|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
Classification and DialectsEdit
|Close||*i *i:||*u *u:|
|Mid||*e *e:||*o *o:|
Several minimal pairs appear to have existed varying only by stress or vowel length, this developed into a full tonal system in the Bawa-Pochean languages and some have suggested that Proto-Qongalan was in fact tonal.
Sound Changes Edit
Modern Panatec is the result of three main periods of sound change from Proto-Qongalan over 2500 years ago. The most significant changes are the widespread glottalisation of aspirated consonants and complete loss of the isolated [s] phoneme through various.
Below are the major sound changes associated with the transition from Proto-Qongalan (c. 1000 BCE) to Proto-Ingo-Qongolan (c. 0 CE). This period saw significant alteration to fricatives and ended with almost complete loss of the phoneme [h].
- Fricatives lost preceding vowels where they were unstressed unless preceded by a non-nasal consonant cluster.
- [s] and ([ʃ] and [j]) became [ts] and [tʃ] following ([t], [p] and nasals), also triggering [m] and [ŋ] to become [n].
- [s] became [ʃ] following ([k], approximants and aspirated consonants)
- Affricates and fricatives modified following unstressed [a] into [e].
- [ts] absorbed preceding ([p], [l] and [k]), lengthening and stressing previous vowel.
- [tl] became [to] word-finally, [tol] elsewhere.
- Unstressed word-initial and word-final [h] were lost.
- Stressed word-initial [h] became [ʃ] before ([o] and [u]) and [s] before ([e] and [i]) and [kh] before [a].
- [h] created a stressed long vowel between identical vowels.
- All long vowels automatically became stressed. In words with no long vowel, the stressed vowel became long. Single syllable words are unstressed. This rule holds hereafter.
- [j] became palatised to [tʃ] following nasals and unvoiced obstruents, [ʝ] elsewhere. [mtʃ] then became [ntʃ]
Old Qongāl Edit
Another period of sound change, induced by further contact with Mayan languages, took Proto-Ingo-Qongolan to the Inguoan split (c. 600 CE). The Inguoan languages retained aspirated consonants where Qongāl indiscriminately glottalised them.
- [h] between two differing vowels had several effects:
- [ihV] and [ehV] became [jV], also turning [sihV] and [tihV] into [ʃV] and [tʃV].
- [CVhi] became [CVji] or [CVj] in final syllables.
- [CCohV] and [CCuhV] became [CCowV] and [CCuwV].
- [ohV] and [uhV] became [wV].
- [Vho] and [Vhu] became [Vwo] and [Vwu].
- All remaining [h] became [ʔ].
- [kh] became [q] before ([o] and [u]).
- Word-final aspirated consonants [VCh] became [CV], or [VCV] to prevent clusters of more than two consonants. All other aspirated consonants became unaspirated.
- Unvoiced obstruents became voiced before stressed ([o], [u] and [a]).
- Word-initial [b] became [ɓ].
- [ntʃ] became [tʃ].
Modern Qongāl Edit
Finally, another period of sound change developed into Classical Panatec (c. 1500 CE) which has since seen some change to become Modern Panatec (Qongāl).
- [CVw] became [Cw], excluding consonant clusters.
- Word-initial [s] became [ts] before stressed ([o] and [u]), [θ] before stressed ([e], [a] and [i]).
- [s] became [θ] if either neighbouring vowel is stressed and [ʃ] elsewhere.
- [tw], [dw] and [bw] became [θw], [ðw] and [β].
- [ʝ] became further palatised to [ʃ] word-finally.
- Word-final [s] became [θ] if stressed, otherwise it was lost completely.
- Word-initial [ɾ] became [ɗ].
- Consonant clusters become completely unvoiced if they include an unvoiced consonant.
- ([e] and [a]) became ([e̞] and [ɐ]).
- Unstressed [i] and [e] became [ɘ] before obstruents and nasals.
- [ɘ] was inserted following obstruents in consonant clusters that ended in obstruents or nasals.