Proto-Edalith
'
Type
Fusional
Alignment
Accusative
Head direction
head-initial
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
Yes
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect


General Information[edit | edit source]

Proto-Edalith is the protolanguage a large language macrofamily on the planet Patrona, home of the alien Patronans. The current domain of Edalith languages is all across the subcontinental peninsula of Edalith, as well as west of the Shaibest mountains and in various colonies and ex-colonies including Westos. Among its descendant languages are some very important and influential languages, including Alemarese and Barejine.

Classification[edit | edit source]

Proto-Edalith diverged into the Edalith language family. Descendants include:

  • Shaibest family
    • Foothill Shaibest
    • Mountian Shaibest
      • Shaibestyur
    • Chiwaran Shaibest
  • White Coast family

Phonology[edit | edit source]

Consonants[edit | edit source]

The traditional classification and symbols are shown below.

bilabial alveolar palatal velar glottal
nasal m n
stop p pʰ b t tʰ d c cʰ ɟ k kʰ g ʔ
fricative s h
approximant l
rhotic r1 r2

Vowels[edit | edit source]

front back
close i u
mid e o
open a
  • Diphthongs consist of any two vowels.
  • Triphthongs consist of any diphthong preceded by /i/ or /u/.
  • Double vowels occur only at morpheme boundaries

Stress[edit | edit source]

It is unknown how stress worked in Proto-Edalith, as nearly every daughter language treats it differently.

Sound Changes[edit | edit source]

Proto-Edalith to Proto-Chevin[edit | edit source]

  1. a-insertion in sg animate declension
  2. removal of final /s/ in declensions
  3. development of three gender system
  4. analogy results in Proto-Chevin inflectional system
  5. consonant changes
    1. r2>v
    2. h>q
    3. [c, ch, j]>[s, ts, y] / _F, >[k, kh, g] elsewhere
    4. ph>f
    5. th>ts
    6. kh>h
  6. vowel changes
  7. ʔ > ː / V_
  8. a > ː / [e, o]_
  9. [e, o] > [j, w] / [a, e, o]_
  10. short [i, u] > [e, o] / _[i, u]

Proto-Edalith to Proto-Ngalryn[edit | edit source]

  1. glottal stops leave compensatory vowel lengthening on the nuclear vowel, then disappear
  2. aspirates are maintained, other h-clusters reduce
  3. R's merge
  4. vowel changes
    1. o > u / V_, _V
    2. e > i unless _V
    3. V > ː / e_
    4. [i, u] > y / C_#
    5. ui, iu > y
    6. ai > eː
    7. au > oː
  5. consonant changes
    1. cʰ > ʃ
    2. c > ʃ / i_
    3. c > t
    4. N > ŋ / _[k, g]
    5. g > ŋ
    6. ɟ > j

Proto-Edalith to Proto-Shaibest[edit | edit source]

  1. consonant changes
    1. [ɟd] > z
    2. pʰ > h
    3. p > b
    4. t > d except _ʰ
    5. k > ʔ except _ʰ
    6. cʰ > s
    7. c > ʔ / _#
    8. c > k
    9. r2 > j
    10. r1 > r
    11. nasals assimilate to following consonants' place of articulation
  2. sound loss
    1. h, ʰ > 0
    2. : > 0
    3. ʔ > 0 / C_
    4. N > 0 / before voiceless consonants
  3. vowel changes
    1. eu, ui > oi
    2. ou > u
    3. u > o / _#
    4. i > e / _#
  4. devoicing of consonants after voiceless ones

Pronouns[edit | edit source]

Pronouns in all Edalith languages share features such as being able to be replaced by noun phrases even in the first and second persons as well as being able to take adjectives as modifiers.

Reconstruction[edit | edit source]

Where pronouns are shown in pairs, the first being the nominative and the second the accusative. If the roots differ, other cases are built on the nominative roots. However, possessive determiners are based on the accusative roots.

sg pl
1 *ceo/sar2is *napʰit/naʔpʰs
2 *tar2/taʔhis *tiur2ohu(r2)
3 prox *cʰor2(r1/r2/ta) *cʰor2ait
obv *tir2(r1/r2/ta) *tir2ait

Nouns[edit | edit source]

Nouns in Proto-Edalith are formed with a root, derivational suffixes, and a grammatical ending. Nouns declined for gender, case, and number.

Gender[edit | edit source]

The two genders were the animate and inanimate. In Proto-Edalith, animate stems always ended in a consonant whereas inanimate stems always ended in a high vowel.

Case[edit | edit source]

Eight cases can be reconstructed, more than any daughter language has. Each case has a suffix associated with it. Some case suffixes also change for gender and/or number. The nominative singular suffixes are subject to a confusing number of alternative forms, interpreted differently in the daughter language families.

AN INAN
sg pl sg pl
NOM r1/r2/ta t 0/r2/ti t
ACC s s
GEN ai au i ou
INSTR me me
ALL ns ns
ABL io au i eu
LOC hul hul
VOC ʔ t ʔ t

Number[edit | edit source]

Pluralization is shown by pre-case suffixes -ai for animates and -i for inanimates. These were absent from the genitive and ablative cases. Edalith languages as a rule treat all nouns as count nouns.

Examples[edit | edit source]

*hr1eʔ-n(t)- "person, being" (an.)

sg pl
NOM hr1eʔ-n(t)-r1/r2/ta hr1eʔ-n(t)-ai-t
ACC hr1eʔ-n(t)-s hr1eʔ-n(t)-ai-s
GEN hr1eʔ-n(t)-ai hr1eʔ-n(t)-au
INSTR hr1eʔ-n(t)-me hr1eʔ-n(t)-ai-me
ALL hr1eʔ-n(t)-ns hr1eʔ-n(t)-ai-ns
ABL hr1eʔ-n(t)-io hr1eʔ-n(t)-au
LOC hr1eʔ-n(t)-hul hr1eʔ-n(t)-ai-hul
VOC hr1eʔ-n(t)-ʔ hr1eʔ-n(t)-ai-t

*kor1eʔmu- "straight stick, walking stick" (inan.)

sg pl
NOM kor1eʔmu-(r2) kor1eʔmu-i-t
ACC kor1eʔmu-s kor1eʔmu-i-s
GEN kor1eʔmu-i kor1eʔmu-ou
INSTR kor1eʔmu-me kor1eʔmu-i-me
ALL kor1eʔmu-ns kor1eʔmu-i-ns
ABL kor1eʔmu-i kor1eʔmu-eu
LOC kor1eʔmu-hul kor1eʔmu-i-hul
VOC kor1eʔmu-ʔ kor1eʔmu-i-t

*tepʰuʔr2i- "article of clothing" (inan.)

sg pl
NOM tepʰuʔr2i-(r2) tepʰuʔr2i-i-t
ACC tepʰuʔr2i-s tepʰuʔr2i-i-s
GEN tepʰuʔr2i-i tepʰuʔr2i-ou
INSTR tepʰuʔr2i-me tepʰuʔr2i-i-me
ALL tepʰuʔr2i-ns tepʰuʔr2i-i-ns
ABL tepʰuʔr2i-i tepʰuʔr2i-eu
LOC tepʰuʔr2i-hul tepʰuʔr2i-i-hul
VOC tepʰuʔr2i-ʔ tepʰuʔr2i-i-t

Verbs[edit | edit source]

Verbs were definitely marked for person (1st, 2nd, and 3rd), number (sg and pl), and tense (nonpast and past). No early Edalith language marked grammatical voice on finite verbs, and grammatical aspect is as a rule never marked via inflection. As for non-finite forms, there is no direct equivalent to an infinitive. Another peculiarity of Edalith verbs is that most can be used both transitively and intransitively. Verbs are exceedingly regular, as there are only a dozen or so irregular verbs.

Verbs conjugated for person and number of their subject. Verbs also have imperative forms. Infixes for evidentiality are present in some daughter families. Non-finite forms include participles which distinguish nonpast and past tense and active and passive voice.

Person markers[edit | edit source]

Two sets of present plural suffixes are reconstructed, with different language families inheriting different ones. The Chevin and White Coast families inherited the first set, whereas the Syaibest family inherited the second set. Ngalryn languages lost their person markers.

sg pl
1 -gi -im/dim
2 -k -r1ut/dr2u
3 -s -his/duis

Numbers[edit | edit source]

1 kʰenu-
2 dinsu-, ten-
3 hr2or1u-
4 mir1u-
5 dor1s-
6 peks-
7 dr2eɟ-
8 ʔonu-, -cinhu
9 genu-
10 ʔenh-
64 kʰiedu-

Syntax[edit | edit source]

Proto-Edalith was probably a broadly head-initial VSO language, like many of its ancient descendants.

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