Llengua Prôvitano (East), Llengua Provitano (West)
|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
Provitan is a Western Romance Language that is spoken around Catalonia in Spain and in Western France. The Provitano spoken in Catalonia is the Western Variant (Llengua Provitana del hueste)) and the Provitano spoken in France is Eastern Variant (Llengua Prôvitana del Este). The Standard (Llengua Provitana Oficiala) is mainly based on the Western Variant. This usually comes in to play with some forms of words, word final vowels, and some pronunciation variations.
Note that while is says verbs conjugate for all 6 parts, they use synthetic forms for all people, moods, and numbers and most tenses but analitic forms for voice, some aspects and some tenses.
Due to code restrictions, rather than using pointy brackets to represent orthography as per IPA standards, I will be using dashes on either side.
Provitan is spoken in Catalonia and France. The main varieties are Western (Catalan) Provitan and Easter (French) Provitan. The differences between these two regions are usually minor but do affect the following areas (note that Standard Provitan is defined as the Western variant except where noted):
- clusters originating as Latin -ct- reduce to -ch- in the West and to -it- in the East
- [ʁ] is a nearly universal allophone of /r/ everywhere
- While diphthongization of long vowels is more common than simply longer vowels, longer vowels do exist in the East while being totally absent in the West (Standard Provitan dictates lengthier vowels, not diphthongs, though diphthongs are widely accepted)
- Geminate consonants -tl- -tll- -tm- -tn- are usually realized as short in the East.
- 'ceu' is a recognized variant of 'cel' in the East and 'am' as a variant of 'con'
- Many forms of the verb 'fer' are different (see the page on irregular verbs)
- In the East, long /aː/ is realized as the more velar /ɑː/.
- In the East final /l/ maybe vocalized into /w/
- In the North of the Western variant, older speakers may be encountered that switch final /a/ and /aː/ with /ɔ/ and /ɔː/ respectively. (This is very rare now-a-days and completely non-standard).
- Provitano is spelt without a long -o- in the West and with it in the East.
- Some words vary slightly region to region but they are very rare. For example in the West 'die' for 'day' is more common despite 'jorno' being standard.
- Click this link for more information
-c- represents /k/ before consonants and letters -a o u- (and variants such as â, ò etc.) and /s/ before -e i- (and variants such as ê, í etc.). Furthermore, -ç- is used before -a o u- for /s/ where necessary such as in feliç, feliços. always represents /s/.
The sound /ʃ/ is represented by the cluster -iz- at the end of a word and intervocalically. Note that the -i- part of the digraph -iz- does not form a yod-diphthong with the preceding vowel unless it is written -ïz- then the -i- forms a diphthong with the previous vowel.
The sound /dʒ/ is represented by -tg- before <e i> and variants and -tj- before all else. Also it can be represented by <itg> finally
The sound /ʒ/ is represented by -g- before <e i> and variants and -j- before all else. Also it can be represented by <ig> finally
†[ʁ] is a dialectual variant of /r/ that occurs in Eastern Provitano.
1 i (i)
4 u (u)
2 e (e)
3 o (o)
2 ɛ (è)‡
|3 ɔ (ò)‡|
2 a (a)
‡ Occur only in stressed syllables and must be marked regardless of whether they occur in a normally stressed syllable or an irregularly stressed syllable.
In Provitan, vowels may reduce in common speech. This varies East to West however,
Refer to the vowel charts below to determine reductions. You can tell because the number of the vowel in the above table corresponds to a number of a vowel quality in the tables below so for example all vowels labeled 2 in the above table are reduced to the one vowel labeled 2 below.
Vowel reductions occur in short vowels in unstressed syllables.
3 & 4 u~ʊ~o
4 u (u)
|Mid||3 œ~o||2 ə|
Note: that accent marks are used to mark irregular stress (See below for stress rules) as follows:
Unlike most Romance languages, Provitan contrasts short vowels with long vowels. Long vowels are sometimes realized as diphthongs, occur in any position regardless of stress, are never reduced, cannot form diphthongs with other vowels, are marked with a circumflex, and (like è and ò) must be marked in any position in a word
‡‡/ɑː/ occurs in place of /a:/ in the East as an allophone.
/oː/ does not occur because due to a vowel shift, /oː/ shifted to /uː/ likewise /uː/ is not represented by -û- becuase the shift fronted that to /yː/.
Long vowels can occur in and out of stress syllables but may be allophonically reduced outside of stress.
Long vowels are represented with a circumflex and are usually realized as diphthongs. As follows:
â --aː ~ aɒ̯
ê -- eː ~ eɪ̯ ~ aɛ̯
î -- iː ~ iɪ̯
ô -- uː ~ uʌ̯
û -- yː ~ yʏ̯
The alphabet does not include accents, circumflexes, or cedilla. It also does not include digraphs. In proper collating order the alphabet is:
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z (with -k-, -w- and -y- used only in borrowed words like kilowatt or Nova York and -y- in the digraph -ny-).
There is also -à é è í ó ò ú- which all mark stress on syllables in words where stress does not follow proper rules.
Also long vowels are written -â ê î ô û-.
Furthermore there are the digraphs: ch, gu, ll, ny, tg, tj, tl, tll, tm, tn, qu, ig, itg iz, ss which are explained below section.
Soft and Hard -c- and -g-
In Provitan -c- is hard and makes the /k/ sound before any consonant (except h) and the vowels [a à â o ó ò ô u ù û ü]. It is soft and makes the /s/ sound before [e é è ê i í î ï]. Furthermore, -ç- is soft everywhere that -c- isn't and can only be used in such positions. The -qu- digraph represents /k/ everywhere that -c- is normally soft and represents /kw/ everywhere that -c- is normally hard. To represent /kw/ before a normally soft -c- position use -qü-
In the forming of noun plurals and gender changes, the final soft or hard -c- (whichever is present in the masculine singular) is preserved. For example
- científic (masculine singular 'scientist') ➜ científiques (feminine plural 'scientists')
- aqua (feminine singular 'water) ➜ aqües (feminine plural 'waters')
In Provitan -g- is hard and makes the /g/ sound before any consonant and the vowels [a à â o ó ò ô u ù û ü]. It is soft and makes the /ʒ/ sound before [e é è ê i í î ï]. Furthermore, -j- is soft everywhere that -g- isn't and can only be used in such positions. The -gu- digraph represents /g/ everywhere that -g- is normally soft and represents /gw/ everywhere that -g- is normally hard. To represent /gw/ before a normally soft -g- position use -gü-
In the forming of noun plurals and gender changes, the final soft or hard -g- (whichever is present in the masculine singular) is preserved. For example
- llengua (feminine singular 'language') ➜ llengües (feminine plural 'languages')
When it comes to verbs, forms of the same verb usually preserve the sound present in the infinitive.
- pllegar (arrive), jo pllego (I arrive), jo pllegue (may I arrived), tu pllegues (may you arrive), etc.
- chercar (search), jo cherco (i search), jo cherque (may I search), tu cherques (may you search) etc.
- seguir (follow), jo sego (I follow), tu segues (you follow), etc.
Diphthongs are fairly straightforward when it comes to vowels:
With in a word vowels -a e è o ò- can combine with -i- to form the respective falling diphthongs that is /aj ej ɛj oj ɔj/. The diphthong /uj/ does not exist and -ui- are always realized as /wi/
In any position -a e è o ò- may combine with -u- to form the respective diphthongs, that is /aw ew ɛw ow ɔw/
Furthermore, when -i- appears before a short vowel it becomes a rising diphthong /j/ + SHORT VOWEL. This can occur with any short vowel. Same goes for -u- to form the diphtong /w/ + SHORT VOWEL.
When -iu- occurs word finally /iw/ takes precedent over /ju/
Combinations such as -ae- or -oa- are not technically diphthongs and in careful speech are two seperate vowels, though in fast speech -e- acts as -i- and -o- acts as -u- to form diphthongs.
Tremas ( ¨ ) can be used on letters to separate diphthongs as in països /paˈis.os/. An accent mark on the semivocalic part of a diphthong can also indicate stress as well as force a hiatus such as in país /paˈis/. See the section on stress to learn more about when to use a diaeresis and when to use a written accent
In Latin, the initial clusters: -cl- -pl- -fl- -l- -bl- often palatalized in the Romance language. In Provitan, -cl- -pl- and -l- palatalize.
- -cl- becomes -ch- pronounced /tʃ/. (Example: clamare ➜ chamar; Cf. Spanish llamar & Portuguese chamar).
- -pl- becomes -pll- which is analyzed as /pʎ/ but realized as /ʎ/ in the West and /pj/ in the East. (Example: plenus ➜ pllejo; Cf. Spanish lleno & Portuguese cheio).
- -l- becomes -ll- pronounced /ʎ/. (Example: lavar ➜ llavar; Cf. Catalan llavar).
These are not universal in the Romance languages. For example -pl- -cl- mutations are unheard of in Catalan and -l- mutations are less common in Spanish while being heavily present in Catalan. Furthermore, -bl- mutations occur in Italian but not in Spanish (hence Italian bianco but Spanish blanco).
These mutations do not occur in borrowed words which often are taken directly from Latin and have slightly different meanings. In Spanish, for example, there is lleno "full" and pleno "broad" which both come from Latin plenus except that lleno evolved and pleno was borrowed.
Furthermore, in many cases, -ct- around vowels mutates as well. In Italian, this is seen as -tt- such as in otto, dottore, Vittoria, aspettare. In Spanish, this is less common but can be seen in ocho, and to a lesser extent in fruto. In French and Catalan there is huit and fruit.
In Provitan, this mutation occurs differently in the East and West.
act ➜ ach
ect ➜ ech (as in aspectare ➜ aspechar)
ict ➜ ich
oct ➜ och (as in octo ➜ ocho)
uct ➜ uch (as in fructus ➜ frucho)
act ➜ ait
ect ➜ eit (as in aspectare ➜ aspeitar)
ict ➜ eit
oct ➜ oit (as in octo ➜ oito)
uct ➜ oit (as in fructus ➜ froito)
Provitan has numerous digraphs that have special sounds
-ch- whcih makes the /tʃ/ sound.
-tg/tj- which makes the /dʒ/ sound.
-ny- which makes a /ɲ/ sound.
-ll- which makes a /ʎ/ sound.
-ss- which makes the /s/ sound in between vowels
-gu- which makes /gw/ normally but /g/ before -e i y- and variants
-qu- which makes /kw/ normally but /k/ before -e i y- and variants
-qü- which makes /kw/ before -e i y- and variants
-gü- which makes /gw/ before -e i y- and variants
-tl- which makes /lː/
-tll- which makes /ʎː/
-tn- which makes /nː/
-tm- which makes /mː/ (as in setmana /semːana/ 'week')
-z- only after -i- and before another vowel or word final /ʃ/ (as in peiz /peʃ/ 'fish' or dormizer /dormiˈʃer/ 'fall asleep')
-g- only after -i- word final /ʒ/ (as in manteig /manteʒ/ 'butter')
-tg- only after -i- word final /dʒ/ (as in maitg /madʒ/ 'May')
Sometimes, at the end of words, consonant clusters are reduced in common speech.
Words like -temp- are analyzed as /temp/ but realized as [tem].
There is also -corp- which is analyzed as /corp/ but realized as [cor].
This kind of thing happens with most complex clusters however they are reduced when suffixes are added so that [cor] ➜ [cor'po.res]
Stress is very predictable in Provitan.
Simply put if a word endings in any letter at all, except -r, -m, -t, -l, -z (but not -iz), or a diphthong then the stress is on the second to last vowel.
- amo - 'love'
- ragazo - 'boy'
- jusque - 'until'
- corpores - 'bodies'
- vellos - 'old.PLURAL'
- ollos - 'eyes'
- esperança - 'hope'
- calci - 'calcium'
- sodi - 'sodium'
- sego - 'I follow'
- pots - 'you are able'
- aman - 'they love'
- acostas - 'you put to bed'
If the word endings in -r, -m, -t, -l, -z (but not -iz), or a diphthong then stress is on the final vocalic sound not on the final vowel (stress occurs on the last vowel sound which means the diphthong is stressed not the last vowel of a diphthong; when a word ending in a consonant this final vocalic sound works out to be the final vowel anyway)
There is one exception to this rule: when a word endings in any consonant+s at the end, then the word is stressed on the final vowel no matter what.
- adult - 'adult'
- doitor - 'doctor'
- doitors - 'doctors'
- animal - 'animal'
- satans - 'demons'
- animals - 'animals'
- indicatiu - 'indicative' (Remember stress is on the final vowel sound; since this ends in a diphthong the final vowel sound is the -i- and the -u- is made a semivowel which is equivalent to consonants)
- actiu - 'active'
- amar - 'to love'
- amait - 'you (all) love'
- volêm - 'we want'
- conexions - 'connections'
- amai - 'I loved'
- traxei - 'I carried'
If the stress pattern of a word does not follow this rule it will be marked by the appropriate stress mark
- científic - 'scientist'
- voló - 'He wanted'
- potència - 'power'
- conciència - 'conscience'
- satàn - 'satan'
- sódio (alternate form of sodi) - 'sodium'
- càlcio (alternate form of calci) - 'calcium'
Remember that when there is a diphthong it is analyzed as such and stress is treated as if the diphthong is one vowel. If a diaeresis appears above the off-glide of the diphthong then that vowel is now a separate syllable and stress shifts accordingly. This allows words like països (countries) to be stressed on the 'i'. When a hiatus is needed, and stress must be moved to that new syllable an acute/grave accent is used such as in país (country) which is also stressed on the 'i'. Hiatus can be forced in any syllable with a diaeresis but stress is followed normally with the rules for accute/grave accents.
Please note that epicene nouns and adjectives are often referred to as "common" nouns or adjectives because one form is common to both genders.
Nouns, like most Romance Languages, have no case but do have gender and can be singular or plural. Nouns may be either masculine or feminine and there is a small class of nouns which are irregular that are occasionally called neuter but are technically masculine.
Nouns usually pluralize with -s, -es, or -os. There are some exceptions however ones that end in digraphs, have irregular stress or hiatus and nouns descending from neuter 3rd declension Latin nouns.
Generally, nouns endings in -a pluralize as -es. Nouns ending in other vowels take a +s. Nouns ending in consonants add +s for most consonants and +os if the noun is masculine and ends in -ll, -s, -z, -iz, -ch, -j, -ig, -itg, -ny, -ç, and add an +es if it is feminine and has those endings. Some nouns require changes in positioning of accent marks or diaereses depending on the way the plural is formed and some require minor variations in letters. See below.
estudi "study" -- estudis "studies"
amant "lover" -- amants "lovers"
ragazo "child" -- ragazos "children"
pae "father" -- paes "fathers/parents"
oll "eye" -- ollos "eyes"
idea "idea" -- idees "ideas"
donya "lady" -- donyes "ladies"
animal "animal" -- animals "animals"
muller "wife" -- mullers "wives"
adult "adult" -- adults "adults"
Variant Plurals are those that simply alternate an accent mark or change one out for a diaeresis. Sometimes they have to change a -c- to a -qu- or a -gu- to a -gü- or the like. They are the least irregular plural
país "country" -- països "countries"
Note that an accent on an off glide of a would be syllable forces a hiatus. However an accent mark is only used to mark irregular stress so, if the stress would normally fall on that syllable (i.e. that vowel is the second to last vowel of a word) then simply adding a diaeresis will indicate a hiatus thus making that vowel the penultimate vowel of the word and no longer requiring an accent mark.
llengua "tongue" -- llengües "tongues"
científic "scientist" -masculine-- científics "scientists" -masculine
científica "scientist" -feminine-- científiques "scientists" -feminine
Note that /k/ /g/ /kw/ /gw/ are always preserved between singular and plural forms of nouns and orthography must adjust to account for that as shown above.
Alternative plurals are ones that change slightly in the plural. They are more common than totally irregulars but not too common. They mainly include plural nouns ending in -ig- or -itg-
manteig "butter" - manteges "butters"
hom "man" -- homines "men"
nom "name" -- nomines "names"
temp "time" -- tempores "times"
corp "body" -- corpores "bodies"
òp "work" -- opores "works"
These are the only irregular plurals in Provitan. Every other noun will pluralize with -s, -os, or -es, although some ending in -c may have to change to -qu- and ones ending in -gu- may need to change to -gü- etc.
Nouns also change for feminine and masculine gender.
Some are specialized like pae/mae or muller/marito but most can be derived.
When a noun is masculine that ends in a consonant or -i-, it becomes feminine by adding +a, and it when it ends in vowel + u it is made feminine by changing the -u- to -v- and adding +a; when it ends in -o it changes -o to -a; it is usually epicene when it ends in -e
adult m. -- adulta f. (singular) 'adult'
adults m. -- adultes f. (plural) 'adults'
neveu m. -- neveva f. (singular) 'nephew/niece'
neveus m. -- neveves f. (plural) 'nephews/nieces'
When a noun ends in an -o- the -o- changes to -a.
ragazo m. -- ragaza f. (singular)
ragazos m. -- ragazes f. (plural)
Nouns ending in -e- do not change and can be either masculine or feminine.
As you may or may not be aware: many Latin suffixes descend quite regularly into the Romance language. These are important noun-creating suffixes that are found throughout Provitan.
-ción (plural: -cions) (borrowed from Latin -tionem Cf. Spanish -ción; Catalan -ció; English -tion)
-çón (plural: -çons) (inherited from Latin -tionem Cf. Spanish -zón; Catalan -çó, Portuguese -ção)
-ità (plural: -ités) (inherited form Latin -itatem Cf. Italian -ità; Catalan -itat)
-ia (plural: -ies) (borrowed from Latin -ia Cf. Italian -ia; Spanish -ia) (usually following -c-)
-a (plural: -es) (inherited from Latin -ia Cf. Italian -a; Spanish -a) (usually following -ç-)
-ment (plural: -ments) inherited from Latin -mentum Cf. Italian -mento; Spanish -miento)
Some Examples include: râçón 'reason', transportación 'transportation', cità 'city', esperança 'hope', velocità 'speed', cambiament 'change'
Articles, like other Romance languages, come in singular, plural, masculine, feminine, definite, and indefinite. Articles may be used before nouns when possessive, or any, adjectives follow, but they cannot be used before possessive determiners but can be used before adjectives.
|Feminine||la (l' before vowels and h)||les|
|Feminine||una (un' before vowels and h)||unes|
Note that Masculine singular definite articles only combine with the following prepositions:
- en el -> nel
- de el -> del
- a el -> al
- per el -> pel
There are many pronouns in Provitan. Similar to English they come in nominative, accusative, dative, emphatic, and possessive. You can click below to go to the page on Pronouns
Much like other Romance Languages, Provitan has complex verb conjugations. There are 4 conjugations the 3rd of which breaks up into 3 sub-conjugations. Verbs conjugate for present, preterite, future, conditional, and imperfect in the indicative and some in the subjunctive. There is also an imperative and analytic tenses perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect.
Verbs, being lengthy, are divided into pages. Click below to go to those pages.
Adjectives are very similar to nouns. They inflect for gender (usually) and number. They -- like nouns -- do not inflect for case.
There are a few main classes of adjectives (much like nouns):
Vowel -o and -a Ending
-o ending masculines, which take plural masculine in -os, feminine singular in -a and feminine plural in -es such as:
- pllejo, pllejos, plleja, pllejes - full
Vowel -e ending
These adjectives are epicene end in -e in masculine and feminine forms and in -es in masculine and feminine plural forms.
Vowel -i ending
These adjectives end in -i in masculine singular and -is in masucline plural. They end in -ia in feminine singular and -ies in feminine plural
These adjectives can sometimes be epicene or sometimes have forms for both genders. If they are not epicene and end in a consonant in masculine singular and add and +s in the masculine plural (unless they end in -ll, -s, -z, -iz, -ch, -j, -ig, -itg, -ny, -ç in which case they take +os) and they add an +a for the feminine singular and add an +es for the feminine plural. (This class includes pass participles of most verbs)
- vell, vellos, vella, velles - old
- âlt, âlts, âlta, âltes - tall
- amat, amats, amata, amates - loved
If they are epicene which usually but not always is indicated because they end in -l or -r, then they have only one form for both genders (this includes all present participles of verbs
- singular, singulars - singular
- solar, solars - solar
- facil, facils - easy
- amant, amants - lover
Note that when there is a mixed gender group, or the gender is undetermined, you should use masculine.
Prepositions & Function Words
There are many prepositions in Provitan that I will be explaining in greater detail in the coming days. For now we will look at a list with English approximations.
- per - 'for' / 'through' / 'by'
- a - 'at' / 'to'
- con (am) - 'with'
- en - 'in'
- matéiz - 'same' or intensifier
- Example: tu matéiz irás a la casa. = You yourself will go to the house
- Example la matéiza cosa - same thing
- Also used in certain idioms:
- òra matéiz = right now
- pròpio - 'own'
- Example: Maltratô per seva pròpia fîlla. = Mistreated by his own daughter
- e (et before vowels) - 'and' / 'both'
- ma (mas before vowels) - 'but'
- maiz - 'more'
- mai/nunque - 'never'
- o (ot before vowels) - 'or'
- nessòn/s/a/es - 'none', 'any'
- nènt - none, nothing
- nessuóm - no one
- qualque / alssòn - some
- qualque cosa / alssona cosa - something
- rare algo - something
- qualcóm / alssuóm - someone
- res - thing, anything, something
- sen - 'without'
- per el metjá de - 'through the power/intervention of'
- a traves de - 'through'
- denovo - 'again'
- sota - 'beneath' 'under'
- avânt - 'before'
- depuiz - 'after' / 'since'
- jusque - 'until'
- desde - 'since'
- de baiza de - 'below'
- sur - 'on' / 'atop'
- en frênt de - 'in front of'
- al dêstro de - 'to the right of'
- al sinstre de - 'to the left of'
- en - 'in'
For More Vocabulary Click Here
|37||man (adult male)||adult|
|38||man (human being)||human|
208. cherry | cheréiz
Days of the Week & Months of the Year
Days of the Week (Jornos de la Setmana)
- Monday - dillûns (dll.)
- Tuesday - dimarts (dm.)
- Wednesday - dimèc (dc.)
- Thursday - dijovs (dj.)
- Friday - divens (dv.)
- Saturday - dissávat (ds.)
- Sunday - duminge (dg.)
Months of the Year (Mêsos del Anyo)
- January - jenèi / jenèr (jen.)
- February - febrèi / febrèr (feb.)
- March - març (mar.)
- April - abril (abr.)
- May - maitg (mag.)
- June - jûnyo (jûn.)
- July - jûllo (jûl.)
- August - agòst (agt.)
- September - sechembre / seitembre (sec./set.)
- October - ochubre / oitubre (och./oit.)
- Novembre - novembre (nov.)
- December - decembre (dec.)
1st Article of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Primêr Article de la Declaración Universal de los Dêstros Humans
Tôdos los essers humans són naizuts libres et iquals en dignità e dêstros e són dotat con râçón e conciència e deven comportarse a unos a los altros nel espírit de la fraternità.
Our Father (Pae Nostro)
Pae nostro qui estés en los cels
Santífic sî ton nom
Venga a nós ton rein.
Sî facha ta volontà sur la terra aizí é en los cels
Danoi, hôitg, nostre pan de câdo jorno
E perdónanoi nostres pecats
Aizí nos perdonâm llos que noi ofenden
E no noi induças a la tentación
Ma libéranoi del mal.
1 - La Creación
1. Nel pricípio, Dio creó los cels e la terra.
2. E la terra era sin forma e vagua e les tenêbres eran sur la faça de la terra et el espírit de Dio veniva et iva sur les aqües de la terra.
3. e dizó Dio, «sî facha luiz» e la luiz era facha.
4. Dio consideró la luiz sî bona e la separó de les tenêbres.
5. Ell chamó la luiz, «el jorno» e les tenêbres «la noche» et aizí veniva la noche et entón el jorno pllegó e questo el primero jorno.
Numbers 1 - 100
- uno - 1
- doiz - 2
- treiz - 3
- catre - 4
- cenc - 5
- seiz - 6
- seche/seite - 7
- ocho/oito - 8
- nove - 9
- dètz - 10
- ontze - 11
- dotze - 12
- tretze - 13
- catortze - 14
- quintze - 15
- seitze - 16
- detset - 17
- detzocho/detzoito - 18
- desnove - 19
- vênt - 20
- ventuno - 21
- vent-doiz - 22
- vent-treiz - 23
- vent-catre - 24
- vent-cenc - 25
- vent-seiz - 26
- vent-seche / vent-seite - 27
- vent-ocho / vent-oito - 28
- vent-nove - 29
- trênt - 30
- trentuno, trent-doiz, ...
- carênt - 40
- cinqüênt - 50
- sessênt - 60
- sechênt / seitênt - 70
- ochênt / oitênt - 80
- novênt - 90
- cent - 100