verb.
  • Allative: Used to indicate movement towards something.
  • Genitive: Used to indicate movement away from something. Also used in compounds, compositions, and possession. Genitives are placed before nouns that they modify.
  • Vocative: Used to directly address a noun.

Animate declension[]

Animate nouns have the nominative ending -ar. These are mostly people and animals. It also contains all diminutives, some body parts, and generally helpful or beautiful plants.

ex. qrentar 'person'

sg pl
nom qrentar qrentait
acc qrenta qrentai
all qrentan qrentain
instr qrentame qrentaime
gen qrentai qrentau
voc qrentā qrentait

Lustrous declension[]

Lustrous nouns have the nominative ending -i. These are mostly inanimate reflective items and abstractions, but it also contains the occasional body part or animate noun.

ex. kāsi 'light, brightness'

sg pl
nom kāsi kāseit
acc kāsi kāsei
all kāsin kāsein
instr kāseme kāseime
gen kāsī kāseu
voc kāsī kāseit

Dull declension[]

Dull nouns have the nominative ending -u. These are mostly inanimate non-reflective items, but it also contains the occasional body part or abstraction. It also contains all augmentatives.

ex. usinu 'bowl, cup, pot'

sg pl
nom usinu usinoit
acc usinu usinoi
all usinun usinoin
instr usinume usinoime
gen usinoi usinvou
voc usinū usinoit

Full table[]

AN LUSTR DULL
nom ar/ait i/eit u/oit
acc a/ai i/ei u/oi
all an/ain in/ein un/oin
instr ame/aime eme/eime ume/oime
gen ai/au ī/eu oi/vou
voc ā/ait ī/eit ū/oit
  • The dull genitive plural is -ou if -vou would violate phonotactics.

Pronouns[]

Personal[]

The personal pronouns are shown in pairs, the first being the nominative and the second the accusative. Where the roots differ, the other cases are built on the nominative root.

sg pl
1 sevo/savi nafit/nāf
2 tau/tāqi tyuvoqu
3.an hovar/hova hovait/hovai
3.obv tivar/tiva tivait/tivai
3.lus eli eleit/elei
3.nlus elu eloit/eloi

Determiners and indefinite pronouns[]

Adjectives

  • bekīne “which”
  • beirde “what state/description, how is _, what is _ like (pro-adjective)”
  • qēde “this (proximal)”
  • sōle “that (medial)”
  • tvēle “that (distal)”
  • pvife “few”
  • tlone “some”
  • beqe “many”
  • īpse “all”
  • sāde “any”
  • tlīme “other”

Pronouns (all adjectives can be turned into pronouns by declining them as nouns)

  • bidvar “who (person)” (bidvae “whose”)
  • bevu “where”
  • byainqu “when”
  • hetahu “how much, how many”
  • idvar/idvi/idvu “who/that (relative pronouns)” (note idvae “whose (relative pronoun)”)
  • qrentar “person, someone”
  • gvar “thing, something”
  • fīsuqu “place, somewhere”
  • proki “degree, amount”

Verbs (all adjectives can also be turned into pro-verbs)

  • puva “do it, do something”

Adjectives[]

Adjectives decline similarly to and agree with nouns, though they have their own declension classes.

1st 2nd
AN LUSTR DULL AN LUSTR DULL
nom ar/ait i/eit u/oit er/eit e/eit
acc a/ai i/ei u/oi e/ei
all an/ain in/ein un/oin en/ein
instr ame/aime eme/eime ume/oime eme/eime
gen ai/au ī/eu oi/vou ei/eu ī/eu ei/veu
voc ā/ait ī/eit ū/oit ā/eit ī/eit ū/eit
  • The dull genitive plural is -ou/eu if -vou/veu would violate phonotactics.

Proto-Chevin also had a morphological comparative formed with the infix -ins- which agreed with the superior noun, with the inferior noun following in the genitive. ex. Emoim qrentait kvibinseit tlīmau īpseu. "We are a people happier than all others."

Verbs[]

Verbs are exceedingly regular, as there are only a dozen or so irregular verbs. There are four conjugation classes (or themes) based on four thematic vowels: a, e, u, and o. Conjugation is based on suffixes. U verbs lower their theme vowel to o when diphthongized with a following i or u. V stands in for a thematic vowel in this section.

Synthetic forms[]

The citation form of a verb, as well as the most common form used in combination with another verb, is the conauxiliary, which has no ending other than the theme vowel. ex. tsēre "hunt".

present secondhand thirdhand imperative
sg pl sg pl sg pl sg pl
1 Vgi Vim isVgi isVim ifVgi ifVim
2 Vk Vrut isVk isVrut ifVk ifVrut V̄l V̄rlut
3 Vs Vqis isVs isVqis ifVs ifVqis
  • Some common verbs have a null 3s ending. ex. emo "be" > em "it is"

Participles are first declension adjectives when modifying nouns, but remain endingless in periphrastic verb forms.

present past
active Vir Vs
passive V̄g V̄t

Periphrastic forms[]

Proto-Chevin had several periphrastic verb forms, that is, forms with auxiliary verbs. All auxiliaries are placed after the corresponding verb, which is in either the conauxiliary form or a participle.

A past tense is formed with a past participle preceding the auxiliary ve.

A future tense is formed with a conauxiliary preceding an auxiliary usage of emo "be".

A hypothetical is formed with a conauxiliary preceding the auxiliary ha. This can combine with the past, with a past participle preceding the conauxiliary or ve preceding the auxiliary ha.

Passives can be formed from any of these by changing the lexical verb into its passive participle form, past if the event occurred in the past, present otherwise. If there is no other auxiliary, an auxiliary usage of puva "do" is found.

Invariable adverbs also play a key role in the verbal system. Negation was shown with negative adverbs including īs, present relevance with , and repetition with fel. These adverbs are placed either before the verb or at the end of a sentence for more emphasis.

Examples[]

puva "do"

present secondhand thirdhand imperative
sg pl sg pl sg pl sg pl
1 puvagi puvaim puvisagi puvisaim puvifagi puvifaim
2 puvak puvarut puvisak puvisarut puvifak puvifarut puvāl puvārlut
3 puvas puvaqis puvisas puvisaqis puvifas puvifaqis

Participles:

present past
active puvair puvas
passive puvāg puvāt

ex. puvagi sevo "I do."

Irregular verbs[]

Irregularities in verbs are mostly confined to some verbs using a different stem in the indirect evidentialities, and some verbs having a null ending in the 3s present.

emo "be"

present secondhand thirdhand imperative participles
sg pl sg pl sg pl sg pl pres past
1 emogi emoim ktosugi ktosoim ktofugi ktofoim act emoir emos
2 emok emorut ktosuk ktosurut ktofuk ktofurut emōl emōrlut pass emōg emōt
3 em emoqis ktosus ktosuqis ktofus ktofuqis

Syntax[]

The most unmarked word order in Proto-Chevin was VSO, though the typical sentence structure was more like V-X-F, that is, the verb was placed first and the focus was placed last, with everything else in between. Since the nominative and accusative singular are the same for lustrous and dull nouns, a pronoun would be left in their place if the normal word order is changed.

Proto-Chevin is broadly head-initial, with two notable exceptions: periphrastic verb forms and genitives.

Vocabulary[]

Anatomy[]

  • harkūhar "body"
  • kali "skin"
  • drahni "hair"
  • firūnar "head"
  • meutsumar "face"
  • polduvar "mouth"
  • pusyar "lip"
  • oktar "tongue"
  • itsi "tooth plate"
  • qyu "head ridge"
  • otvankru "nose"
  • kērar "outer ear"
  • yeiksairar "inner ear"
  • riduri "eye"
  • qamusi "neck"
  • folequ "throat"
  • delgetvu "shoulder"
  • qoislu "lower back"
  • sunti "tail"
  • limuqar "buttock"
  • manar "chest"
  • qvadlar "belly"
  • vulsar "arm"
  • faudrar "hand"
  • tseitvu "back of the hand"
  • eutansar "digit"
  • līfu "nail"
  • sakar "leg"
  • hambar "foot"

Colors[]

  • kindi "red, purple"
  • plāfi "yellow, white"
  • qvoiki "gray"
  • arīti "black, blue"
  • pvarsi "green, cyan"

Numbers[]

All numbers were exclusively nouns, some of which were animate nouns. Numerals are in base-8 and place values are ordered opposite that of English.

# #+8 #*8 #*64
1 henu genu onu hyedu
2 dinsu enqar tensinqu tensyedu
3 qvoru qvoronu qvorsinqu qvoryedu
4 miru mironu mirsinqu miryedu
5 dorsar dorsonu dorsinqu dorsyedu
6 peksar peksonu peksinqu peksyedu
7 dveyar dveyonu dveisinqu dveiyedu
8 onu tensinqu hyedu onyedu

Swadesh[]


No. English Proto-Chevin
1Isevo
2you (singular)tau, tāqi
3hehoqar, tiqar
4wenafet
5you (plural)tyuvoqu
6theyhoqait, eleit, eloit, tiqait
7thisqēde
8thatsōle, tvēle
9herefīsuqu qēde
10therefīsuqu sōle, fīsuqu tvēle
11whobidvar
12whatbekīni, bekīnu
13wherebevu
14whenbyainqu
15howbeirde, yemu beirde
16notīs
17allīpse
18manybeqe
19sometlone
20fewpvife
21othertlīme
22onehenu
23twodinsu
24threeqvoru
25fourmiru
26fivedorsar
27bignetōqi
28longūtu
29wide
30thick
31heavy
32smallhemu
33shorthemu
34narrow
35thin
36womanqrentar
37man (adult male)qrentar
38man (human being)
39childbēlsar
40wifehituqar
41husbandhituqar
42motherbaborar
43fathernunorar
44animalremōrasu
45fish
46birdtarepar
47dog
48louse
49snake
50worm
51treefeudyar
52forestfeudyektar
53stick
54fruitkūltyar
55seed
56leafyētu
57rootqrapyar
58bark
59flowerirdyar
60grasslandu
61roperami
62skinkali
63meat
64blood
65bone
66fat
67egg
68horn
69tailsunti
70feather
71hairdrahni
72headfirūnar
73earkyērar
74eyeriduri
75noseotvankru
76mouthpolduvar
77toothitsi
78tongueoktar
79fingernaillīfu
80foothambar
81legsakar
82kneesakā tudvu
83handfaudrar
84wing
85bellyqvadlar
86guts
87neckqamusi
88backdelgetvu, qoislu
89breastmanar
90heart
91liver
92drinkpaype
93eatpaype
94bite
95suckhuku
96spit
97vomit
98blow
99breathefvidva
100laugh
101seeqvisle
102hearyeiksa
103knowkmoisa
104think
105smellotvankru
106fearfātra
107sleepdūmu
108liveqimota
109die
110kill
111fight
112hunttsēre
113hit
114cutksāla
115split
116stab
117scratchksīla
118dig
119swim
120fly
121walkrimāne
122comeukne
123liepuro
124sit
125standratne
126turnmekna
127fall
128giveoda
129holdkara
130squeeze
131rub
132wash
133wipe
134pull
135push
136throw
137tie
138sewnoima
139counttalento
140saylegu
141singanqala
142playnoiqe
143float
144flow
145freezeksonte
146swell
147sunderuqu
148moonmindar, hilyar
149starārimu
150watermādi
151rainpētaiqu
152riverdorgi
153lake
154sea
155salt
156stonesaigu
157sand
158dust
159earthBārtonar
160cloudvoqayu
161fog
162sky
163windsahu
164snow
165ice
166smoke
167firekuru
168ash
169burn
170road
171mountainbārumu
172redkindi
173greenpvarsi
174yellowplāfi
175whiteplāfi
176blackarīti
177nighttemrar
178dayaksu
179yearraknu
180warm
181coldimokoqu
182fulluqonsi
183newkade
184oldqvabūlu
185goodlele
186baddrugu
187rotten
188dirty
189straight
190round
191sharp
192dullqunkauhu
193smooth
194wet
195dry
196correcttobrolu
197nearfeqend
198far
199rightfēqelesu
200left
201atfeqend
202inih
203withsēd
204andūde
205ifgai, pirel
206becausegai
207nametuknu