Conlang
Advertisement
Proto-Grelerian
Gualikia
Type Fusional/Analytic
Alignment Ergative-Absolutive
Head direction Initial
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders 0
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 89%
Statistics
Nouns 100%
Verbs 83%
Adjectives 100%
Syntax 92%
Words 19 of 1500
Creator Kinya


Introduction[]

Proto-Grelerian (Gualikia), Old Grelerian (Kuelsa Guelevan) or Ancient Grelerian (Kuengai Guelevan) is influenced by the Proto-Indo-European Morphology and by some features of Bahasa Indonesia. It has also some similiarites with Basque (involuntary).

Proto-Grelerian is the mother of the Grelerian languages, it is spoken and written at Greleris, a fantasy world (with great worldbuilding). But in the real life, the goals are to be written for litterature and music.

Phonology[]

Consonants[]

There are 19 consonants without counting affricates, so 21 with affricates. As <ts> and <dz> count as two phonemes, they aren't considered as affricates themselves.

Labial Dental Alv. Post-

Alveolar

Palatal Velar Glottal
Stop Voiceless p t k
Voiced b d g
Nasal m n
Fricative Voiceless f s [ʃ] ś [ç] x h
Voiced v z [ʒ] ź
Affricates Voiceless [t͡ʃ] c
Voiced [d͡ʒ] j
Liquids/Approx. l [j] y w

Vowels[]

There are 5 vowels without count long vowels, so 8 vowels with long vowels.

Front Back
Close i / [i:] í u / [u:] ú
Mid [ɛ] e o
Open a / [a:] á

Secondary articulations[]

Secondary articulation Works Distinguish
palatalisation Ci [Cj] Chi [C.i]
labialisation Cu [Cʷ] Chu [C.u]
pre-nasalization nC nC

Phonotactics[]

1. double C = [C.C] if cluster allowed e.g datta [dat.ta]
2. [i] disallowed (next to) after palatalisation e.g nii disallow
[u] disallowed (next to) after labialisation e.g nuu disallow
4. longs vowels in syllabes, they must start or end a word e.g salá/dísa allow
5. Can't have two long vowels alongside in the same word e.g sálá disallow
6. (C)V(:)(C)
7. Affricates count as one consonant
Consonant + secondary articulation count as two phonemes

Consonant Clusters Allowed

Diphthongs[]

Proto-Grelerian has 6+ distinct vowel diphthongs

Diphthong type 1
IPA Null Coda There is Coda
/uj/ /uj/ uy /uj/ ui
/oj/ /oj/ oy /oj/ oi
/aj/ /aj/ ay /aj/ ai
/ɛj/ /ɛj/ ey /ɛj/ ei
/ow/ /ow/ ow /ow/ ou
/aw/ /aw/ aw /aw/ au


Diphthong type 2:

IPA Nucleus First syllable long vowel Last syllable long vowel
/ao/ ao áo *
/ia/ ia ía
/ua/ ua úa
/uɛ/ ue úe *

Alphabet[]

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Śś Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Ll Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Źź Zz
Letter/Spelling Name IPA
Aa A [a]
Bb Ban [ban]
Cc Co [t͡ʃo]
Dd Dan [dan]
Ee Ee [ɛ]
Ff Fao [fao]
Gg Ga [ga]
Hh Ha [ha]
Ii I [i]
Jj Jem [d͡ʒɛm]
Kk Ka [ka]
Śś Śa [ʃa]
Mm Mi [mi]
Nn Na [na]
Oo O [o]
Pp Pi [pi]
Qq Qu [kju]
Ll Lan [lan]
Ss Si [si]
Tt Ta [ta]
Uu U [u]
Vv Va [va]
Ww Wa [wa]
Xx Xan [çan]
Yy Yon [jon]
Zz Zo [zo]

Grammar[]

Nouns[]

Proto-Grelerian nouns are declined for nine cases:

  • nominative: marks the subject of a verb, such as They in They ate. Words that follow a linking verb and rename the subject of that verb also use the nominative case. Thus, both They and linguists are in the nominative case in They are linguists. The nominative is the dictionary form of the noun.
  • accusative: used for the direct object of a transitive verb.
  • genitive: marks a noun as modifying another noun.
  • dative: used to indicate the indirect object of a transitive verb, such as Jacob in Maria gave Jacob a drink.
  • instrumental: marks the instrument or means by, or with, which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action. It may be either a physical object or an abstract concept.
  • ablative: used to express motion away from something.
  • locative: corresponds vaguely to the English prepositions in, on, at, and by.
  • vocative: used for a word that identifies an addressee. A vocative expression is one of direct address where the identity of the party spoken to is set forth expressly within a sentence. For example, in the sentence, "I don't know, John", John is a vocative expression that indicates the party being addressed.
  • allative: used as a type of locative case that expresses movement towards something.

All nominals don’t have numbers but distinguish between definiteness, indefiniteness and genericness. However there are numerals. Here are determiners with head-marking below and again below for case marking only for nouns..

Articles / head-marking Definite Indefinite Generic
Nominative * di *
Accusative * di *
Genitive dín dum dam
Dative ilis undi *
Instrumental veli deve *
Ablative haś dośo demia
Locative kunt kanti sasia
Vocative * * *
Allative cegin cendi cesia

-

Case-marking on noun
Nominative *
Accusative –(d)i
Genitive –(d)um
Dative –(n)is
Instrumental –(e)nve
Ablative –(o)nso
Locative –(a)sia
Vocative *
Allative –(e)nce

Accusative marking on noun tends to disappear.

Verbs[]

The dictionnary form of a verb is its infinite form and they all ends by -am until conjugations occur.

Perfect / Unitary Imperfect / Continuous Habitual
Present -em -inia -omo
Past -ao -aon -on
Future / Volitive -hue -hian -ucin

the -am ending of a verb, infinite form, would also be used for its noun version.

Here are participles:

Past Present / Gerund
-isi -im

Mood particles & Negation[]

Mood particles are before the verb as a particle.

Affirmative Negative
Indicative Ø śin
Interrogative pai śai
Imperative yo yośo
Conditionnal wa wiśin

There wouldn't be subjunctive, it would be the relative/subjunctives clause(s) particle(s) instead.

Modality Verbs[]

Modality verbs are auxiliaries they take the conjugation but not the main verb. The order is = Subject - Modality Verb Conjugated - Main Verb Stem - Object.

Verb
Abilitive & Permissive cam
Possibility; Chance; Ask for permission; Polite Form pam
Desirative dam
Obligative giam
Commissive ciam
Reported mam

Pronouns[]

Proto-Grelerian have personal pronouns for first and second, but not for third person, where demonstrative determiners are used instead.

Distal demonstrative determiner can work as she/he/it and proximal as impersonal pronoun (this/it).

First person Second person
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative kiu kiem jom jume
Accusative xu xan co can
Genitive kiun ekem jise jesen
Dative soku sokan injo enja
Instrumental kuan kaon cim cos
Ablative exen exon deźen deźun
Locative akia nokon anjan ancen

The suffix -(n)e on the personnal pronoun is used for reflexive or to emphasis itself (the personal pronoun: subject), so, used as polite form.

Determiners[]

There is no articles, because nouns does inflect with definiteness and cases, etc. See Nouns.

Demonstrative determiners are:

Distal fali
Proximal itu

They come after the noun like Bahasa Indonesia.

To make a possessive determiner / possessive pronoun, we add the suffix -(u)so on the nominative personal pronoun / demonstrative pronoun. The possessive determiner / possessive pronoun is also put after the noun.

Adjectives[]

Adjective are put before the noun.

They change for comparative and superlative form:
Comparative -(a)za
Descriptive *
Superlative -(i)sia

Orders[]

Word Order strict SVO for declarative sentence VSO for verb emphasis
Nouns AdjN; NGen;
Clauses Main clauses before Rel Clause
Syllable type Open coda to the last syllable prefered
Verb Markers Before the verb

Relative clause[]

To build a relative clause, we use the pronoun "kue" that is put at the start of the relative clause. The relative clause is after the main clause, so it will make: Main clause "kue" Relative clause.

Conjunctive clauses[]

A clause is said to be conjunctive when it begins with a subordinating conjunction (In French : que, dès que, pendant que, quand, parce que, puisque, bien que, quoique,  si, même si, etc)

  • SUBJECT - A conjunctive clause can be the subject of a verb. It then functions as a nominative name. The particle is "kay"
  • COMPLETIVE - Conjunctive clauses are found as a complement to modality verbs; They are found after a modality verb. The particle is "kue" (Complete the verb as a COD) / "kuen" (to complete the verb as a COI)
  • CIRCUMSTANCIAL
    • Time (when, until, while, before, since) = The respective particles are = hono, sempa, keti, sebe, seja
    • Goal (Same as supine) (for, to + ing, etc) = The particle is = unta
      • Supine / Coordinate Circumstancial clause, e.g I'm here to eat apples; to is the particle we're talking about, and the verb eat is in infinite form like english and the particle is before the verb in infinite form.
    • Consequence = The particle is = kala
    • Concession (even if, though) = The particle is = jiki
    • Cause (because) = The particle is = lanas
    • Comparison (as, like) = The particle is = peli
    • Assumption = The particle is = sumi

Numerals[]

one sem
two dhuá
three etius
four kuaj
five puaj
six
seven seften
eight haka
nine newen
ten taká

Suffixes & Conversions[]

Verb to noun (e.g. speak -> speech/discussion) (change only the ending -am): -aya / -ay / -ey

Verb to adj (to make smth [adj]) (change only the ending -am): -umi

Noun to adj (e.g. hair -> hairy): -(n)eo / -(k)is

Adj to adv. (e.g. slow -> slowly): -(a)ja / -(a)ham

Lexicon[]

The link to the full up-to-date lexicon: https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1-Zq-tYu2JrLBji2EDzlDqIoa2P7Y0OOwB_dDb6aOZzo/edit?usp=sharing

Example text[]

Basic sentences[]

Joanna likes apples: Jania kem dapleti

-- Joanna.NOM like.PRES apple.ACC --

You can't eat apples: Jom śin cem kabam dapleti

-- 2SG.NOM not.IND can.INF eat.PRES apple.ACC --

Complexe sentences[]

Don't eat my apples, otherwise I (will) be sad: Jom yośo kabem kiuso dapleti, kala kiu bem tuista.

-- 2SG.NOM not.IMP 1SG-POSS apple-ACC CONS 1SG.NOM eat.PRES sad.NOM --

Advertisement