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Proto-Usheiran
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Type
Agglutinative
Alignment
Head direction
right
Tonal
No
Declensions
Yes
Conjugations
Yes
Genders
10
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect



General InformationEdit

Proto-Usheiran is the reconstructed most recent common ancestor of the Usheiran language family, the largest family of languages in the incredibly linguistically diverse Usheiran Islands on the planet Aetho.

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

alveolar palatal velar radical glottal
nasal *n
stop *t *d *k *g *q *ɢ
fricative *s *h1 *h2
approximant *l *j
flap *r
  • h1 and *h2 are radical or laryngeal sonorants of unknown value. In many words, it is uncertain which one is to be reconstructed, in which case the sound is written *h. The sounds can also be syllabic, in which case the sound is written *ə.

VowelsEdit

front back
high *i
low *a

PhonotacticsEdit

Syllables can be of the form:

  • (C)V
  • (C)VF, where F is one of: *n, *l, *j, *ɰ, *h1, or *h2
  • and Gə, where G is a stop, *s, *j, or *r

Verbs Edit

Negative verb: *dəja-lli "to not do" dhali, re jaa

Active infinitive: -lli, *kah1a-lli "to name" khali, re shaa

Passive infinitive: -qali, *kah1a-qali "to be named" kheqali, re shaxun

Active participle: -gəɰa, *kah1a-gəɰa "naming" khegho, shagua

Passive participle: -qanɤ, *kah1a-qanɤ "named" kheqa, shaxun

Passive: -qa, *kah1a-qa-nka "was named" kheqang, shaxunga

Present: -ɰɯ, *kah1a-ɰɯ "name" kho, shaa

Past: -nka, *kah1a-nka "did name" kheng, shanga

Future: -sɤ, *kah1a-sɤ "will name" khes, shazo

PronounsEdit

Full pronounsEdit

sg pl
1 ex nɤjda tɯnɤjda
in ɢasil
2 tahar tɯtahar
3 gilɯn tɯlɰɤ

Clitic pronounsEdit

sg pl
1 -nɤj -sənɤ
2 -h2ar -səh2an
3 -lɯn -səlɯj

Sound Changes Edit

To Ehigi Edit

C=ntdkgqɢshljɰrŋçʝɹχʁ, G=tdkgqɢsjr, S=tkqsçχ, Z=ndgɢljɰrŋʝɹʁ, A=ljɰɹ, Q=qɢ, N=nŋ, V=aiɯɤeɚ

  • a//G_hV
  • sh/ç/_V
  • jh/ʝ/_V
  • a/e/_, unless _A, _#, _V, or Q_
  • n[kgQ]/ŋ/_
  • a//N_#
  • ɤ//_#
  • ɤ//#_CV
  • n//_#
  • ɰɤ/ɯ/_
  • aɰɯ/ɤ/_
  • ɰa/ɤ/_
  • ɤj/e/_
  • ɤɰ/ɤ/_
  • A//C_
  • ɢ//_/V_V
  • ɢ/q/_
  • l/ɹ/_[C#]
  • C//ɹ_
  • Vɹ/ɚ/#_[C#]
  • Vɹ/ɚ/C_[C#]
  • s/z/V_[aiɯeɚ]
  • hS/χ/_
  • hZ/ʁ/_
  • h/ɤ/#_[C#]
  • h/ɤ/C_[C#]
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