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Thanks to its level of quality, plausibility and usage capabilities, it has been voted as featured.
Rangyayo or Rangyan (琅野語; /ɾaŋ.ja.jɔ/) is the native language of the Rangyan people and an official language of the Kingdom of Rangya, an island nation in East Asia. It is classified as a language isolate, with proposed ties to the hypothetical Altaic language family. Rangyayo is notable for its mixed-logographic and featural orthography, its agglutinative grammar, and its organic mixture of native and Sinitic vocabulary.
|Nouns decline according to...|
|Verbs conjugate according to...|
- 1 Geographic distribution
- 2 Phonology
- 3 Grammar
- 3.1 Word classes and phrase classes
- 3.1.1 Nouns
- 3.1.2 Pronouns
- 3.1.3 Verbs
- 3.1.4 Copula
- 3.1.5 Demonstratives and indefinite
- 3.1.6 Adjectives
- 3.1.7 Adverbs
- 3.1.8 Particles
- 3.1.9 Sound symbolic words
- 3.1.10 Numerals
- 3.1.11 Counter words
- 3.2 Sentence and clause patterns
- 3.1 Word classes and phrase classes
- 4 Writing system
- 5 Other
- 6 See also
- 7 External links
Rangyan is the national language and one of the two official languages (together with English) of the Kingdom of Rangya. The standard form of the Rangyan language is called "standard language" (pyotsunyo; 標準語; /pjɔ.tsun.jɔ/), which was initially based on the Ponto dialect (ponto pangyen; 本島方言; /pɔn.tɔ.paŋ.jɛn/) on the main island. The standard Rangyan is taught in schools and used on news and in official communications. The regulatory body for Rangyan is the National Institute of the Rangyan Language (kokrip kokyo wen; 国立国語院; /kɔk̚ .ɾip.kɔk̚ .jɔ.wɛn/), which is a special body of the Rangyan Ministry of Culture, Education, Science and Technology (munkokhwagi-bu; 文教科技部; /mun.kɔ.kʰwa.gi.bu/).
There are three main dialects spoken in Rangya. They are
- Ponto dialect (ponto pangyen; 本島方言; ), the initial basis of Standard Rangyan
- Jakang dialect (jakang pangyen; 茶岡方言; ), and
- Dukhyu dialect (dukhyu pangyen; 豆丘方言; ).
The formation of dialects is due to the long history of internal isolation of the population living on isolated islands in Rangya. Dialects typically differ in terms of pitch accent, inflectional morphology, vocabulary, and particle usage.
Kuiyungyo or Kuiyung Creole (kuiyungyo; 帰融語; /kuɪ.jʊŋ.jɔ/), meaning "mixed language", is a creole language derived mainly from Dutch, Rangyan, English and Indonesian, which was originally spoken by the Kuiyung community of the Dutch colony of Rangya. It is now considered as a critically endangered language spoken only by very few people in Rangya.
This is the Kuiyungyo version of Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Article 1) compared with Dutch, English and Rangyan.
|Kuiyungyo||Olle mensen zelfhevul en reten in heleik en vrei heborenorden.|
Zeinun verstont en heweten met behiftitzein, en brudershop tu hêst in elkonder yehens zihedrohente-behoren.
|Dutch||Alle mensen worden vrij en gelijk in waardigheid en rechten geboren.|
Zij zijn begiftigd met verstand en geweten, en behoren zich jegens elkander in een geest van broederschap te gedragen.
|English||All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.|
They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
|Mogi oro wi bomün yu jiyu'i rü tai tsonyem ta gwenri ti bengtüng'i rü.|
Oro wi riseng ta rangshim ye thenpyuim kibemotü tai dungpo tu tsengjin yo mobim hangdungnusü.
The following are phonemic transcriptions of Rangyan consonants.
|Plosive||plain||p b||t d||k g|
- /ŋ/ appears only in the syllable coda.
- /s, z/ are palatalised [ɕ, ʑ] before /i, j/
- /h/ is palatalised [ç] before /i, j/; and is bilabialised [ɸ] before /u, w/
- /ts, dz, tsʰ/ are palatalised [tɕ, dʑ, tɕʰ] before /i, j/
- /ɾ/ is an alveolar flap [ɾ] in the syllable onset; and is [l] in the syllable coda.
- /i/ is pronounced /ɪ/ before velar codas /ŋ, k̚/
- /u/ is /ʊ/ before velar codas /ŋ, k̚/
In the Rangyan language, because semivowels /j/ and /w/ may follow consonants in initial position in a word, which no other consonant can do, and perhaps due also to yenmun orthography, which transcribes them as vowels, they are sometimes considered to be elements of diphthongs and triphthongs rather than separate consonant phonemes.
- /ju/ is pronounced /jʊ/ before velar codas /ŋ, k̚/
- /uɪ/ is a falling diphthong [uɪ] after a consonant in an open syllable; and is a rising diphthong [wi] when it is a syllable of its own or in a closed syllable.
Rangyan consonants have two principal positional allophones: initial and final. The initial form is found at the beginning of a syllable and the final form is found at the end of a syllable.
All plosives [p, t, k] are unreleased [p̚, t̚, k̚] at the end of a syllable. Final [ɾ] is a liquid [l].
Rangyan syllable structure is maximally CgVC, where the first C is the initial consonant; g is a semivowel glide /j/ or /w/; V is a vowel; the second C is a coda. Any consonant but /ŋ/ may occur initially, whereas only /m, n, ŋ, p, t, k, s, l/ may occur finally.
Below is the table of all syllable finals (gVC) in Rangyan.
- pronounced [wi] when it is a syllable of its own or before codas /n, t̚, s, l/; and pronounced [wɪ] before codas /ŋ, k̚/
- pronounced [uɪ] after an onset in an open syllable.
Additional finals /wam/, /wɛm/, /wap/, /wɛp/ can be found in foreign loanwords.
Traditionally, the Rangyan language has had strong vowel harmony; that is, in pre-modern Rangyan, not only did the inflectional and derivational affixes change in accordance to the main root vowel, but native words also adhered to vowel harmony. However, this rule is no longer observed strictly in modern Rangyan. In modern Rangyan, it is only applied in certain cases such as onomatopoeia and interjections.
There are three classes of vowels in Rangyan: positive, negative and neutral. The vowel classes loosely follow the vowel heights. Exchanging positive vowels with negative vowels usually creates different nuances of meaning, with positive vowels sounding fast, hot, dry, hard, solid, focused or aggressive, and negative vowels sounding slow, cold, wet, soft, insubstantial, diffuse or tranquil.
|Positive||a, ɔ||ja, wa, aɪ, jɔ, ɔɪ||jaɪ, waɪ|
|Negative||ɛ, u||jɛ, wɛ, eɪ, ju, uɪ~wɪ||jeɪ, weɪ|
Rangyan pitch accent can be presented with a two-pitch-level model. In this representation, each syllable is either high (H) or low (L) in pitch.
- If the accent is on the first syllable, then the first syllable is high-pitched and the others are low: HLL...
- If the accent is on a syllable other than the first, then the first syllable is low, the following syllables up to and including the accented one are high, and the rest are low: LHLL..., LHHLL..., LHHHLL...
- If the word does not have an accent, the first syllable is low and the others are high: LHH... This high pitch spreads to unaccented grammatical particles that attach to the end of the word, whereas these would have a low pitch when attached to an accented word.
Examples are given in the table below. The number before each pitch pattern tells you the syllable where the last high pitch is.
|Pitch pattern||Sample word||Meaning|
Word classes and phrase classes
Rangyan has no grammatical number, gender or articles. Thus, Rangyan nouns are non-inflecting. The noun iku (犬; /i.ku/) can be translated as "dog", "dogs", "a dog", "the dog", "some dogs" and so forth, depending on context. However, as part of the extensive pair of grammatical systems that Rangyan possesses for honorification and politeness, nouns too can be modified. Nouns take politeness prefix ya- (야; /ja/) to produce their respectful forms. A few examples are given in the following table.
|kao (夫; /ka.ɔ/)||ya-kao (야夫; /ja.ka.ɔ/)||husband|
|nori (名; /nɔ.ɾi/)||ya-nori (야名; /ja.nɔ.ɾi/)||name|
|bu (目; /bu/)||ya-bu (야目; /ja.bu/)||eye|
|hiku (毛; /çi.ku/)||ya-hiku (야毛; /ja.çi.ku/)||hair (on body)|
Rangyan does not differentiate between count and mass nouns. A small number of nouns have collectives formed by reduplication, for example, oro (人; /ɔ.ɾɔ/) "person" and orooro (人々; /ɔ.ɾɔ.ɔ.ɾɔ/) "people". However, reduplication is not productive. Words in Rangyan referring to more than one of something are collectives, not plurals. Orooro, for example, means "a lot of people" or "people in general". It is never used to mean "two people". A phrase like rangya tu orooro (琅野두人々; /ɾaŋ.ja tu ɔ.ɾɔ.ɔ.ɾɔ/) would be taken to mean "the people of Rangya", or "the population of Rangya", not "two people from Rangya" or even "a few people from Rangya".
Lacking grammatical number, the noun haya (鳥; /ha.ja/) may refer to a single bird or several birds. Where number is important, it can be indicated by providing a quantity (often with a counter word). For example, both pu ik tu haya (２翼두鳥; /pu ɪk̚ tu ha.ja/) and haya i ik (鳥二翼; /ha.ja i ɪk̚/), or simply pu haya (２鳥; /pu ha.ja/), mean two birds.
|khi 我; 키||both||plain||often written in yenmun by women|
|kigomi 기꼬미||both||humble||the most formal polite version|
|ube 婢; 우뻐||female||humble||sometimes written in yenmun for a more feminine feel|
|ebi 汝; 어삐||both||plain||female singular you|
|anemi 아너미||both||very respectful|
|anerumi 아너루미||both||very respectful||the most formal polite version|
|soka 君||both||respectful||male singular you|
|imme 임머; 媛||both||respectful||female singular you; often written in yenmun|
|oda 오따||male||plain||slang version of hoda used by men; rarely used in written Rangyan|
|suki 伊; 수기||both||plain||she; sometimes written in yenmun for a more feminine feel|
|asoda 아소따||both||very respectful|
|asobeda 아소뻐따||both||very respectful||the most formal polite version|
Suffixes are added to pronouns to make them collective, for example, kigomi-te (기꼬미더; /ki.gɔ.mi.tɛ/) "we" and asobeda-nun (아소뻐따눈; /a.sɔ.bɛ.da.nun/) "they".
|te 더; 等||both||plain
|added to plain or humble forms of pronouns|
usually written in yenmun (khite 我더); sometimes in hanji if appended to pronouns written in hanji (morate 吾等); almost never in hanji for pronouns in yenmun (kigomite 기꼬미더)
|nun 눈; 輩||both||respectful||added to respectful forms of pronouns
usually in hanji (sokanun 君輩) unless appended to pronouns written in yenmun (aneruminun 아너루미눈)
Rangyan has three reflexive pronouns jishin, jiki and osu, all meaning "self". However, there are subtle differences in usage among the three reflexive pronouns.
The examples below demonstrate the difference in usage between jishin and jiki.
Verbs are the most complex lexical category in Rangyan. Their structure when used as the predicate of a clause is verb stem + up to six suffixes, and can be illustrated with this table.
This is a conjugation table for the verb yabü (食쁘; /ja.bʉ/) "eat". Honorific and mood are not included to keep the table shorter.
Rangyan has many compound verbs, reflecting the agglutinative nature of the language. A Rangyan compound verb is a multi-word compound that acts as a single verb. The main component of the compound is a verb in its conjunctive participial form, which carries most of the semantics of the compound, and determines its arguments. The other component is a vector, which carries any conjugations, indicating tense, mood, or aspect, but provides only fine shades of meaning.
For example, in yuttsubirü (讀주始르; /jut̚.tsu.bi.ɾʉ/) "start reading", the vector verb birü (始르; /bi.ɾʉ/) "start" changes according to tense, mood, aspect, and the like, while the main verb yuttsü (讀즈; /jut̚.tsʉ/) "read" stays in its conjunctive participial form yuttsu (讀주; /jut̚.tsu/) "reading" and remains unchanged.
A Rangyan attributive verb is a verb which modifies (gives the attributes of) a noun as an attributive, rather than expressing an independent idea as a predicate. Unlike English, Rangyan allows regular verbs to be attributive. In Rangyan, predicative verbs come at the end of the clause, after the nouns, while attributive verbs come before the noun. These are equivalent to relative clauses in English as Rangyan does not have relative pronouns like "who", "which", or "when".
ne oro wi dotuwei (너人위来두웨; /nɛ ɔ.ɾɔ wi dɔt̚.tu.weɪ/)
ne dotuweit oro wi (너来두웯人위; /nɛ dɔt̚.tu.weɪt̚ ɔ.ɾɔ wi/)
The Rangyan copula rü (르; /ɾʉ/) is a verb-like word used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate (a subject complement). Rangyan sentences with rü most often equate one thing with another, that is, they are of the form "A is B".
khi wi ontso rü (我위兵르; /kʰi wi ɔn.tsɔ ɾʉ/)
Copula rü can also link predicative adjectives to the noun or pronoun they modify.
muse wi ha'i rü (雪위白이르; /musɛ wi ha.i ɾʉ/)
Demonstratives and indefinite
Demonstratives occur in the i-, ne-, and ko- series. The i- (proximal) series refers to things closer to the speaker than the hearer, the ne- (mesial) series for things closer to the hearer, and the ko- (distal) series for things distant to both the speaker and the hearer. With ma-, demonstratives turn into the corresponding interrogative form.
Demonstratives limit, and therefore precede, nouns; thus i maro (이石; /i ma.ɾɔ/) for "this stone", ne maro (너石; /nɛ ma.ɾɔ/) for "that stone", and ko maro (고石; /kɔ ma.ɾɔ/) for "that stone over there".
All Rangyan adjectives end in -i, for example, kho'i (大이; /kʰɔ.i/) "big" and hyogi (重끼; /çjɔ.gi/) "heavy". Their syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun, giving more information about the noun or referent of pronoun. In Rangyan, adjectives form an open class of words, that is, it is relatively common for new adjectives to be formed via such processes as derivation.
A given occurrence of a Rangyan adjective can generally be classified into one of the two major kinds of uses:
In Rangyan language, attributive adjectives usually occur in this default order, with other orders being permissible:
i wa'i nitsi gani haya (이良이小지赤니鳥; /i wa.i ni.tsi ga.ni ha.ja/)
Rangyan adjectives, unlike their English counterparts, do not have a comparative form. To compare two things (NP1 and NP2), the noun phrase being compared (NP2), together with the postpositional comparative particle pe, are placed between the subject noun phrase (NP1) and the predicative adjective in a sentence ended with a copula.
ne iku wi i haya pe kho'i rü (너犬위이鳥버大이르; /nɛ i.ku wi i ha.ja pɛ kʰɔ.i ɾʉ/)
Rangyan adjectives also lack a superlative form. The adverb tsum (줌; /tsum/) "most" is placed before adjectives for superlative degree of comparison.
ne iku wi tsum kho'i rü (너犬위줌大이르; /nɛ i.ku wi tsum kʰɔ.i ɾʉ/)
An adverb is any word that modifies verbs, adjectives, clauses, sentences and other adverbs. Not all but many Rangyan adverbs are formed by adding -m to adjectives. For example, nepi (怒비; /nɛ.pi/; "angry") yields nepim (怒빔; /ne.pim/; "angrily") and wa'i (良이; /wa.i/; "good") yields wa'im (良임; /wa.im/ "well"). This derivation is quite productive but there are a few adjectives from which adverbs may not be derived.
Particles in Rangyan are postpositional, as they immediately follow the modified component.