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Basic Grammatical Structures[]

This section primarily covers all the parts of speech: nouns, adjectives, verbs, and adverbs. It will also describe how to integrate the various parts of speech into a coherent sentence by using particles. By the end of this section, you should have an understanding of how basic sentences are constructed.

Expressing state-of-being[]

Declaring something is so and so using []


  1. oro;  person
  2. hoksang学生;  student
  3. ongki健기;  healthy

There is no verb for the state-of-being like the verb "to be" in English. You can, however, declare what something is by attaching to a noun or adjective only. (We will learn about adjectives in the section on adjectives later.)


  1. 人르。
    oro rü
    Is person.
  2. 学生르。
    hoksang rü
    Is student.
  3. 健기르。
    ongki rü
    Is healthy.

Conjugating to the negative state-of-being[]


  1. eke;  friend

In Rangyan, negative, past and future tenses are all expressed by conjugation. We can conjugate to either its negative, past or future tense to say A is not B; A was B; or A will be B. This may be a bit hard to grasp at first but all these state-of-being conjugations are regular.

First, for the negative, embed -om- in to yield r-om-ü > romü 로므.


  1. 学生르。 > 学生로므。
    hoksang rü > hoksang romü
    Is student > Is not student.
  2. 友르。 > 友로므。
    eke rü > eke romü
    Is friend > Is not friend.
  3. 健기르。 > 健기로므。
    ongki rü > ongki romü
    Is healthy > Is not healthy.

Conjugating to the past state-of-being[]

We will now learn the past tense of the state-of-being. To say something was something, attach ruwei 루웨 (from with ü replaced by uwei) to the noun or adjective.


  1. 学生르。 > 学生루웨。
    hoksang rü > hoksang ruwei
    Is student > Was student.
  2. 友르。 > 友루웨。
    eke rü > eke ruwei
    Is friend > Was friend.
  3. 健기르。 > 健기루웨。
    ongki rü > ongki ruwei
    Is healthy > Was healthy.

In order to say the negative past (was not), embed -om- in ruwei to yield the negative past tense r-om-uwei > romuwei 로무웨.


  1. 学生루웨。 > 学生로무웨。
    hoksang ruwei > hoksang romuwei
    Was student > Was not student.
  2. 友루웨。 > 友로무웨。
    eke ruwei > eke romuwei
    Was friend > Was not friend.
  3. 健기루웨。 > 健기로무웨。
    ongki ruwei > ongki romuwei
    Was healthy > Was not healthy.

Conjugation summary[]

We've now learned how to express state-of-being in all six different situations. Next we will learn some particles, which will allow us assign roles to words. Here is a summary chart of the conjugations we learned in this section.

Introduction to Particles[]


Verb Basics[]

Negative Verbs[]

Past Tense[]

Particles used with verbs[]

Transitive and Intransitive Verbs[]

Relative Clauses and Sentence Order[]

Noun-related Particles[]

Adverbs and Sentence-ending particles[]

See also[]