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Proto-Zulian is the ancient ancestor of modern Zulian in the fantasy world of Segridia. It is the primary language of the Empire of Shaga-Zul. The empire once ruled nearly all of the East and held some of the eastern coasts of the West. Since this time, it has contracted back to only controlling a sizable portion of the East with no presence in the West anymore. However, the languages still remain, and have since developed into distinct languages.

Proto-Zulian
Zhun Mizuli
Type Fusional
Alignment Nominative-Accusative
Head direction Final
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders 4
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 0%
Statistics
Nouns 0%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 0%
Words of 1500
Creator lark774


Classification and DialectsEdit

PhonologyEdit

ConsonantsEdit

Bilabial Labio-dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Velar Uvular
Nasal m n
Plosive pʰ b tʰ d kʰ g
Fricative f v s z ʃ ʒ x
Affricate t͡s
Approximant ɺ
Trill r
Lateral app. l

VowelsEdit

There are no diphthongs.

Front Near-front Central Near-back Back
High i u
Near-high ʊ
High-mid e
Mid ə
Low-mid ɛ ɔ
Near-low
Low ä

PhonotacticsEdit

(C)CV(C)(C) Syllable structures. From most to least common CV, CVC, CVCC, CCVC, CCVCC

Writing SystemEdit

Latinized Orthography

Letter Aa Bb Dd Ee Ěě Ff Gg Ii Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo
Sound ä b d e ɛ f g i k l m n ɔ
Letter Pp Qq Rr R̃r̃ Ss Tt Uu Üü Ůů Vv Xx Zz
Sound p q r ɺ s t u ʊ ə v x z
Letters Sh Zh Ts
Sound ʃ ʒ t͡s

GrammarEdit

NounsEdit

Nouns decline by Case, Gender, and Number. Case and Gender follow the following chart, using a circumfix. (- for stem)

Masculine Feminine Neuter Animate Neuter Inanimate
Nomnative Mu-ku Mu-ka Mi-ti Mě-tsi
Accusitive Ku-zu Ku-za Gi-zi Gě-zi
Dative Su-nu Su-na Zi-ni Zě-ni
Genitive Xu-shu Xu-sha Qi-zhi Qě-zhi
Locative Fu-su Fu-sa Vi-zhe Vě-shi
Instrumental Tru-mu Tru-ma Tri-mi Trě-mi
Ablative Ju-tu Ju-ta Li-te Lě-ki
Sociative Gu-lu Gu-sla Shi-li Zhě-li

Nouns are marked as plural by adding 'ni', 'ki', 'ně', and 'no' to Masculine, Feminine, Neuter Animate, and Neuter Inanimate respectively.

The word cats in the nomnitive case is declined as such. It has the stem 'nant' and is Neuter Animate: Minantině. The t in the suffix half of the circumfix is deleted for visual clarity (rather than Minanttině)

Definite Article Edit

Article is the same for both singular and plural, but is based on noun declensions

Masculine Feminine Neuter Animate Neuter Inanimate
Nomnative Ku Ka Ti
Accusitive Zu Za Zi
Dative Nu Na Ni
Genitive Shu Sha Zhi Zhě
Locative Shuk Shak Zhig Zhěk
Instrumental Mun Man Mis Měs
Ablative Tu Ta Tis Těs
Sociative Li Le

There is no indefinite article, it is assumed without the definite article.

Pronouns Edit

First Person

Singular Plural (Incl.) Plural (Excl.)
Nomnative Nas Nasi Nasü
Accusitive Nis Nisi Nisü
Dative Něs Něsi Něsü
Genitive Nes Nesi Nesü
Locative Nek Neki Nekü
Instrumental Nem Nemi Nemü
Ablative Nep Nepi Nepü
Sociative Nef Nefi Nefü

Second Person

Singular Plural
Nomnative Das Dasü
Accusitive Dis Disü
Dative Děs Děsü
Genitive Des Desü
Locative Dek Dekü
Instrumental Dem Demü
Ablative Dep Nepü
Sociative Def Nefü

Third Person Singular

Masculine Feminine Neuter Animate Neuter Inanimate
Nomnative She Zhün Pa Pas
Accusitive Shi Zhüm Pe Pes
Dative Shě Zhüx Pi Pis
Genitive Shan Zhüsh Po Pos
Locative Shěk Zhük Pěs
Instrumental Shěs Zhüs Pu Pus
Ablative Shěz Zhüz Püs
Sociative Shěm Zhüg Posh Posha

Plural

Masculine Feminine Neuter Animate Neuter Inanimate
Nomnative Shela Zhüna Pazi Pash
Accusitive Shila Zhüma Pezi Pesh
Dative Shěla Zhüxa Pizi Pish
Genitive Shola Zhüsha Pozi Posh
Locative Shěka Zhüka Pězi Pěsh
Instrumental Shěsa Zhüsa Puzi Push
Ablative Shěza Zhüza Püzi Püsh
Sociative Shěma Zhüga Poshi Prosh

Relative pronouns are very similar to their regular pronoun counterparts, but with a consonant change. The first consonant becomes voiced if it is not already, and if it is already voiced it is followed by an r̃. If the consonant is nasal, the vowel ě is placed before the r̃. The first person nomnitive singular relative pronoun ('who' in English) is Něr̃as, by taking the Nas, adding an ěr̃ since it is a nasal onset. (The ěr̃ is also placed after the consonant 'zh').

An example of a relative pronoun which has a voiced stem which is not nasal is the second-person-singular-locative relative pronoun 'dek' (translated roughly as 'in you' in English), which would become dr̃ek.

An example of a relative pronoun which has a voiceless stem is the third-person-masculine-accusative-singular relative pronoun 'shi', which would become 'zhi'

VerbsEdit

Verbs conjugate in this pattern: Person-Stem-Tense

Moods (which are often conveyed in English with modal verbs) is only used for 3 special cirumstances: Condtional (I might, I may, I would*, I could*, etc.), Obligation (I should/I must/I have to etc.), and Ability (I could, I can) moods change the root (see principal parts)

Person is conjugated as a prefix in the following manner

Singular Plural
1st Bizha- Zhesh-/Shesh-**
2nd Tizha- Tif-
3rd Vizha- Vikas-

Tense and Aspect conjugate together to create the Tense suffix

Simple Imperfect
Distant Past -zhůna -shůne
Past -zhůti -shůte
Recent Past -sanla -sůne
Present -vě -vůne
Near Future -kan -kane
Future -kas -kase
Far Future -ko -kone

English examples of the Recent Past and Near Future tenses are "I just..." and "I was about to...", respectively. Distant Past is often used by the elderly to tell old stories or in religious context. Far future is used mostly for religious context (generally relating to a prophecized cataclysmic event) or for political goals; the assumed actions of the posterity of The Empire of Shaga-Zul was often referred to in the Far Future tense. Bold, but perhaps naive.

Keep in mind that these affixes do not always attach so regularly to the verbs they attach to and are often shortened for more common verbs. A wonderful example of this is the verb to be.

The verb 'to be' in the present and then recent past tenses. The root is suf. TO BE FIXED

Singular Plural
1st Bizhuvě Zhesufě / Shesufě
2nd Bizhutvě Tifufě
3rd Vizuvě Vikasufě

As you can see, the v or f is assimilated to its voiced/voiceless counterpart, as well as the prefex being chopped and assimilated as well.

Singular Plural
1st Bizhufsan Zhezufsan-/Shesufsan
2nd Tizhufsan Tifufsan
3rd Vizufsan Vikasufsan

​​​There is a similar pattern of assimilation and deletion of the la in sanla (a deletion which later occurs across most of the language branches over time).

*In some contexts

Moods Edit

Moods use a different root than the default indicative mood. Each verb has 4 stems which follow a somewhat regular pattern of change (although not always).   Here is an example using the verb 'to scare'; sěfe, in the first person singular (root in bold, full root underlined)

Indicative Conditional Potential Necessitative
Distant Past Bizhasěfezhůna Bizhasěfrazhuna Bizhasezhuna Bizhasizhuna
Past Bizhasěfezhůti Bizhasěfrazhuti Bizhasezhuti Bizhasizhuti
Recent Past Bizhasěfesanla Bizhasěfrasanla Bizhasesanla Bizhasishanla
Present Bizhasěfě BizhasěfraBizhasezoBizhasishak
Near Future Bizhasěfekan Bizhasěfrakan Bizhasezokan Bizhasishakan
Future Bizhasěfekas Bizhasěfrakas Bizhasezokas Bizhasishakas
Far Future Bizhasěfeko Bizhasěfrako Bizhasezoko Bizhasishako

You can see, especially in the Necessitative mood, how many different ways the stems can be chopped depending on the ending.

SyntaxEdit

Proto-Zulian predominantly uses an SOV word order but it may use OSV (often for dramatic effect). The verb must be the final part of any clause. All nouns are capitalized in the latinized orthography.

Example sentence: The cat was just about to hit the mouse with a bat but a dog barked and scared the cat away.

Ti Minanti zi Gidoqanzi Trěbaxasmi vizhalenosanla kavin Muprazku zi Ginantsi* xer̃on vizhakrestosanla vu sěfe**

Literally: The Cat [N] the mouse [A] bat [I] hit [3rd person near-past simple] but [clause break] dog [N] the cat [A]* away (prep) bark [3rd person NP simple] and (verb linking conjunction) scare [3rd person NP simple]**

*Any t followed by a z is contracted to a ts to form the sound t͡s (the same is true for t and s)

**In a list of verbs, only the first verb is conjugated if the verbs would be conjugated identically, so the rest are only stems

Lexicon Edit

Example textEdit

The First Page of the Prologue to The Fellowship of the Ring by J.R.R Tolkien

English translation
This book is largely concerned with Hobbits, and from its pages a reader may discover much of their character and a little of their history. Further information will also be found in the selection from the Red Book of Westmarch that has already been published, under the title of The Hobbit. That story was derived from the earlier chapters of the Red Book, composed by Bilbo himself, the first Hobbit to become famous in the world at large, and called by him There and Back Again, since they told of his journey into the East and his return: an adventure which later involved all the Hobbits in the great events of that Age that are here related. Many, however, may wish to know more about this remarkable people from the outset, while some may not possess the earlier book. For such readers a few notes on the more important points are here collected from Hobbit-lore, and the first adventure is briefly recalled. Hobbits are an unobtrusive but very ancient people, more numerous formerly than they are today; for they love peace and quiet and good tilled earth: a well-ordered and well-farmed countryside was their favourite haunt. They do not and did not understand or like machines more complicated than a forge -bellows, a water-mill, or a hand-loom, though they were skilful with tools. Even in ancient days they were, as a rule, shy of 'the Big Folk', as they call us, and now they avoid us with dismay and are becoming hard to find. They are quick of hearing and sharp-eyed, and though they are inclined to be fat and do not hurry unnecessarily, they are nonetheless nimble and deft in their movements. They possessed from the first the art of disappearing swiftly and silently, when large folk whom they do not wish to meet come blundering by; and this an they have developed until to Men it may seem magical. But Hobbits have never, in fact, studied magic of any kind, and their elusiveness is due solely to a professional skill that heredity and practice, and a close friendship with the earth, have rendered inimitable by bigger and clumsier races.
Gloss
this book(N) Hobbits(As (with)) largely concerned, and(Clausal) reader(N) their many character and(list) their little(few) history the pages(Ab) Discover(Pot-Fut)
Translation
Tsě Mutsokěka Hobbitsu debr̃axam vizhalůmazvě kori Mudisaka sila qetam Giroveltsi tů sila loqet Gězhůnokr̃azi pü Jutokitaki vizhabitügozkas. Qetals Kuripězhgoza mes Věbenkishi ta Red Book of Westmarch zhěr̃üm gezhap vizhanostar̃zhůti, The Hobbit vizhaskězdazhůti.
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