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Proto Keutan-Dztan
Head direction
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect

General information[]

Proto Keutan-Dztan is the common ancestor of Old KeutiMizmash, and Dztani. It is theorized that the speakers of this language were subservient to many well established foreign chiefs, thus necessitating the need for a concise manner of speaking to make managing the tribal community easier.



Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal
Nasal m ɱ n ŋ
Plosive p b t d k g ʔ
Fricative ɸ f v s z
Approximant j w
Flap or tap ɾ
Lateral fric.
Lateral app. l
Lateral flap


Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
Close y ɯ
Near-close ɪ
Open-mid ɔ

No diphthongs or vowel clusters occur in Proto Keutan-Dztan, however long vowels occur as a separate phoneme.


The /m/ sound changes to the /ɱ/ sound only in consonant clusters with either /f/ or /v/ directly after it. The /f/ sound changes into the /ɸ/ sound when it is the initial, non clustered consonant. /k/, /t/, and /p/ are aspirated when in a consonant cluster.


IPA Transcription
ɱ m
ŋ ng
ng n'g
ʔ q
ɸ f
ɾ r
ɪ i
ɯ eu
ɔ o
ɯː uu
ɪː ii
ɔː ou


The syllable structure of Proto Keutan-Dztan is (C)V[C], where C is any consonant or consonant cluster and V is any short or long vowel. Consonant clusters can have up to three consonants. If there is no initial consonant, the syllable must be at the beginning of the word. The final consonant or consonant cluster is only used at the end of a word, but not neccessarily for affixes and exception words. In a consonant cluster, consonants cannot occur more than once, plosives cannot occur after plosives, and taps cannot occur after nasals. The /j/ and /w/ sounds only appear as initial consonants and cannot be clustered. The /ʔ/ sound cannot be clustered either. The /ɾ/ sound only occurs at the end of an initial consonant cluster. The last syllable of a word is always stressed, except for monosyllabic words which are unstressed.


Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes
Nouns No Yes No No No No No No
Adjectives No No No No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No No No No No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes No No No No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article No No No No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

Noun Phrase[]

Noun phrases are formed in Proto Keutan-Dztan with determiners and case markers. The noun modifying the other noun goes first in the noun phrase.

Demonstratives and Articles[]

Pronouns can either stand alone or be linked to a noun phrase.

Determiner Meaning Type
sok negative article suffix
pi positive (only for emphasis) article suffix
i definite article prefix
ki proximal demonstrative prefix
mi distal demonstrative prefix
kig proximal demonstrative pronoun
ming distal demonstrative pronoun


There is an extensive system of interrogative pronouns in Proto Keutan-Dztan.

Type Interrogative Meaning
impersonal seudz what
impersonal seust which one
personal jotl who
location euk where
source eutsg whence
goal jypsk whither
arbitrary time niks when
specific time nikst when exactly
manner krontn how
reason kliints why
arbitrary amount tsist how much
specific amount tsoglk what number
product (animal or crop) sygv what product
leader jiln what leader
polity lront what country
task drints what task
season ntins what season


Quantifiers are treated as pronouns and not affixes.

Quantifier Meaning
qolz some
ymt every
tslolv all
euglp few
strikls many


The numeral system is base ten, with larger numbers formed by adding a number to a factor of ten, and repeating if necessary. Numbers act mostly as determiners attached to noun phrases.

Number Meaning
ifp one
byv two
yf three
ofg four
fpifb five
euvb six
gyfk seven
mfik eight
fyf nine
fok ten
kyvk fifty
veupf hundred
vbeufp five hundred
trost ten thousand
yg five thousand
pos hundred thousand
szin five hundred thousand
mongk million


Cases are marked by suffixes attached after the declined noun, and only form noun phrases if applicable.

Suffix Case Usage
o ergative subject of a transitive verb
og absolutive subject of an intransitive verb and direct object of a transitive verb
od dative recipient or affected
it inessive inside something
si allative movement to
sik ablative movement away
oz instrumental means or topic
odri comitative accompaniment or means
onit benefactive beneficiary
ogo causal cause, reason, or exchange

Genitive Cases[]

There are several types of genitive cases in Proto Keutan-Dztan.

Suffix Type
eut inalienable possession
oti alienable possession
is composition
ism origin or reference
uun description by noun

Personal Pronouns[]

Personal pronouns inflect based on gender, person, and relation. Collective pronouns are formed by using the inclusive suffix /igl/ or the exclusive suffix /eufm/.

Person Masculine Feminine
General Filial Subordinate Superior General Filial Subordinate Superior
First strojos sdonos wotos troksos strojis sdonis wotis troksis
Second strojeus sdoneus woteus trokseus streujis sdeunis weutis treuksis
Third strojys sdonys wotys troksys stryjis sdynis wytis tryksis

Adjectives and Adverbs[]

Adjectives and adverbs are placed preceding the word they modify. The comparative suffix is /bozit/, and the superlative suffix is /toziko/. The prevailing theory of the order in which adjectives and adverbs must be attached to a head is this:

  1. Head
  2. Qualifier
  3. Number
  4. Quantifier
  5. Demonstrative/Interrogative

The other theory of order is this:

  1. Head
  2. Demonstrative/Interrogative
  3. Quantifier
  4. Number
  5. Qualifier

An important qualifier is the polarity adverb /siv/, which changes the modified verb's polarity to negative.

Verb Phrase[]

The main verb expresses modality and some voice by inflecting the consonant cluster at the end of the verb. The infinitive consonant cluster is /zs/, which is also used for supine, gerund, and participle form. An auxiliary verb is attached to form a verb phrase.

Cluster Mode/Voice Usage
kv indicative factual statements and positive beliefs
vdn subjunctive hypothetical situations in dependent clauses
kmv conditional to express something whose validity is dependent on a condition in a dependent clause
svk optative expresses hopes and wishes
skl imperative direct commands
mf jussive pleading and insistence
pl tentative the occurence is considered likely
tsk potential capable to perform the action

Auxiliary Verbs[]

The auxiliary verb must always accompany a verb to express politeness, tense, and aspect. There are several interchangeable alternate forms. The auxiliary verb is placed after the main verb in the clause. The passive voice auxiliary verb /kong/ is attached preceding the auxiliary verb or the main verb to turn a transitive verb into an intransitive verb.

Nonpast Tense
Aspect Colloquial Filial Formal
Perfective do oni; ono; iki donoki
Progressive itoz; doki if; yd; div itsomeu
Stative beuq pfif; jomf beuqtin
Habitual wik kisk wikons
Past Tense
Aspect Colloquial Filial Formal
Perfective zym oki; nob; yk dokob
Progressive inm mfki; idsn; tyf yksim
Stative sboq vkfof nbeuq
Habitual wiin geus jonom


The copula is a verb that links a subject with its complement, describing state. If the state is permanent the copula is /seuzs/; if the state is temporary it is /tmizs/.


The noun with the postposition is attached preceding a noun phrase or verb phrase to form a postpositional phrase.

Postposition Meaning
eulsro according to
koqi thanks to
ikitn among
svy behind
nol in front
kston middle
ikoji on top
wiwi around
ykst next to


Little is agreed upon regarding the reconstruction of interjections, but it is generally said that interjections are placed preceding the clause when modifying them. Interjections are exceptions to the rules of phonotactics.

Interjection Usage
dys yes
ng passive agreement
konk no
sisi interrogative


Conjunctions are used to link words and clauses. Most of them are placed after the word or clause.

Conjunction Usage
svil and (clause link)
deum but (clause link)
tsono effect and cause (clause link)
friks when (clause link)
tmynk although (clause link)
tong and; listing (word link)
fi end to start; duration (word link)
plibl to; purpose (word link)
veuf relative (clause link)
nov conditional (clause link)
pobi causative (clause link)
got quotative (clause link)

Sentence Structure[]

The canon word order is V2 for the main clause, and SOV in subordinate clauses. The most common V2 order is SVO. There are four kinds of subordinate clauses, relative, conditional, causative, and quotative which are marked by conjunctions preceding them when attached to an independent clause.


ikonmeuso veuf ijowikisog kong tystkokv zym seukv do kigog

def.child.erg rel pas to-burn.ind pst.pfv cop.ind npst.pfv prox.abs

The child who burned the house is here.

The conjunction marks the subject of the subordinate clause.


strojoso ngokmv doki strojyseut teuqikog nov strojyso ijowikisog tystkokv zym to-eat.cond npst.prog flesh.abs cnj to-burn.ind pst.pfv

I will be eating his flesh if he burned down the house.

The conjunction marks what will happen if the conditions in the subordinate clause are met.


ikonmeuso pobi ijowikisog kong tystkokv zym seukv do kigog

def.child.erg cau pas to-burn.ind pst.pfv cop.ind npst.pfv prox.abs

The child who caused the house to burn is here.

The conjunction marks the reason of the occurrence in the subordinate clause.


strojysog got ikonmeuso pobi ijowikisog kong tystkokv zym seukv do kigog simikv zym quot def.child.erg cau pas to-burn.ind pst.pfv cop.ind npst.pfv prox.abs to-say.ind pst.pfv

He said, "The child who caused the house to burn is here."

The conjunction marks the speaker and changes the necessary verb "to say" into intransitive unless dictated otherwise.

Leipzig-Jakarta List[]

Used for comparison with offspring languages.

English Proto Keutan-Dztan
ant tosrig
arm/hand soktsiv
ash seuvis
back keumg
big tsol
bird zipzyn
to bite mfozs
bitter iseun'gin
black momnis
blood mnuum
to blow sosizs
bone kynitrin
breast ponbit
to burn (intransitive) tystkozs
to carry knineuzs
child (reciprocal of parent) konmeus
to come lopizs
to crush/to grind ksoksizs
to cry/to weep jitsyzs
to do/to make symizs
dog jiltisk
drink somsim
ear ninsg
to eat ngozs
egg kynkris
eye long
to fall triizs
far poks
fire kstolon
fish jipneun
flesh/meat teuqik
fly dziz
to give jomnizs
to go leubizs
good myng
hair nogig
hard tsygn
he/she/it/him/her strojys/sdynis
to hear ninizs
heavy stomts
to hide woleuzs
to hit/to beat tsoqeuzs
horn joleuks
house jowikis
I/me strojos/strojis
in -it
knee kolop
to know jiilizs
to laugh kikizs
leaf fomin
leg/foot tsokeul
liver streunk
long soul
louse kitsyg
mouth nomof
name glolkiv
navel grilyf
neck sokmin
new wisov
night bomvid
nose fiif
not siv
old mongnon
one ifp
rain seuzeus
red mnykron
root mgruun
rope fyfint
to run dzokozs
salt symsoz
sand fonsin
to say simizs
to see loneuzs
shade/shadow zlibleum
skin/hide tslopin
small dil
smoke feulof
soil joms
to stand jikeuzs
star gymsis
stone/rock kygyk
to suck fomeuzs
sweet jyting
tail fifoks
to take byzs
thick loumit
thigh koqil
this kig
to tie fylozs
tongue zuuz
tooth jotsk
water somging
what? seudz
who? jotl
wide vuut
wind feumfis
wing vlofok
wood neukl
yesterday woungjoksl
you (singular) strojeus/streujis