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Name: Proto-Rider

Type: Semi-derivative

Alignment: Free

Head Direction: Free, but usually SVO or SOV

Number of genders: 3

Declensions: Yes

Conjugations: Yes

Nouns declined
according to
Case Number
Definitiveness Gender
Verbs conjugated
according to
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Gender Cases Numbers Tenses Persons Moods Voices Aspects
Verb No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
Nouns Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Adjectives Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Numbers No No No No No No No No
Participles No No Yes Yes Yes No No No
Adverb No No No No No No No No
Pronouns Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
Adpositions No No No No No No No No
Article Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
Particle No No No No No No No No

Proto-Rider roots of which developed from Insular Celtic languages, mainly Irish Gaelic and Welsh. The Riders had a vocabulary centered around the riding of horses, being the first on [un-named continent] to do so.


In the east of [un-named continent].




b p k g d t h l r m n s (consonantal i)


a e i o u

Vowels cannot begin a word, so an h is placed before an initial vowel.

Diphthongs do exist:

ai, ao, ia, ie, io, iu, oe, oi, ua




Nouns and Adjectives[]

The Proto-Rider declension system was mainly based on Proto-Indo-European.

Nouns and adjectives are thus declined:

Masculine Feminine Plural
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural
Nominative -os -en -as -en - -en
Vocative -o -a
Accusative -om -omen -am -amen -em -emen
Genitive -ob -oben -ab -aben -eb -eben
Dative -ois -oisen -ais -aisen -is -isen


The verb conjugation of Proto-Rider is partly invented and partly based on Insular Celtic. Here is the basic conjugation [~ is the root vowel, = is the personal (present) ending]:

Infinitive -
Present Participle -nd~=
Past Participle -t~=
Singular Plural
Present 1 -r -m
2 -g -l
3 -t -p
Past 1 -d~r -d~m
2 -d~g -d~l
3 -d~t -d~p
Future 1 -p~r -p~m
2 -p~g -p~l
3 -p~t -p~p
Imperative 2 -g~ -l~

The conditional is formed by conjugating the future of hiso and the past of the verb. The subjunctive is formed by conjugating the present of kona and the infinitive. The past subjunctive is formed with the past of kona and the infinitive.


Here is the roots lexicon that I have so far:


adjectives: dehen

adult: pir-

after: hed

air: huir-

all: pod-

allow: leta

and: gus

animals: kepgadren

apple: hul

apple tree: hulkan-


arm: lum-

around: da

arrow: peg-

ask: pela

at: do

away: ger

axe: tah-


bad: don-

be able: kona

be: ta

bed: nid-

before: rib

beg: haste

beget: gitoru

believe: hara, koredu

belly: tar-

berry: kor-

big: mor-

black: dub-

blanket; plen-

blue: gom-

blueberry: gomkor-

body parts: dedunen

bow: kug-

bring: bire

builder: deldun-

bury: nituga

but: hag


caterpillar: pilik-

chair: kad-

change: hura

child: lim-

clothing: gah-

colours: darbihgomen

come: tara

conjunctions: hiden

couch: nod-

count: kimu

cousin: der-

cup: kup-


dark: du-

deity: (kep)dao-

destroy: niginu

die: maru, tuga

digit: dek-

diminish: nigela

do: dinu

doctor: tur(dun)-

dog: gadar-

door: bod-

down: dus

drink: hipe

during: pid


ear: klas-

earth: krig-, han-

eat: mani

eight: haket

eightteen: dihak

eighty: haga

eleven: din

eye: sul-


feel: timla

fifteen: dink

fifty: hega

fight; pihe

find: seri

fire: grin-

fireplace: grin(tar)-

fish: his-

five: henk

flower: blud-

fly: kil-

foot, hoof: trod-

for: har

forget: dime

four: keha

fourteen: dik

fourty: kega

from: has


gazelle: pih-

get: kile

give: ri

go: mi

good: med-

goodbye: selana

grandchild: kurias-

grandparent: kurad-

grass: pur-

grind: turile

grow: gela, gerba

gull: parin-


hair, mane: kobil-

hand: lau-

hate: hadu

have to: sale

have: kla

head: kin-

hear: kle

hello: hal

home: higem

horse: kep-

house: hig-

how many: pokim/kimpo

how: porud/rudpo

hundred: gata

hundred-thousand: gatagisel, gatenpil

hunt: pige

hunter: pigdun-


-in law: _dil-

in: hi

interogatices: poen


knife: sin-


lake: lok-

leader: rihdun-

learn: do

leave: gadi, baridi

leg: kos-

less: dongel-

light: gid-

light: gil-

like: kopi

lion: ruh-

live: bo

lotus: husblud-

love: karu


make: ginu

many: en-

mat: pur-

million: mun

more: gel-

most: per-

mouse: lug-

mouth: kab-

much: ten-


nature: kanpures

need: hesi

nine: naba

nineteen: dina

ninety: naga

no: ni

nor: ninoh

nose: ron-

numbers: kimen


oak: derkan-

of: de

offspring: hias-

on: hir-

one: hin

or: noh

organ: kil-

ospre: uler-

out: hes


parent: had-

pass: boda

person: dun-

person: dunen

pillow: lib-

plate: hit-

postpositions: doen

pot, bowl: tet-

prairy-dog: kin-


rain (cry): kriseka

rain (figurative): lobi

rain (weather): pole

raspberry: darkor-

red: dar-

redwood: darkan-

remain: rosa

remember: penu

ride: kepa

rider: kepdun-

river: rud-

rose: darblud-

run: rede


say: dodi, kamti

search: si

see: kura

separate: nigune, rutogi

seven: sipa

seventeen: dispa

seventy: spaga

shovel: ban-

sibling: dir-

six: suk

sixteen: dis

sixty: suga

small: big-

smell: rona

some: neb-

speak: sira

spoon: bon-

star: rilt-

steal: kido


tail: pein-

take: kumi

taste: bla

teach: mura

teacher, scholar, wizard: muridun-

ten: diga

ten-thousand: digisel, dienpil

thank: grade

think: muri

thirteen: didri

thirty: driga

thousand: gisel, enpil

three: drihe

to: go

touch: ki

tree: kan-

twelve: did

twenty: dega

two: dehu


under: pi

up: lin


verbs: dinen

very: hane-


walk: kere

want: hiso

water: hus-, dur-

what: po(ral)

when: pogil/gilpo

where: popur/purpo

white: pun-

who: podun/dunpo

why: pohar/harpo

window: hirbod-

with: hid

without: gan, nihid


yellow: bih-

yes: his


zero: nil

Example text[]