Purpose Edit

A proto-language that will be put through evolution to make more complex conlangs for my story.

Creative Constraints Edit

Aesthetics are for the weak. Leave poetry and idioms to the descendants.

Before fancy sacred bowls comes basic pottery. Before basic pottery you have clay. Before clay you have mud. Before mud you have dirt. This is the dirt. We'll get to sacred bowls eventually, but we're a long way off.

Avoid inflection at all costs. Create roots, and string roots to make more complex words. Create words using existing roots whenever possible.

Ignore naturalism, nobody alive is actually going to speak this. The people who used it are all long gone.

Create nouns, numerals, verbs, a few basic pronouns, and modify them with another noun or verb. If you want dedicated adjectives, adverbs, more pronouns, etc, then evolve them in the daughter langs.

Intended Use Edit

A proto lang to evolve into the elder tongues.

Phonology Edit

Attrans lack lips, so their language has no labials.

Inventory Edit

Consonants Edit

Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasals n ɲ ŋ
Stops t c k ʔ
Ejective Stops t' c' k'
Affricates ts
Fricatives s x h
Approximant ɹ j
Lateral Approximant l ʟ

Clicks Edit

Proto Attran has an extensive click inventory, with almost all consonant sounds having a click or click sequence equivalent. They occur only word initially, and only in names. In names derived directly from words, the click may be the only thing distinguishing them.

Consonant Click
n ᵑǃ
ɲ ᵑǂ
ŋ ᵑʞ
t ǃ
c ǂ
k ʞ
ts ǀ or ǃ
s ǀ
x ʞˣ
h ʞˀ
ɹ ǃ˞
j ǂʲ
l ǁ
ʟ ʞˡ

The dental click ǀ will appear as l' from here on. On my computer it looks too similar to l, and there is no ejective l in Proto-Attran, so it saves me a squint-induced headache.

A pulmonic shares its ejective equivalent, if it has one, with its click twin, if it has one.

Vowels Edit

Front Central Back
Close i
Close-mid o
Open ä

Syllable Structure Edit


C1:n, ᵑǃ, ɲ, ᵑǂ, ŋ, ᵑʞ, t, t', ǃ, c, c', ǂ, k, k', ʞ, ʔ, ts, s, l', x, ʞˣ, h, ʞˀ, ɹ, ǃ˞, j, ǂʲ, l, ǁ, ʟ, ʞˡ

no C2 if C1 is n, ᵑǃ, ɲ, ᵑǂ, ŋ, ᵑʞ, ʔ, ɹ, ǃ˞, j, ǂʲ, l, ǁ, ʟ, ʞˡ

C2: n, ɲ, ŋ, ɹ, j, l, ʟ

V1: i, iː,o, oː, ä, äː

no V2 if V1 is  iː, oː, äː

V2: i, o, ä

Sequences of the same vowel become one long vowel; ii becomes iː, etc.

Sequences of t and s become ts

C3: n, ɲ, ŋ, ɹ, l, ʟ

VʔV only

Sequences Edit

Consonant clusters Edit

t t' ǃ c c' ǂ k k' ʞ ts s l' x ʞˣ h ʞˀ
n tn t'n ǃn cn c'n ǂn kn k'n ʞn tsn sn ǀ'n xn ʞˣn hn ʞˀ
ɲ t'ɲ ǃɲ c'ɲ ǂɲ k'ɲ ʞɲ tsɲ ǀ'ɲ ʞˣɲ ʞˀɲ
ŋ t'ŋ ǃŋ c'ŋ ǂŋ k'ŋ ʞŋ tsŋ ǀ'ŋ ʞˣŋ ʞˀŋ
ɹ t'ɹ ǃɹ c'ɹ ǂɹ k'ɹ ʞɹ tsɹ ǀ'ɹ ʞˣɹ ʞˀɹ
j tj t'j ǃj cj c'j ǂj kj k'j ʞj tsj sj ǀ'j xj ʞˣj hj ʞˀj
l tl t'l ǃl cl c'l ǂl kl k'l ʞl tsl sl ǀ'l xl ʞˣl hl ʞˀl
ʟ t'ʟ ǃʟ c'ʟ ǂʟ k'ʟ ʞʟ tsʟ ǀ'ʟ ʞˣʟ ʞˀʟ


this is gonna get pruned *big time* later on

Diphthongs Edit

i o ä
i oi äi
o io äo
ä äː

this, however, is ok

Stress Edit

Penultimate, unless the last syllable has a long vowel or a diphthong, in which case it's ultimate.

Syntax Edit

SOV word order






Root List Edit

Nouns Edit

Basic Roots Edit

Proto-Attran English
tsɹoil ball, rounded object, non-egg orb

Common Dual Compounds Edit

First Root Second Root Compound Form English

Common Trial Compounds Edit

First Root Second Root Third Root Compound Form English

Pronouns Edit

Proto-Attran English

Verbs Edit

Basic Roots Edit

Proto-Attran English

Common Dual Compounds Edit

First Root Second Root Compound Form English

Common Trial Compounds Edit

First Root Second Root Third Root Compound Form English

Numerals Edit

the Attrans use heximal, duodecimal, and hexadecimal systems. Of these, the duodecimal is the most widely used. Heximal is used exclusively in religious ceremonies, and hexadecimal is mostly used in 'step counting' for dances (they have 8 walking legs), with some regular counting usage in the southeastern part of the archipelago, especially the smaller islands and atolls. Duodecimal is the easiest for them to count on their fingers, since they have three (if you count the thumb) on all four hands.

Heximal Edit

Duodecimal Edit

Hexadecimal Edit

Romanization Edit

Protto-Attran has no written form, so it's transcribed phonetically.

IPA Letter(s)

The dental click ǀ is written as l'. There is no ejective lateral of any kind in Proto Attran, ever.

Other clicks are written as their pulmonic equivalent, followed by #.

Ejectives are written as their pulmonic equivalent, followed by '.

Examples Edit

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