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Proto-Taspen is the language of the south east lands in Bidunia. This is the most ancient classical language of the people who first migrated into the area.

Proto-Taspen
Type Agglutinative
Alignment Tripartite
Head direction Initial
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 99%
Statistics
Nouns 100%
Verbs 100%
Adjectives 100%
Syntax 100%
Words 495 of 750
Creator Bryce16


Classification and DialectsEdit

This language diverged into several dialects that became their own languages.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Stops p t k
Asp Stops ph th kh
Eject Stops p' t' k'
Fricatives s h
Approximant w j
Trill r
Flap or tap r

VowelsEdit

Front Central Back
High i u
Mid e o
Low a

Allophony Edit

  1. Consonant clusters formed by two oral stops most always assimilate. The first stop assimilates to the POA of the second stop, creating a geminate. E.g. etath "dark" > etakkhe "night"

PhonotacticsEdit

In general syllables are constructed as (C)V(C)(C), where the coda consonants are not consecutive obstruents. There are exceptions to all that of course, but that's the general plan.

Writing SystemEdit

These are an early agricultural/hunter-gatherer people, and as such did not have writing. Although, writing would develop later as a logographic system. (right? or did trade with other civilizations bring writing?)

GrammarEdit

Pronouns Edit

Pronouns have all the same cases as nouns, but with one important difference. Singular non-interrogative pronouns in the ABS case are always marked and end with an "-o". E.g. so, tho, mo, rjommo, ithawo, maihso. The interrogative pronouns do not typically decline, so need not end in "-o", and the plurals of the listed pronouns just add a "-p".

SG PL
ABS so sop
ERG se sope
ACC su sopu
DAT so sopo
GEN sum sopum
ABL sa sopa
INSTR saj sopaj
VOC sir sopir
LOC si sopi

NounsEdit

There are nine cases in PT that have no particular order. They are all suffixes that are added onto the root word.

Absolutive Edit

The ABS case is unmarked on the noun, and it is used for the subjects of intransitive verbs. Adjectives, however, take an "o" suffix to agree with an ABS noun. Pronouns also end in "-o".

E.g.

K'aphakhir k'at ihe pharamithoum

PAST.PFV-eat person.ABS on day.summer-MED-GEN

A person ate yesterday.

Ergative Edit

The ergative case is marked with "-e", and it is used for the subjects of transitive verbs.

E.g.

Ermephaja k'athonope ŋesu

PRES-GNO-drink child-PL-ERG water-ACC

Children drink water.

Accusative Edit

The accusative case is marked with "-u" and is used for the objects of transitive verbs.

E.g.

Ermephaja k'athonope ŋesu

PRES-GNO-drink child-PL-ERG water-ACC

Children drink water.

Dative Edit

The dative case is marked with "-o" and is used for the indirect object or the beneficiary. It traditionally comes after the ACC.

E.g.

Thet'ep'an jeŋure nurau sopo

PRES-IPFV-give sun-ERG light-ACC 1.PL-DAT

The sun gives us light.

Genitive Edit

The genitive case is marked with "-um" and is used for alienable possession. It also is used in 3-way prepositions to indicate the temporal usage. It always follows the noun it describes.

AL possession is the default. Nonpossessables, such as the sun, fall into this category, as well as nouns that CAN be physically or metaphorically separated, such as trees' leaves

AL e.g.

Ablative Edit

The ablative case is marked with "-a". It is used to mean "motion away from". It is also the required case for a few prepositions, and it's used in many more 2-way and 3-way Ps to distinguish dynamic motion from static (LOC).

INAL e.g.

Aŋsamani so pi umiso ŋesa moramahs

PAST-INCEP-go 1.SG-ABS to edge-DAT water-INAL.ABL day.winter-DIST

I started to go to the edge of the water on the day before yesterday.

Instrumental Edit

"-aj"

Vocative Edit

"-ir"

Locative Edit

"-i"

Adjectives Edit

Adjectives come after the noun they modify, and they agree with them only in case. This is for attributive As though. Predicate As are uninflected with no case, and this is how they are told apart. Also, predicate As typically come before the verb (free am I). Numbers, attributive or not, do not take any agreement. They also follow the noun.

Comparative Edit

The comparative form of an adjective adds the suffix '-us'

Superlative Edit

The superlative form of an adjective adds the suffix '-(e)rn'

Extremitive Edit

The extremitive form of an adjective adds the suffix '-jot''

Moderative Edit

The moderative form of an adjective adds the suffix '-ha'

Permanentive Edit

The permanentive form of an adjective adds the suffix '-akhi'

Temporal Edit

The temporal form of an adjective adds the suffix '-own'

Prepositions Edit

Most prepositions (Ps) are pretty straight forward. Different Ps require the following noun to decline in a specific case, sometimes seemingly arbitrary, and sometimes to change its meaning. There are seven different types of Ps: absolutive, ergative, dative, genitive, ablative, two-way, and three-way Ps. The two-way Ps make the distinction between stative and dynamic senses, stative requiring the LOC case, and dynamic the ABL case. Three-way Ps make the same distinction, but they can also be used to describe time in some form. This temporal usage requires the GEN case.

VerbsEdit

Verbs are separated into various classes, and they are distinguished by their suffixes. Verb classes 1, 2, 3, and 4 are respectively "-ir(-)", "-an(-)", "-is(-)", and "-aj(-)". On every verb are two obligatory markers, tense and aspect. Mood suffixes are optional.

At an earlier stage in the language's history, verbs became followed by an auxiliary or particle thing that had different meanings. They eventually wore away and are left as these suffixes on the verb. These different classes of verbs don't quite hold up anymore, but the general distinctions were made like so. Class 1 verbs (-ir) typically were personal verbs that have an intrinsic tie to the speaker like to be ir, to eat khir, and to love siri. Class 2 verbs (-an) were verbs of motion or flowing like to go mani, to see k'ane, and to catch toran. Class 3 verbs (-is) were typically used for statives and most adjectives were derived from verbs that took this ending. Class 4 verbs (-aj) were basically everything else. Many adjectives were derived from class 4 verbs too. Like everything, there are many exceptions like to take rokhis, to be named ano, or to flow ohir.

Tense Edit

All tense markers are prefixes that attach to the beginning of the verb, before the aspect marker.

Past Edit

The past tense is used as a general past tense for the PFV and DUR aspects, but adds a -continuous meaning for the INCEP, IPFV, and GNO aspects. This means that the action does not continue into the present. The prefixes "k'a-" and "aŋ-" are used respectively with verb types 1/3 and 2/4.

Recent Past Edit

The recent past tense is used to describe verbs that are relatively recent. This varies wildly between verbs. This may be in the past few hours with the verb "eat", but in the past few weeks when you "climbed" a tree. In addition, it also acts as a continuous marker for PFV, IPFV, and GNO aspects, meaning continued into the present. There is only one prefix, "p'i-".

Present Edit

The present tense is marked with the prefixes "the-", for verb types 1 and 2, and "er-", for types 3 and 4.

Immediate Future Edit

The immediate future is used just as relatively as the recent past. It varies from verb to verb, and can be anywhere from later that day to in a month or two. It can also simply mean about to happen. There is one suffix, "no-".

Future Edit

The future is marked with the prefixes "ju-" for verb types 1 and 4, and "um-" for types 2 and 3.

Aspect Edit

The aspect markers are attached between the tense marker and the verb itself. They are really just a consonant because the vowel following the consonant marker assimilates to the same one used in the tense marker.

Perfective Edit

The perfective aspect is used for verbs that have been completed by the time of the corresponding tense. It is used when talking about the event as a whole, rather than a time within the event like the IPFV. The perfective marker is "-ph(V)-"

Inceptive Edit

The inceptive aspect is marked with "-s(V)-". It is used for verbs that are just starting at the tense indicated.

Imperfective Edit

The imperfective indicates verbs that have already begun, but haven't finished. It is used when looking at a part of the whole, rather than the whole itself like the PFV. It is marked with "-t'(V)-".

Gnomic/Habitual Edit

The gnomic aspect is a fun one. It was and is used to mark truths about the world and indisputable facts in the present tense, but it is believed that the speakers of PT had already begun to use this aspect for facts of all kinds, including feelings, truths, and beliefs. It conveys a stronger message. Over time, the (recent) past and (immediate) future tenses became synonymous as habituals. This became a permanent fixture for all four non-present tenses and became the sole means of marking the habitual in the language. It is marked with "-m(V)-".

Durative Edit

The durative aspect signals that a verb is lasting for a little period of time. It has already begun and will keep going for a while, but will eventually stop. This applies to the wind blowing to playing an instrument. It uses "-w(V)-".

Tense and Aspect Chart for Late PT Edit

PAST REC PRES IMM FUT
PFV in the past and completed

I ate

recently completed

I just ate

NA

impossible

about to be completed

I'm about to have eaten

will be completed

I will have eaten

INCEP began in the past but not continued in present

-continuous

I started eating

began in the past and still going

+continuous

I started eating

begins now

I'm starting to eat

about to begin

I'm about to start eating

will begin in the future

I will start eating

IPFV was happening in the past but not anymore

-continuous

I was eating

was happening and still is

+continuous

I was eating

occuring right now

I'm eating

about to be happening

I'm about to be eating

will be happening

I will be eating

GNO/HAB happened habitually in the past but no longer

-continuous

I used to eat

happened habitually in the past and still does

+continuous

I used to eat

generic truth or true now

I eat

about to become habitual

I will soon eat

will become habitual

I will eat

DUR occured for a while in the past

I ate for a bit

recently occured for a while

I just ate for a little while

occuring for a while right now

I'm eating for a bit

about to be occuring for a while

I'm about to be eating for a while

will be occuring for a while

I will eat for a while

Rules for DUR:

The DUR can only apply to (anim/inan) activities, or other atelic verbs that have agents or animate subjects like some statives and semelfactives.

Mood Edit

Negative Edit

The negative mood is used just like Japanese. To specify that an action is not done, this mood is used. There are two morphemes that signify the mood. For 1 and 3 type verbs, the suffix "-mo" is used. For verb types 2 and 4, the suffix "-nu" is used.

E.g.

"-mo" "-nu"
Imirmo so misik P'iphik'anenu the su
PRES-GNO-be-NEG 1.SG.ABS bad REC-PFV-see-NEG 2.SG.ERG 1.SG.ACC
I am not bad You didn't just see me
Interrogative Edit

The interrogative mood is used to ask yes or no questions. The suffix "-kho" is added to verb types 1 and 2, and the suffix "-par" is added to types 3 and 4.

"-kho" "-par"
Thet'enomthirkho mop ŋa kenujopu mopum
PRES-IPFV-play-INTERR 3.PL.ABS with friend-PL-ACC 3.PL-GEN
Do they play with their friends?
Conditional Edit

The conditional mood is used to express doubt, hypothetical situations, or irrealis statements. The suffixes "-sup" and "-he" are used respectively for verb types 1/4 and 2/3.

"-sup" "-he"
Ert'ejek'ajsup so amso jumuohirsup jeŋur Erphejamekishe haji so, net k'aphak'amirmo so
Er-t'e-jek'aj-sup so amso ju-mu-ohir-sup jeŋur Er-phe-jamekis-he haji so, net k'a-pha-k'amir-mo so
PRES-IPFV-move-COND 1.SG.ABS when FUT-GNO-shine-COND sun.ABS PRES-PFV-can-COND draw.INF 1.SG.ABS but PAST-PFV-learn-NEG 1.SG.ABS
I would move if/when the sun would/will shine I would be able to draw, but I didn't learn
Desiderative Edit

The desiderative is used to express genuine wants and desires onto the verb. This is added to verbs to indicate that it is a desire for the speaker to perform the verb. When wishing to use "want" as a standalone verb, i.e. I want food, then the verb nawis. Confusingly, you may also use nawis as an auxilliary to indicate that the desire/want for the verb is hopeless, fruitless, impossible, or disingenuous, without a possibility of its reality. The suffix is "-naws", and it is used with all verb types.

E.g.

P'it'ithajnaws se k'atopu

P'i-t'i-thaj-naws se k'at-op-u

REC-IPFV-lead-DES 1.SG.ERG person-PL-ACC

I want to lead the people.

E.g

Ert'enawis ir so k'athon t'up

Er-t'e-nawis ir so k'at-hon t'up

PRES-IPFV-want be.INF 1.SG.ABS person.DIM.ABS again

I want to be a child again.

E.g.

Ermenawis se rwek'imosu

Er-me-nawis se rwek'imos-u

PRES-GNO-want 1.SG.ERG food-ACC

I want food.

Deontic Edit

The deontic is used for quite a few different things. It is used as an imperative, but it is also used as an optative to express your desires and wishes. It doesn't use any tense or aspect prefixing. The suffix "-m" is used on all verb types, however, the "n" in "-an" stem verbs gets deleted when it occurs next to "m". "-is", "-aj", and "-ir" stem verbs don't change. E.g. *P'anm! > P'am! = Give!

Voice/Valency changes Edit

Active Edit

There is no marking on verbs for the active voice. Transitive verbs and intransitive ones stay intransitive.

E.g.

Thet'epintan so t'orii

PRES-IPFV-live 1.sg.ABS house-LOC

I live in a house

E.g.

P'iphip'annu se phuŋau tho

REC-PFV-ask-NEG 1.sg.ERG question-ACC 2.sg.DAT

 I didn't just ask you a question

Passive Edit

The passive construction is marked by the suffix "wi" on the verb. Like many passives, it takes the ACC and makes it the ABS. The original ERG argument can be left off or placed back in as an ABL. Intransitive verbs cannot be passivised. This construction is most useful for relative clauses, for only the ABS may be relativised.

E.g.

Aŋphak'ane se pik'u

PAST-PFV-see 1.SG.ERG tree-ACC

I saw a tree

Transformation:

Aŋphak'anewi pik' sa

PAST-PFV-see-PASS tree-ABS 1.SG.ABL

A tree was seen by me

Antipassive Edit

This construction is used exclusively for the relative clause formation. It does not make any sense to use this construction outside of them because they are semantically equivalent. It also has SVO order. When going from ACT to ANTIP with a transitive verb, the suffix "mar" is added to the verb, the ERG becomes ABS, and the ACC becomes INSTR. For intransitive verbs, just add the suffix and flip the order. When this clause is used, the beginning clause usually needs to be passivised in order for the ABS to be the subject of both clauses. Auxiliary stuff (like ABL, DAT, INSTR) are usually placed before the Rel clause, but may go after too.

E.g. 2 arguments:

Ert'ephaja k'ate ŋesu

PRES-IPFV-drink person-ERG water-ACC

A person drinks water

Transformation:

K'at ert'ephajamar ŋesaj

person.ABS PRES-IPFV-drink-ANTIP water-INSTR

A person who drinks water

Application:

K'awasiriwi sa k'at aŋt'aphajamar ŋesaj

PAST-DUR-love-PASS 1.SG-ABL person-ABS PAST-IPFV-drink-ANTIP water-INSTR

For a while was loved by me a person who drank water

For a while, I loved a person who drank water

Middle Edit

The middle voice in PT is used for four things: reflexives, mediopassive statements when the subject and patient are the same (the window broke), emotions (ich fühle mich gut), and impersonal verbs (it rains). The suffix is "-oŋ" and it attaches to the verb. NOTE: Reciprocals are denoted with pronouns, reflexives with MID.

Reflexive Use:

P'iphijot'anoŋ so ihe pharamrumum

REC-PFV-wash-MID 1.SG-ABS on day.summer-PROX-GEN

I washed myself today.

Mediopassive Statements:

K'amakowisioŋ kham thum

PAST-GNO-break-MID plant.ABS 2.SG-GEN

Your plant broke.

Emotions:

Ert'emart'ajaoŋ so rokhin

PRES-IPFV-find-MID 1.SG-ABS happy

I find myself happy.

I feel happy.

Impersonal verbs:

p'iwiwenisoŋ moraitho

REC-DUR-rain-MID yesterday

It rained a while yesterday.

Causative Edit

The causative is the only valency increasing construction in Proto-Taspin. It is the suffix "k'" attached to the verb. With an intransitive verb, the ABS becomes the ACC and the causer becomes the ERG. With a transitive verb, the ACC stays the ACC, but the ERG gets demoted to DAT and the causer becomes the ERG. With a ditransitive verb,*************** If the addition of this suffix violates (C)V(C)(C) phonotactics, then an epenthetical "i" is added either before or after.

E.g. 1 argument

Ert'et'isi tho

PRES-IPFV-run 2.SG-ABS

you are running

Transformation:

Ert'et'isik' sope thu

PRES-IPFV-run-CAUS 1.PL-ERG 2.SG-ACC

I made you run

E.g. 2 arguments

Thesek'ane se nurarumu

PRES-INCEP-see 1.SG-ERG light-PROX-ACC

I'm starting to see the light

Transformation:

Thesek'anek' se nurarumu tho

PRES-INCEP-see-CAUS 1.SG-ERG light-PROX-ACC 2.SG-DAT

I'm making you start to see the light

E.g. 3 arguments

One phrase that you often hear children say to their parents is "you're making me give everything to ****(brother/sibling/sister/whatever)******************************

Auxiliary Verbs/Other ConstructionsEdit

There are many auxiliary verbs in PT, and they before the subject like normal, but the main verb is then placed after the subject. Only one verb can be at the front of the sentence, so it is taken by the Aux. This allows the pronoun to merge onto the Aux for Taspen's person conjugation.

HabitualEdit

The Gnomic aspect is used to mark the habitual in the non-present tenses. See below for an example.

The habitual is marked by reduplicating the first obligatorily max CVC syllable, typically always with the past durative. Very rarely is it anything else (right?).

E.g.

K'awarewrewir sope turaj wakhotrumu sajkhuru
PAST-DUR-HAB.REDUP-climb.up 1.PL-ERG hand-INSTR wall-PROX-ACC dangerous-ACC
Used to climb we by hand.EMPHASIS this wall dangerous.
We used to climb this dangerous wall by hand!

K'amarewir sope turaj wakhotrumu sajkhuru
PAST-GNO-climb.up 1.PL-ERG hand-INSTR wall-PROX-ACC dangerous-ACC
Used to climb we by hand.EMPHASIS this wall dangerous.
We used to climb this dangerous wall by hand!

Existential Edit

The existential verb there is/are is a simple construction in PT. The verb is kis, which is the same verb as to have, but used intransitively.

E.g.

Ermekis tur ihe ituri
PRES-GNO-have hand.foot.ABS on ground-LOC
There is a hand on the ground.

SyntaxEdit

Word Order Edit

Word order is pretty relaxed because of the case system, but there is a general convention that is followed. The verb usually always comes first, except in antipassive clauses and fronting of a nonverb for emphasis. The ERG always precedes the ACC (usually immediately). PPs generally come after the ACC, but may go wherever they fit best. Usually the ERG and ACC are adjacent, so any other cases that may be present usually follow these, including the DAT. To avoid confusion with the ABS, the DAT always comes after the ACC.

Noun Phrase Edit

PT is a strongly head initial language, so it's no surprise that nouns always come first in their phrases. This means that adjectives, genitives, and relative clauses all follow the noun.

StressEdit

The stress of PT is a mostly fixed antepenultimate system with the stress on the 3rd to last syllable. The exception is when there is an ejective in the ultimate or penultimate position. These are heavy syllables and the stress appears on the rightmost syllable. So TL;DR, the rightmost ejective preceded syllable or the antepenultimate syllable will get the stress, whichever is closest to the end.

E.g. Nurak'áne = wake up = ejective triggered stress

Jósaphon = cool/cold = regular antepenultimate stress

Having heavy syllables be determined by the onset has been a mystery for some time. It is thought that the language used to have special codas, now disappeared, that triggered the weight. Something like pharyngeals or glottalized consonants. Another theory is that there were long vowels or diphthongs that shortened and monophthongized, leaving behind their heavy quality. There is no consensus. (but the daughter language stress regularized as one would expect. Right Bryce? Is it a good system?? hMM????????)

Stress is now being redone to make it more regular, naturalistic, and easier to evolve.

Stress in PT is weight-sensitive by three degrees: light monomoraic (V), heavy bimoraic (VC), and superheavy trimoraic (VCC). Iambic feet are formed left to right, and the right most iamb receives the primary stress. Light and heavy syllables cannot form feet by themselves, and so cannot receive primary stress if they are leftover outside of a foot. Superheavy syllables, however, can ONLY form its own foot and as such always has either secondary or primary stress, depending on its position.

(CVCC) - íwth "way"

(CVC.CVC) iw.thóp "ways"

(CV.CV).(VCC) - t'o.rì.ánkh "community.ABS"

(CV.CV).(VC.CV) - t'o.rì.an.khé "community-ERG"

(CV.CV).(VCC).CV - t'o.rì.ánkh.mo "without community"

(CVC.CVC) - pin.tán "live"

(CVC.CVC).CVC - pin.tán.mos "life"

(CVC.CV).(CV.CVC) - pin.tà.ni.més "one who lives"

(CVC.CV).(CV.CV).CVC - pin.tà.ni.mé.sop "ones who live"

(CVC.CV).(CV.CV).(CV.CVC) - pin.tà.ni.mè.so.phón "little ones who live"

(CVC.CV).(CV.CV).(CVC.CVC).CVC - pin.tà.ni.mè.so.phón.rum "these little ones who live"

(CVC.CV).(CV.CV).(CVC.CVC).(CVCC) - pin.tà.ni.mè.so.phòn.máhs "those little ones who live"

Complementizer Clauses Edit

Complementizer clauses are easy because they just use the CONJ "kho" meaning "that".

E.g. I said that I was hungry.

I dreamt that I flew in the sky.

Relative Clauses Edit

Relative clause are a bit more complicated than C clauses. The only thing that can be relativized is the absolutive case and PPs. This ABS must be lined up between the two clauses

Prepositional Phrases Edit

PPs are easy to relativize. The object of the P is replaced with a pronoun with the correct case, and is placed between the two sentences.

E.g. The day I met you was a good day.

Was day good on it met I you.

PAST-GNO-be day.summer-ABS good-ABS on 3.SG-GEN PAST-INCEP-know 1.SG-ERG 2.SG-ACC

Amir pharam k'oro ihe mum aŋsajaman se thu

Ergative Edit

To relativize the ergative argument, the clause must use the antipassive voice to turn ERG into ABS.

Accusative Edit

To relative the accusative argument, use the passive voice to turn ACC into ABS.

Other Cases Edit

To relativize other cases, the most common strategy is using a separate sentence.***

E.g. I cut the bread with a knife. It was sharp.

***Although, in the later years that this proto lang was likely spoken, the C kho became used to relativize other cases. This carried into the daughter languages as well (right Bryce?? RIGHT?????).

Conditionals Edit

there are 4 words for if.

Certain conditional; amso; If/when I get off work, I will be happy. I will be happy if/when I get off work

-This conditional has the meaning that the antecedent WILL occur (or expected to anyway) in the future.

-It is also used for deductions, if that's the river, we're almost home, to contrast with hypotheticals.

-The antecedent is in the indicative mood, but the consequent is in the COND.

Hypothetical conditional; suhpi; If it starts to rain, I will go inside. I will go inside if it starts to rain.

-This construction expresses uncertainty as to whether the antecedent will occur or not.

-The consequent will happen if the antecedent happens, but is not too strong.

-Both the antecedent and consequent are in the COND.

Universal conditional; het; If I drop a ball, it will fall. A ball will fall if I drop it.

-In this condition, the antecedent is uncertain and may or may not occur, and so is marked with the COND.

-The consequent, however, is a fact and always occurs, and such is most always marked with GNO aspect. If another aspect is needed, then it is put into the COND mood.

-This meaning can be expanded to less factual situations, adding a meaning like certainly/for sure.

Whether conditional; kur; If/whether he came home, I don't know. I don't know if/whether he came home.

-This form is different from the others, more like a complementizer. It comes after intransitives.

-The antecedent is in the conditional, and the consequent is indicative for this meaning. In transitive verbs, it conveys a more 'whether or not' tone.

http://www.guidetojapanese.org/learn/grammar/conditionals

Lexicon Edit

The Body Edit

The body is organized a little differently to the way English divides it. Legs are different from arms, but hands/feet and toes/fingers are the same.

Extended Swadesh List 207 words Edit

No. English Proto-Taspin
1 I So
2 you (singular) Tho
3 he Mo
4 we Sop
5 you (plural) Thop
6 they Mop
7 this -rum
8 that -itho/-mahs
9 here Iturrum
10 there Ituritho/Iturmahs
11 who Uth
12 what Newah
13 where Thuph
14 when Amso
15 how Iwthnewah
16 not -mo/-nu
17 all Ik'us
18 many
19 some
20 few
21 other
22 one Po
23 two Ri
24 three Okhu
25 four Ŋus
26 five K'i
26.5 six Rihontur
27 big Hut'
28 long
29 wide
30 thick
31 heavy
32 small Kap'i
33 short
34 narrow
35 thin
36 woman Ephiw
37 man (adult male) Ars
38 man (human being) K'at
39 child K'athon
40 wife
41 husband
42 mother
43 father
44 animal
45 fish
46 bird
47 dog
48 louse
49 snake
50 worm
51 tree Pik'
52 forest Pik'ankh
53 stick
54 fruit
55 seed
56 leaf Tark
57 root
58 bark (of a tree)
59 flower Khamema
60 grass
61 rope
62 skin
63 meat
64 blood
65 bone
66 fat (noun)
67 egg
68 horn
69 tail
70 feather
71 hair
72 head
73 ear Tas
74 eye
75 nose
76 mouth Pin
77 tooth
78 tongue (organ)
79 fingernail
80 foot
81 leg
82 knee
83 hand Tur
84 wing
85 belly
86 guts
87 neck
88 back
89 breast
90 heart
91 liver
92 to drink Phaja
93 to eat Khir
94 to bite
95 to suck
96 to spit
97 to vomit
98 to blow Huwis
99 to breathe
100 to laugh
101 to see K'ane
102 to hear Ŋiso
103 to know Jaman
104 to think Akhan
105 to smell
106 to fear
107 to sleep T'aŋan
108 to live Pintan
109 to die
110 to kill
111 to fight Hekhaj
112 to hunt
113 to hit
114 to cut Ŋopis
115 to split
116 to stab
117 to scratch
118 to dig
119 to swim Tanphir
120 to fly Winaj
121 to walk
122 to come Iturrummani
123 to lie (as in a bed) Senajoŋ
124 to sit Khopisoŋ
125 to stand Seniroŋ
126 to turn (intransitive)
127 to fall Phumir
128 to give P'an
129 to hold
130 to squeeze
131 to rub
132 to wash Jot'an
133 to wipe
134 to pull
135 to push
136 to throw
137 to tie
138 to sew
139 to count
140 to say Sanu
141 to sing Surmaj
142 to play Nomthir
143 to float
144 to flow
145 to freeze
146 to swell
147 sun Jeŋur
148 moon
149 star
150 water Ŋes
151 rain Wenismos
152 river
153 lake
154 sea
155 salt
156 stone
157 sand
158 dust
159 earth
160 cloud
161 fog
162 sky
163 wind Huh
164 snow
165 ice
166 smoke
167 fire
168 ash Hamk'
169 to burn
170 road
171 mountain Nirip
172 red
173 green
174 yellow
175 white
176 black
177 night
178 day Mora/Pharam
179 year
180 warm Rukhon
181 cold Josap
182 full
183 new
184 old
185 good K'orthi
186 bad Misik
187 rotten
188 dirty
189 straight
190 round
191 sharp (as a knife)
192 dull (as a knife)
193 smooth
194 wet
195 dry
196 correct P'owem
197 near
198 far
199 right
200 left
201 at locative
202 in Nas
203 with Ŋa (COM)
204 and Mejo
205 if
206 because
207 name

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