Ragusian
Lingua ragusina
Type Italo-Dalmatian Romance
Alignment Nominative-accusative
Head direction Final
Tonal No
Declensions Yes
Conjugations Yes
Genders Two
Nouns decline according to...
Case Number
Definiteness Gender
Verbs conjugate according to...
Voice Mood
Person Number
Tense Aspect
Meta-information
Progress 0%
Statistics
Nouns 0%
Verbs 0%
Adjectives 0%
Syntax 0%
Words of 1500
Creator exospheric-pressure

Ragusian (ragusina [ragu'zina] or lingua ragusina [ˈliŋɡwa ragu'zina]) is a Italo-Dalmatian Romance language of the Indo-European language family. It is an official language in Ragusa and Croatia. It has an official minority status in Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Italy, and Albania. Ragusian is also spoken by large expatriate communities in the Americas and Australia. Many speakers of Ragusian are native bilinguals of both Ragusian and their local regional languages.

Classification and Dialects[edit | edit source]


Phonology[edit | edit source]

Consonants[edit | edit source]

Bilabial Labio-dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Velar
Nasal m n (ŋ)1
Plosive p b t d k g
Fricative f v s z ʃ ʒ (ç)1 x
Approximant ɫ j ʎ
Trill r

1 Allophonic sound

Vowels[edit | edit source]

Front Central Back
High i u
Near-high
High-mid e o
Mid (ə)1
Low-mid ɛ ɔ
Near-low
Low ä

1 Allophonic sound

Writing System[edit | edit source]

Letter IPA Diacritics
A /a/ â, à
B /b/
C /c/, /ʃ/ (before i, e)
Ç /ʃ/
D /d/
E /e/, /ɛ/ ê, è, ë
F /f/
G /g/, /ʒ/ (before i, e)
H /∅/, /ʔ/ (intervocalic)
I /i/ î, ì, ï
J /ʒ/
L /ɫ/
LL /ʎ/
M /m/
N /n/
O /o/, /ɔ/ ô, ò
P /p/
Q /kw/, /k/
R /r/
S /s/
T /t/
U /u/ û, ù
V /v/
Z /z/

Grammar[edit | edit source]

Articles[edit | edit source]

masculine feminine
definite indefinite definite indefinite
sg il un la na
pl i1 le ne

1 j' when the following noun begins with a vowel (e.g., j'invern d'Itaglia "Italian winters")

Nouns[edit | edit source]

C e o a
singular C Ce Co a
plural C e
C e o a
singular nazion cane Co a
plural nazion can e e

Adjectives[edit | edit source]

o-type masculine feminine
sg o a
pl - e
e-type masculine feminine
sg e e
pl - -
o-type masculine feminine e-type masculine feminine
sg intimo intima sg verde
pl intim intime pl verz


Verbs[edit | edit source]

essè "to be"
present participle sente past participle parlato
person singular plural
first second third first second third
indicative gio tu il / la noi voi i / le
present stressed sono es e semo sete sont
clitic son s'mo s'te
imperfect stressed gio'ra t'era era eram ereste erant
clitic era
preterite "to have" + past participle
future giua + present indicative
conditional gio tu il / la noi voi i / le
present sem si si sim siz sent
past vos vosse vosse vossem voste vossent
subjunctive cagio catu cal / cala canoi cavoi cai / cale
present sem si si simo siz sent
perfect forem fores foret foremo forez forent
imperative - tu - - voi -
positive - es - - sete -
negative - non essè - - non essè -
parlà "to speak"
present participle parlante past participle parlato
person singular plural
first second third first second third
indicative gio tu il / la noi voi i / le
present parlo parle parla parlam parlez parlant
imperfect parlavo parlas parlava parlamo parlastez parlont
preterite "to have" + past participle
future giua + present indicative
conditional gio tu il / la noi voi i / le
present parlem parle parle parliam parlemen parlento
past parlà parlà parlariat parlariam parlariaz parlarant
subjunctive cagio catu cal / cala canoi cavoi cai / cale
present parlè parlè parleto parlemo parlese parlent
perfect parlasse parlassa parlasse parlassam parlassaz parlassant
imperative - tu - - voi -
positive - parla - - parlate -
negative - non parlà - - non parlà -
andè "to go"
present participle parlante past participle parlato
person singular plural
first second third first second third
indicative gio tu il / la noi voi i / le
present vado, va'o vade va andem andez vent
imperfect andevo andes andeva andemo andestez andent
preterite "to have" + past participle of andè stem
future giua + vado, va'o giua + gi giua + gi giua + gim giua + giz giua + giont
conditional gio tu il / la noi voi i / le
present andem ande ande andiam andemen andento
past andè andè anderiat anderiam anderiaz anderant
subjunctive cagio catu cal / cala canoi cavoi cai / cale
present vaià vaià vadeto andemo andese vadent
perfect isse issa isse issam issaz issant
imperative - tu - - voi -
positive - va - - vate -
negative - non andè - - non andè -
hà "to have"
present participle past participle hato
person singular plural
first second third first second third
indicative gio tu il / la noi voi i / le
present ho has ha havem havez havent
imperfect havo havas hava havamo havastaz havant
preterite "to have" + past participle
future giua + present indicative
conditional gio tu il / la noi voi i / le
present am as at amo az ant
past à areà àreto aremo arme anto
subjunctive cagio catu cal / cala canoi cavoi cai / cale
present hâto hâmo hâmene hânto
perfect hasse hassa hasse hassam hassaz hassant
imperative - tu - - voi -
positive - - - hate -
negative - non hà - - non hà -

Syntax[edit | edit source]

Balkan Characteristics[edit | edit source]

Wackernagel's Law[edit | edit source]

Clitic position
First position 1 2 3 4 Third position
FUT DAT ACC COP / HÂ
Marco giua aisso ci dato
Marco giua aissoci dato.
Mark will have given it to him.

Future tense[edit | edit source]

The future tense is created using an analytic clitic, giua, which is a second-position clitic (see Wackernagel's Law).

Perfect[edit | edit source]

The preterite (more often called the past perfect or, in Ragusian, the historical past) is formed with the verb, meaning to have.

Renarrative mood

Loss of the Infinitive[edit | edit source]

The use of the infinitive (common in other languages related to some of the Balkan languages, such as Romance and Slavic) is generally replaced with subjunctive constructions, following early Greek innovation.

I want to go.
voglio ca va'o
I want that I go

Lexicon[edit | edit source]

Pronouns[edit | edit source]

singular plural reflexive
first second third first second third
m/n f m/n f
Nominative gio tu il la noi voi i le -
Accusative stressed me te ço ce loro è se
clitic mi ti ci na va lo
Prepositional stressed a me a te aisso aissa a noi a voi a loro si
clitic mi ti so sa na va lo
singular plural
first second third reflexive first second third reflexive
masculine object singular mo to e so nostro vostro ilo so
plural mi toi i1 si noster voster il si
feminine object singular ma ta a sa nostra vostra ila sa
plural me te e se nostre vostre ile se

1 j' when the following noun begins with a vowel (e.g., j'upagliaç "their lighters")

Nouns[edit | edit source]

Word Plural Definition Gender Etymology Notes
verza verze vegetable f. viridia "cabbage"
verde verz green, greenery m. viridis
drêto drêt right, law m. directus
nazion nazion nation, country f. natio
tremò tremor tremor, shake m. tremor
derelizzion derelizzion dereliction, neglect, abandonment f. derelictio
inverno invern winter m. hibernus
compagnon compagnon companion m. companio
lingua lingue language, tongue f. lingua
cane cagn dog m. canis
cagna cagne bitch (all senses) f. cania
zidà zidar mason, bricklayer m. Hr. zidar
oftimo oftim the best, top marks m. optimus
somno somm sleep, rest m. somnus
sogno sogn dream, pie in the sky m. somnium
realite realiz reality, realness f. realitatem
fillo fill son m. filius
filla fille daughter f. filia
fratè frar brother m. frater
sora sore sister f. soror
mare mar mother f. mater
pare par father m. pater
mare mar sea m. mare
cena cene dinner f. cena
scola scole school f. schola
universite universiz university f. universitas
revoluzion revoluzion revolution f. revolutio
glacia glacie ice f. *glacia
pace paç peace, ceasefire f. pax
gherra gherre war, combat f. guerra
persona persone person f. persona
fromaggia fromaggie cheese f. Fr. fromage
pandemia pandemie pandemic f. pandemia
posteglia posteglie bed f. Hr. postelja
forza forze force f. *fortia
bocca bocche mouth f. bucca
pecunia pecunie money, (fig.) treasury f. pecunia
coxino coxin pillow m. *coxinum
castite castiz chastity f. castitas
infidelite infideliz infidelity f. Fr. infidélité
pagliaç pagliaç lighter m. Hr. upaljač
aqua aque water f. aqua
baseleca baseleche church (building) f. basilica
eccleza eccleze church (institution) f. ecclesia
nôt nôz night f. nox
dia die day f. dies
calego caleg fog, mist m. caligo
camisia camisie shirt f. camisia
catedra catedre seat, chair f. cathedra
pantegana pantegane rat f. Wanderwort
piva pive beer f. Hr. piva
amico amic friend (male) m. amicus (female) amica/amiche
artizano artizan artisan, craftsman m. *artitianus (female) artizana/artizane
artizanalite artizanaliz artisanality, craftsmanship f. *artitianus
gôto gôz drinking glass m. Ven. gòto
vîto vît food, board m. victus
alimento aliment food (formal) m. alimentum
orgoglio orgol pride, arrogance m. orgollio
riza rize root, (figurative) source f. ῥίζα
cocchilagia cocchilagie shellfish f. Fr. coquillage
aglio ail garlic m.
pezeglino pezeglin parsley m.
hemeglia hemeglie hop f.
butro buter butter m.
peoce peoç mussel f.
grasso grass fat m. crassus

Verbs[edit | edit source]

Word Definition 1s Etymology
comprendrè to understand comprendo comprehendere
nascè to be born naço nascere
notà to swim noto notare
parlà to speak parlo parabolare
venì to come veno venire
cenà to dine, to eat dinner ceno cenare
amà to love amo amare
to give do dare
manducà to eat manduco manducare
sapè to know irregular sapere
menà to lead meno menare
cocenà to cook coceno coquinare
trincà to drink trinco Ger. trinken
ostentà to show, to demonstrate ostento ostentare
schepazà to coat, to cover schepazo Gk. σκεπάζω
balancià to balance balancio Fr. balancer
complementà to complement, to be a complement to complemento complementare

Adjectives[edit | edit source]

Word m. pl. Definition Etymology
verde verz green, verdant viridis
pessimo pessim worst, awful pessimus
oftimo oftim best, fantastic optimus
bono bon good bonus
dolce dolç sweet, gentle, mild, dear dulcis
toxico toxic toxic toxicus
prodego prodeg lavish, extravagant, prodigal prodigus
sânto sânt holy, sacred, holy, sanctified sanctus
artizanale artizanal artisan, craft (attributive) *artitianus

Prepositions[edit | edit source]

Word Definition Example Etymology
con with cum
issem together with, along with Veni issem a me. "Come with me." insemel
in in, on Son nella casa. "I'm in the house." in
da from de + ab
da + article combined form
da + il da'l
da + la dalla
da + i dai
da + le dalle
in + article combined form
in + il n'il
in + la nella
in + i igni
in + le nelle

Adverbs[edit | edit source]

Word Definition Etymology
giamo now, yet, still Dal. jamo
coç so, like (this), thus eccum + sic
coge today hunc + hodie
meco with me mecum
sonde often subinde

Conjunctions[edit | edit source]

Word Definition Etymology
affine ca so that, in order to (+ subjunctive) al + fine + ca "to the end what"
ma but magis
domentre while, during dum + interim
e and et

Comparative Vocabulary[edit | edit source]

Basic Phrases[edit | edit source]


Example text[edit | edit source]

La Prece de Domin (The Lord's Prayer)
Latin Ragusian English
Pater noster, qui es in caelis, Padre nostro, ca es igni cel, Our Father, who art in heaven,
Sanctificetur Nomen Tuum. Si santificato To Nom. Hallowed be thy name.
Adveniat Regnum Tuum. Vena To Regno. Thy kingdom come.
Fiat voluntas Tua, sicut in caelo, et in terra. Si fâta Ta volonte, come in Celo coç in Terra. Thy will be done, on Earth as it is in heaven.
Panem nostrum quotidianum da nobis hodie. Dava coge nostro pane quotidiano. Give us this day our daily bread.
Et dimitte nobis debita nostra, E remitt a me noster debet, And forgive us our trespasses,
Sicut et nos dimittimus debitoribus nostris. Come nolo remittamo a noster debet. As we forgive those who trespass against us.
Et ne nos inducas in tentationem, E ne mena no in tentazion, And lead us not into temptation,
Sed libera nos a Malo. Ma liberano da'l mal. But deliver us from evil.
Amen. Amen. Amen.


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